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ference, that we may change the objects about us without emotion. An exact compliance with this rule might perhaps contribute to tranquillity, but surely it would never produce happiness. He that regards none'so much as to be afraid of losing them, must live for ever without the gentle pleasures of sympathy and confidence. He must feel no melting confidence, no warmth of benevolence, nor any of those honest joys which nature annexes to the power of pleasing. And as no man can justly claim more tenderness than he pays, he must forfeit his share in that officious and watchful kindness which love can only dictate, and those lenient endearments by which love only can soften life.

Ibid. p. 285. * The safe and general antidote against sorrow, is employment. It is commonly observed, that among soldiers and seamen, though there is much kindness, there is little grief. They see their friend fall without any of that lamentation which is indulged in security and idleness, because they have no leisure to spare from the care of themselves; and whoever shall keep his 'thoughts equally busy, will find himself equally unaffected with irretrievable losses,

[bid. p. 287. Sorrow is a kind of rust to the soul, which every new idea contributes in its passage to scour away. It is the putrefaction of stagnant life, and is remedied by exercise and motion.



' The polite are always catching at modish in, novations, and the learned depart from established

forins forms of speech, in hopes of finding or making better. But proprięty resides in that kind of: conversation which is above grossness and below refinement.

Preface to Shakspeare, p. 18. " Words being arbitrary, must owe their power to association, and have the influence, and that only, which custom has given them.

Life of Cowley. Words too familiar, or too remote, defeat the purpose of a poet. From those sounds which we hear on small or coarse occasions, we do not easily receive strong impressions or delightful images; and words to which we are nearly strangers, whenever they occur, draw that attention on theniselves, which they should convey to things.

. . . . Life of Dryden. An epithet or metaphor drawn from nature, ennobles art; an epithet or metaphor drawn from art, degrades nature.

. Lise of Gray. There is a mode of style for which the masters of oratory have not as yet found a name; a style, by which the most evident truths are so obscured, that they can no longer be perceived, and the most familiar propositions so disguised, that they cannot be known." Every other kind of eloquence is the dress of sense, but this is the mask by which a true master of his art will so effectually conceal it, that a man will as easily mistake his own positions, if he meets them thus transformed, as he may pass, in a masquerade, his nearest acquaintance.

Idler, val. 1, p. 203.


Few faults of style, whether real or imagia nary, excite the malignity of a more numerous class of readers, .than the use of hard words.-But words are only hard to those who do not una derstand them: and the critic ought always to enquire, whether he is incommoded by the fault ! of the writer, or by his own.

fbid. vol. 2, p. 96. Every language of a learned nation necessarily divides itself into diction, scholastic and popular, grave and familiar, elegant and gross; and, from a nice distinction of these ditferent parts, arises a great part of the beauties of style.

Life of Dryden. It is not easy to distinguish affectation from habit; he that has once studiously formed a style, rarely writes afterwards with complete ease.

Life of Pope. SINGULARITY. Singularity, as it implies a contempt of general practice, is a kind of defiance, which justly pro: * vokes the history of ridicule, He, therefore, who indulges peculiar habits, is worse than others if he be not better.

Life of Swift. SUBORDINATION, He that encroaches on another's dignity, puts himself in his power; he is either repelled with helpless indignity, or endured by clemency and condescension. A great mind disdains to hold any thing by courtesy, and therefore never usurps what a lawful claimant may take away,

- Ibid.


No man can pay a more servile tribute to the great, than by suffering his liberty, in their presence, to aggrandize him in his own esteem. Between different ranks of the community, there is necessarily some distance. He who is called by his superior to pass the interval, may very properly accept the invitation ; but petulence and obtrusion, are rarely produced by magnanimity, norhave often any nobler cause than the pride of importance, and the malice of inferiority. He who knows himself necessary, may set, while that necessity lasts, a high value upon himself; as in a lower condition, a servant eminently skilful may be saucy, but he is saucy, because he is servile.

Ibid. A due regard to subordination is the power that keeps peace and order in the world.

- Notes upon Shakspeare, vol. 9. p. 290.

SOLICITATION. · Every man of known influence has so many petitions which he cannot grant, that he must necessarily offend more than he gratifies; as the preference given to one, affords all the rest a reason for complaint. “When I give away a place (said Louis the XIVth) I make a hundred discontented, and one ungrateful."

Life of Swift. SUSPICION. Suspicion is no less an enemy to virtue than happiness. He that is already corrupt is naturally suspicious; and he that becomes suspicious, will quickly be corrupt.

. Rambler, vol. 2, p. 145. . ;



He, that suffers, by imposture, has too often his virtue more impaired than his fortune. But · as it is necessary not to invite robbery by su

pineness, so it is our duty not to suppress tenderness by suspicion. It is better to suffer wrong than to do it; and happier to be sometimes cheated, than not to trust.

Ibid. p. 147. He who is spontaneously suspicious, may be justly charged with radical corruption; for if he has not known the prevalence of dishonesty by informạtion, nor had time to discern it with his own eyes, whence can he take his measures of judgment but from himself?

Ibid. vol. 4, p. 86. SUPERIORITY. The superiority of some is merely local. They are great, because their associates are little.

Life of Swift 'SCRIPTURE. Idle and indecent applications of sentences taken from Scripture, is a mode of merriment which a good man dreads for its profanencss, and - a witty man disdains for its easiness and vulgarity.

. .' Life of Pope. All amplification of sacred history is frivolous and vuin; all addition to that which is already sufficient for the purposes of religion, seems not only useless, but in some degree profane.

Life of Cowley.

SIMILE. A simile, to be perfect, must both illustrate and ennoble the subject; must show it to the un


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