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deserve the desire or envy of a wise man. It is certain, that, with regard to corporal enjoyment; money can neither open new avenues to pleasure,' nor block up the passages of anguish. * Disease'. and infirmity still continue to torture and enfeeble, perhaps exasperated by luxury, or promoted by softness.

Ibid. vol. 2, p. 29. With regard to the mind, it has rarely been observed, that wealth contributes much to quicken the discernment, enlarge the capacity, or elevate the imagination; but may, by hiring flattery, ot laying diligence asleep, confirm error, or harden stupidity. Wealth cannot confer greatness; for nothing can make that great, which the decree of nature has ordained to be little. The bramble may be placed in a hot-bed, but can never become an oak.-Even royalty itself is not able to give that dignity, which it happens not to find, but oppresses feeble minds, though it may elevate the strong. The world has been governed in the name of kings, whose existence has scarcely been perceived, by any real effects, beyond their own palaces.-When, therefore, the desire of wealth is taking hold of the heart, let us look round and see how it operates upon those whose industry or fortune has obtained it. When we find them oppressed with their own abundance, luxurious without pleasure, idle without ease, impatient and querulous in themselves, and despised or hated by the rest of mankind, we shall soon be conyinced, that if the real wants of our condition are satisfied, there remains little to be sought with 'solicitude; or desired with eagerness.

Ibid. p. 30. . Though

Though riches often prompt extravagant hopes
and fallacious appearances, there are purposes to
'which a wise man may be delighted to apply
them. They may, by a rational distribution to .'
those who want them, ease the pains of helpless
disease, still the throbs of restless anxiety, relieve
innocence from oppression, and raise imbecility
to cheerfulness and vigour. This they will enable
a man to perform; and this will aiford the only
happiness ordained for our present state, the con-
sequence of divine favour, and the hope of future

Rambler; vol. 3, p. 94.
It is observed of gold, by an old epigrammatist,
" that to have it, is to be in fear, and to want it,
to be in sorrow.”

Ibid. p. 155

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Every man is rich or poor, according to the
proportion between his desires and enjoyments.
Any enlargement of riches is therefore equally
destructive to happiness with the diminution of
possession; and he that teaches another to long
for what he shall never obtain, is no less an enemy
to his quiet, than if he had robbed him of part
of his patrimony.

. .. Ibid. vol. 4, p. 17.
- Whosoever rises above those who once pleased
themselves with equality, will have many inalevo-
lent gazers at his eminence. To gain sooner than
others that which all pursue with the same ardour,
and to which all imagine themselves entitled,
will for ever be a crime. When those who started
with us in the race of life, leave us so far behind
that we have little hope to overtake them, we re-
venge our disappointment by remarks on the arts


of supplantation by which they gained the ad: vantage, or on the folly and arrogance with which they possess it; of them whose rise we could not hinder, we' solace ourselves by proge nosticating the fall. Riches, therefore, perhaps do not so often produce crimes as incite accusers.

; Ibid. p. 68.

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It must, however, be confessed, that as all sud den changes are dangerous, a quick transition from poverty to abundance can seldom be made with safety. He that has long lived within sight of pleasures which he could not reach, will need more than common moderation not to lose his reason in unbounded riot, when they are first put into his power.

• Ibid. p. 69.;

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Of riches, as of every thing else, the hope is more than the enjoyment. Whilst we consider them as the means to be used at some future time, for the attainment of felicity, we press on our pursuit ardently and vigorously, and that ardour secures us from weariness of ourselves; but no sooner do we sit down to enjoy our acquisitions, than we find them insufficient to fill up the va, cuities of life.

Idler, vol. 2, p. 115. It is surely very narrow policy that supposes money to be the chief good.

· Life of Milon."

It is not hard to discover that riches always procure protection for themselves; that they dazzle the eyes of enquiry, divert the celerity of pursuit, or appease the ferocity of vengeance When


any man is incontestably known to have large possessions, very few think it requisite to enquire by what practices they were obtained: the resentment of mankind rages only against the struggles of feeble and timorous corruption; but when it has surmounted the first opposition, it is afterwards supported by favour, and animated by applause.

Rambler, vol. 3, p. 154. · Money, in whatever hands, will confer power. Distress will fly to immediate refuge, without much consideration of remote consequences.

Ibid. p. 222. Though the rich wery rarely desire to be thought poor, the poor are strongly tempted to assume the appearance of wealth.

Idler, vol. 2, p. 115. One cause, which is not always observed, of the insufficiency of riches, is, that they very seldom make their owner rich. To be rich, is to have more than is desired, and more than is wanted; to have something which may be spent without reluctance, and scattered without care ; with which the sudden demands of desire may be gratified, the casual freaks of fancy indulged, or the unexpected opportunities of benevolence improved.

Ibid. p. 116. When the power of birth and station ceases, no hope renains but from the prevalence of money.

Western Islands, p. 216. . Money confounds subordination, by overpowering the distinctions of rank and birth; and


weakens authority, by supplying power of resistance, or expedients for escape.

' Ibid. p. 263.

Nothing is more uncertain than the estimation of wealth by denominated money. The precious metals never retain long the same proportion to real commodities, and the same names in different ages do not imply the same quantity of metal; so that it is equally difficult to know how much money was contained in any nominal sum, and to find what any supposed quantity of gold or silver would purchase; both which are necessary to the commensuration of money, or the adjustment of proportion between the saine sunis at different periods of time. Bread-corn is the most certain standard of the necessaries of life.

Lise of Roger Ascham, p. 243. i



As many more can discover that a man is richer than themselves, superiority of understanding is not so readily acknowlédged, as that of fortune ; nor is that haughtiness, which thé consciousness of great abilities incites, borne with the same submission as the tyranny of affluence.

Life of Savage.


Power and wealth supply the place of each other. Power confers the ability of gratifying our desires without the consent of others; wealth. enables us to obtain the consent of others to our gratification. Power, simply considered, whatever it confers on one, must take froin another.

:: Wealth

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