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for knowledge, and will serve as guides in the investigations undertaken, rather than as task-masters.
To be a proper inspiration to their pupils, teachers must have ample opportunity and encouragement for self-improvement and for the development of broad interests.
4. Scientific Study of Pupil Development
School records should not be confined to the marks given by the teachers to show the advancement of the pupils in their study of subjects, but should also include both objective and subjective reports on those physical, mental, moral, and social characteristics which affect both school and adult life, and which can be influenced by the school and the home.
Such records should be used as a guide for the treatment of each pupil, and should also serve to focus the attention of the teacher on the allimportant work of development, rather than on simply teaching subject
5. Greater Attention to All that Affects the Child's Physical Development
One of the first considerations of Progressive Education is the health of the pupils. Much more room in which to move about, better light and air, clean and well ventilated buildings, easier access to the out of doors and greater use of it, are all necessary. There should be frequent use of adequate playgrounds.
The teachers should observe closely the physical condition of each pupil, in coöperation with a school physician who should examine the children at stated intervals.
6. Coöperation Between School and Home to Meet the Needs of Child-Life
The school should provide, with the home, as much as is possible of all that the natural interests and activities of the child demand, especially during the elementary school years. It should give opportunity for manual experience for both boys and girls, for home-making, and for healthful recreation of various kinds. Most, if not all, of a child's studying should be done at the school and such extra-curriculum studies as a child may take should be at the school or home, so that there will be no unnecessary dissipation of energy.
These conditions can come about only through intelligent coöperation between parents and teachers. It is the duty of the parents to know what the school is doing and why; and to find out the most effective way in which to coöperate. It is the duty of the school to help the parents to a broader outlook on education and to make available all the resources of the school that can give information or help to the home.
7. The Progressive School a Leader in Educational Movements
The Progressive School should be a leader in educational movements. It should be a laboratory where new ideas if worthy meet encouragement; where tradition alone does not rule, but the best of the past is leavened with the discoveries of today, and the result is freely added to the sum of educational knowledge.
The organization work for the interstate $20,000 research for the best methods of character education in public schools is nearing completion. The chairmen of research have been appointed in thirty-five states. They include eight state superintendents, one assistant state superintendent, twelve university and two college professors, seven superintendents of schools and one assistant superintendent, one normal school president and two professors, and one private school principal.
The research year has been set for October 1, 1919, to October 1, 1920. One hundred copies of a volume containing 600 pages of extracts from educational literature on character education are being printed at the expense of the donor of the $20,000 award for distribution and loaning to the collaborators as an assistance in their research thinking. It is hoped that in each state all educators interested in this phase of education will volunteer their coöperation to their state collaborators.
Dr. Clinton P. McCord, Health Director, Board of Education, Albany, N. Y., Instructor in Educational Hygiene in the Albany Medical College, and Consulting Psychiatrist at the Berkshire Industrial Farm at Canaan, N. Y., has been appointed Professor of Hygiene and Physical Diagnosis in the Cornell University Summer School of Physical Education in session July 7 to August 16.
A Century of Science in America. By Various Authors. The Yale University Press, New Haven, 1919. $4.00.
This scholarly work commemorates the one hundredth anniversary of the founding of the American Journal of Science by Benjamin Silliman in July, 1818. The introductory chapter by Edward S. Dana gives a complete historical sketch of the Journal, its writers, its articles, and its general aim and scope. The other chapters of the volume deal with the principal branches of science prominent in the Journal's pages, and set forth the general progress made in them during the century, especially in America. Some of the chapters are: A Century of Geology, by Charles Schuchert, H. E. Gregory and J. Barrall; Government Geological Surveys, by G. O. Smith; Vertebrate Paleontology, by R. S. Love; Petrology, by L. F. Pirsson; Mineralogy, by W. E. Ford; Chemistry, by H. L. Wells and H. W. Foote; Physics, by L. Page; Zoölogy, by W. R. Coe; and Botany, by B. L. Goodale.
Hawthorne, How to Know Him. By George E. Woodberry. The BobbsMerrill Co. Indianapolis, 1918. Net, $.50.
We know of no better estimate of Hawthorne, the writer, than Mr. Woodberry's careful and thorough analysis of New England's best story writer and novelist. He pictures him as preeminently an observer, keen, critical, artistic, and as a moralist, brooding on moral phenomena, as befitted a typical New England Puritan. His many tales show him profoundly sympathetic with his own people, their history, and the soil. What had begun with him as local history ended as ideal romance; but the basis and origin of all alike lay in his original attachment to his own Puritan background.
The art of The Scarlet Letter lies in the isolation of the scene, the condensation of the motif, the great abstractness of the content, all of which are dependent on the strong use of symbolism. The House of the Seven Gables, although faulty in technique-it is really three stories in one-won its way into popular favor by the artistic genius of the writer, who reveals himself perfectly in its fascinating pages. The Marble Faun, although placed in Italy, is a pure New England fable. Like most of his tales, it gives us a predominant impression of gloom, for in it Hawthorne is more than ever tragic, pessimistic, and hopeless. Evil and its problems are artistically presented, but no attempt is made to solve the problems, no Christian vindication appears of the good and the true.
Hawthorne was always interested in the idea and not in the persons of the particular tale. The psychological interest appealed to him, as distinct from the dramatic interest. His purpose ever was to portray human nature under various aspects, mainly of suffering, and to set it forth through the mental moods of his characters.
EXCHANGES AND PAMPHLETS RECEIVED
Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education. Bulletin, 1918, No. 46; Medical Education, 1916-18, by N. P. Colwell, M.D.
Bulletin, 1919, No. 23. Monthly Record of Current Educational Publications. April, 1919.
The Boy's Club Record. Vol. XIX, No. 8, June, 1919. Physical and Mental Condition of Delinquent Boys, by Clinton P. McCord, M.D., Health Director, Board of Education, Albany, N. Y.
The Ohio Teacher. Vol. XXXIX, No. 10, May, 1919. Theodore Roosevelt: An American Hero, by Dr. Wm. E. Chancellor; Literacy, a Measure of Elementary School Efficiency, by Prof. S. K. Mardis; An Unusual School, by H. H. Chamberlain; Sources of Professional Literature and Other Helps, by Prof. Ambrose L. Suhrie.
The Elementary School Journal. Vol. XIX, No. 9, May, 1919. An Experiment in Column Versus Dictation Spelling, by R. V. Hunkins; Remaining Errors in Measures of Retardation, by David Spence Hill. School Life. Vol. II, No. 11. Education Bill Reintroduced; Returned Soldiers as Teachers; Surprised at Low College Salaries.
Mental Deficiency Law, State of New York, State Commission for Mental Defectives. J. B. Lyon Company, printers, Albany.
Hints for Special Class Gardens. Prepared by Chester H. Gether, State Normal and Training School, Oswego, New York.