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the imbecile group, it is progressively more difficult to distinguish the high grade imbecile from the low grade moron. Likewise, as one approaches the upper limits of the moron group it is difficult to distinguish the high grade moron from the backward child. Grouping individuals according to some hard and fast method, if done at all, should be with the knowledge that mental power like any other characteristic is a matter of continuous distribution. At this time, classification such as the one here used is a matter of convenience.

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FAILURES OF CHILDREN IN FIVE SELECTED TESTS OF THE Town REVISION

OF THE BINET-SIMON SCALE Before taking up the five separate tests, it should be stated that the function of the Binet-Simon tests, is to measure the intelligence of the individuals tested. This is based on the supposition that there is a normai intelligence corresponding roughly to the chronological age of the child. The investigations of Bowditch, G. Stanley Hall, and other American workers established the fact that there is a height norm and a weight norm for each year of the period of childhood, and that it varies within narrow limits. Binet attempted to formulate a norm for intelligence at any given age. The blank on which the results of the mental tests used in this department are recorded, is given. The additional tests were not used in this survey.

From the above it is seen that the Binet-Simon tests are arranged in units of a year, each progressively more difficult. With the exception of the

, fourth year, there are five questions in each unit. The questions of each year are supposed to be of equal difficulty. In the main they are designed to test native ability. However, it is generally admitted now, that in some of the tests, training is presupposed. For example, -to know the months well enough to name them in order is a matter of training not a matter of native ability alone.

RECORD BLANK FOR MENTAL TESTS

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION—THE CITY OF NEW YORK OFFICE OF THE CITY SUPERINTENDENT OR SCHOOLS, 500 PARK AVENUE

Name

Born.

.School.

Grade.

Date

Binet Age.

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III
1 Touches nose, eyes, mouth, as directed.
2 Repeats easy sentences of six syllables. (No error)
3 Repeats 3-7; 64; 5-8. (One exact repetition)
4 Enumerates objects in picture.
5 Gives full name.

IV
1 Knows sex.
2 Can name knife, key, penny.
3 Repeats 3-9-2; 4-7-3; 5-8-1.; (One exact repetition)
4 Points to longer of two lines.

V
1 Compares 3 and 12 grams; 6 and 15 grams.
2 Copies square.
3 Repeats: "My name is Charley." "Ol the naughty dog."
4 Counts four objects.
5 "Patience."

VI
1 Tells whether it is morning or afternoon.
2 Defines in terms of use: fork, table, chair, horse, mama.

(Three correct)
3 Copies diamond.
4 Counts thirteen objects (pointing to each one as he counts).
5 Chooses prettier of faces presented two at a time. (No error)

VII
1 Shows right hand, left ear. (No error)
2 Describes pictures.
3 Performs three commissions.
4 Counts stamps; three ones and three twos.
5 Names red, blue, yellow, green, (No error)

VIII
1 Difference between

(20')
Paper Butterfly

Wood
Cardboard

Glass
2 Counts from 20 to 0. (20 seconds-one error allowed)
3 Sees pictures lack arms, eyes, nose, mouth. (One error)
4 Knows date.
5 Repeats five numbers. (Auditory. One correct)
4-7-3-9-5; 8-3-7-1-4; 6-2-7-4-5.

IX
1 Makes change, 25 cents-6 cents.
2 Definitions in terms better than use. (See VI:2)
3 Knows I cent, 5 cents, 10 cents, 25 cents, 50 cents, $1, $2, $5, $10.
4 Names months in order. (15 seconds. One error)
5 Comprehends:

a "Missed train. b Struck by playmate. (Two good answers required) c Broken something.

х
1 Arranges weights. 2 out of 3 correct-1 minute each. 1

2
2 Draws designs from memory. (Expose 10 seconds)
3 Judges statements made:

a Unfortunate bicycle rider. d Man twirling cane.
b Three brothers.

e John is taller than James, etc. c Going to Boston.

s Railroad accident. 4 Understands:

& Delayed on way to school. d Asked opinion. 6 Forgive easier.

e Actions vs. words. c Important affair.

(3 out of 5)
5 New York, money, river, in two sentences.

XII
1 Line test. Resists suggestion.
2 Uses three given words in one sentence.
3 Gives 60 words in three minutes.
4 Defines charity, justice, kindness. (Two correct)
5 Rearranges words to make sentences.

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ADDITIONAL TESTS
I. Attention and Perception.
1 Cancellation a Familiar Forms

b A test
2 Counting dots

3 Reading
II.

Memory
1. Visual
2. Auditory

3. Motor
III. Association

a part-whole
1 Controlled b genus-species

c opposites
2 Uncontrolled

3 Healy Board
IV. Intelligence
1 Ebbinghaus tests

cross line
2 Learning tests b substitution

c code
3 Making words out of given letters
4 Information
5 Healy Construction Puzzle

А

B
6 Healy Puzzle Box

7 Ethical test
V. Suggestibility

1 Aussage test
VI. Emotion

w 1 Reaction to pictures and stories VII. Motor co-ordination

VIII. School attainment test 1 Pegboard

1 Arithmetic 2 Tapping

2 Reading 3 Target test

3 English

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A significant factor of the Binet-Simon tests is that they permit of scoring. The replies a child makes are indicated as correct or incorrect by the use of the plus (+) or minus (-) sign. To arrive at the Binet score or mental age, that year in which all the questions are correctly answered is taken as the basal year. The range of testing is from the basal year through that year in which the child fails on all the tests. For example, a child who answers correctly all the tests in the eighth year is said to have a Binet score or a mental age of eight. If, in addition to the eighth year questions, any five questions in the higher age levels are answered, the Binet score or mental age is nine years. If, however, he answers only one question beyond the basal year, the score is 8.2; if four questions beyond the basal year, 8.8.

As the survey progressed, it was noticeable that many children failed in certain tests. Such tests were IX-2, Definitions in terms better than use; VI-3, Copies diamond; V-1, Compares 3 and 12 grams, 6 and 15 grams; VIII-1, Difference between paper and cardboard, butterfly and fly, wood and glass. With a knowledge of the many failures in these tests, it was decided that a test which a large proportion of the children had successfully taken should be selected for comparison. This proved to be VII-1, Shows right hand and left ear.

Test IX-2 given above is said by Terman to be a test of power of apperception. He places this test at the eighth year level. Of 262 children who took this test, 237 failed; 117 of those who failed in this test, answered one or more questions of the X year level. (According to the data of this study, it appears to be too difficult for mentally defective children at the level indicated by Binet.)

Test VI-3 given above is said by Terman to be affected only moderately by age and training. One hundred and seventy-three is the total number who took this test. In this group there were 93 failures, while 79 of them passed one or more tests of the higher age groups.

Test V-1 given above is held by Binet to be a test of power of comparison, while Terman considers it a test of comprehension and power to hold instructions in mind long enough to guide the progress of making comparisons. Of 115 mentally defective children who took this test, there were only 49 failures.

In Test VIII-1 given above, Terman agrees with Binet that it is influenced but slightly by training. Binet says it brings into play the natural good sense of the subject. Terman regards it as a test of association of ideas on the basis of differences or similarities. He places it in the seventh year level. The total number of children taking this test was 307. Of the group 125 failed.

Test VII-1 given above is classified by Terman as one of spacial orientation. Town says “it is a notion gained through instruction, but so easily acquired that the lack of it is conspicuous.” Two hundred and thiriy-six children took this test. Of this number, 43 failed. It is interesting that this test which is largely influenced by training has the lowest number of failures.

COMPARISON OF FIVE SELECTED TESTS OF THE Town REVISION OF THE BINET-Simon SCALE

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NOTE—The Stanford Revision of the Binet tests is now used in the Department of Ungraded Classes, New York City.

A STUDY OF THE SPEECH DEFECTS OF NINETY

ONE UNGRADED CLASS CHILDREN

ELIZABETH A. WALSH
AssistANT INSPECTOR OF UNGRADED CLASSES, NEW YORK City

(Continued from December issue)

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CORRECTION OF SPEECH DEFECTS Since speech is so largely a matter of habit, it is necessary in any corrective treatment to apply the laws of habit formation. There are, of course, two things to do-break up the old, bad habits of speech, and put in their places correct forms.

The first step is to build up in the child the desire to speak correctly. The motive for oral language, to get into communication with one's fellows, is very strong. To this motive must be added the desire to use correct oral language.

The next step necessary in the correction of a sound is to give the child a clear idea of the correct sound. Many a child who makes errors of speech has never heard the sounds correctly. He should listen carefully until his ears are steeped, as it were, in the correct sound; he should be shown how to place his organs in order to produce this sound. In some cases it may be necessary for the teacher to place certain of the speech organs in the proper position for the child, by using a tongue depressor, a tooth pick or by some other means.

After he has a clear mental picture of the sound, it must be given much attentive repetition. The little child learns to speak largely through a process of trial and error. The child who is trying to learn to make correctly a certain sound must go through the same process. Finally he will be able, in most cases, especially of negligent lisping, to hit upon the exact position of the organs necessary to produce the sound. Attention to the speech must be given in all of the oral work. After the child has succeeded in making the sound correctly, great vigilance is necessary in order that he use the correct sound at all times until its use finally becomes automatic. Not until he reaches this stage can the speech error be said to be corrected.

In the study of the special case of speech defect, a thorough medical examination is necessary. Many speech cases are the result of neurotic conditions and of organic difficulties which the physician can help the teacher to understand and overcome.

The case of the child who had tongue-tie is a case in point. He entered P. S. No. 165, Manhattan, in January. The teacher noticed that he could not give the sounds which required the use of the tongue in a high position. She took him to a clinic to see if he needed a second operation (he had been operated on at the age of 7 years). The specialist who examined him there said that a second operation was not necessary. She then concluded that it was simply the persistence of the bad habits of speech formed before the

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