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Teacher's Aim: To increase interest in “The Building" development and to acquaint them with the problem that “Water will find its level” and where our water supply is stored.
Pupil's Aim: To visit the reservoir and see water that supplies homes and how extra water is supplied in case of big fires. Subject Matter
Methods of Procedure Reservoir a place to hold water In what part of Brooklyn is Highsupply for Williamsburg section. land Park Reservoir?
Why is it called Highland Park?
Compare height of ground around the reservoir with surrounding neighborhood, highest buildings,
treetops. Trace on map streams, miles Where does water come from that away that supply the reservoir. supplies reservoir?
Where are these stream? How is the water carried from these
streams? Force pumps were used at a fire What forces it along? in a lumber yard that the class wit- Where did you see a force pump? nessed. Water was pumped out of Why is it necessary to have more the cellar into pipes to the street by than one pump and more than one a force pump.
What is the difference between a
pond and a reservoir? Reservoir at greater elevation How did you know that the resthan surrounding section.
ervoir is on a hill? If you threw a
stone from the path around the Water pressure greater when reservoir what could you strike if emergency arises.
your stone went far enough?
In case of a big fire how does the reservoir help out?
What would happen if it suddenly became dry?
If water is allowed to escape through a very large opening what effect will that have on the water in
the pipe? Water will find its level.
If the end of the pipe farthest from the reservoir were bent up
ward what would the water do? Hygiene and prevent obstruc- Why is there a wire screen all tions.
around the reservoir? What might happen if papers, leaves, etc., blew into it?
1. Experiments—Water Take a large can, cut oblong slit pressure.
on side four inches from bottom, place over slit damp cardboard and fill can with water.
Raise cardboard part way and notice pressure; fill can again and raise cardboard so as to expose entire slit. Notice pressure.
Water should run through cylinder so that children can see that same thing takes place when keeper
raises the lever in the power house. Experiment—No. 2. Water will Take two glass jars of equal size, find its level.
fill one with water and label it “Res
ervoir"; label the empty jar “The Follow this experiment by the Building.” Use a tube, put one end application.
in the bottom of the filled jar (exhaust the air in the tube by inhaling until the water starts to flow). Put other end into empty jar and soon the water will be of equal height in both jars.
Let several do this experiment. Application of principle discov- Who can think of something ered by observation.
where you can use what you just learned?
One boy said that he could empty the fish globe without taking out the fish. Another said that he could empty a sink across the hall, used for soaking reed, that was stopped up.
Water forced to upper floors is no longer a mystery and the aquarium is emptied with pleasure and
interest. Experiment No. 3.
Take piece of rubber hose, at in
tervals insert pieces of rubber gas Street water mains, filled with hose, cement around joint with water direct from reservoir.
plaster-of-Paris. Label “large water Branches from mains connect with main" and one of the smaller tubes water pipes in “The Building. "water pipe to Building.” Cork up
end of large pipe and pour in water through a tunnel at elevated end.
Water not only fills large pipes but small ones as well.
Boys watched plumbers connect pipes. Next day they turned faucets and saw the water flow.
HILDEGARDE M. BECKER
TEACHER OF UNGRADED CLASS, PUBLIC SCHOOL 168, MANHATTAN
Teacher's Aim: To have children appreciate the practical value of itemized bill. To make children see their need for multiplication table of 3. Pupil's Aim: To find the cost of Soldier's Comfort Kit. Subject Matter
Method of Procedure Soldiers' Comfort Kits are being How many children know about sent to the camps
the comfort kits that are being sent The class would like to donate to the soldiers? one
List of things for the kit: 1 tube tooth paste
What would you put into a kit 1 tooth brush
for the personal comfort of a sol1 shaving soap
dier? 1 razor 1 pkge. safety pins 1 pkge. plain pins
As I put the things on the board 1 pkge. needles
try to think of the cost of articles. 3 pkges. buttons
Market list prices:
What kind of tooth paste do we
How much will that cost?
What kind of a tooth brush
What would it cost? .12
The same method to be used for $3.15 other articles.
Nowhere is the modern scientific movement more significant than in the field of education. Until it turned its searchlight upon class room practice, educators were content to base their work upon principles which were the result of logical deductions rather than of scientific investigation and experimentation.
The investigations of the past decade have been of inestimable value in showing the weakness of such a system but they in turn, were weak in that they concerned themselves only with the product of education and ignore the processes involved. This only destroyed the old theories by showing their inefficiency, without replacing them with new ones. Fortunately, after several city school systems had been victims of the survey epidemic, the question “Why?” in regard to the findings of the surveys became so insistent that science is beginning to realize that it must not only make an educational diagnosis but prescribe proper treatment as well.
Wisdom is the principal thing; therefore, get wisdom; and with all thy getting, get understanding.-SOLOMON.
SPECIAL CLASSES IN RICHMOND, VIRGINIA
J. H. BINFORD SECOND ASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS, RICHMOND, VA. Richmond has 19 special classes. One class is for exceptionally bright pupils; all the rest are for pupils whose mental defects make it advisable to remove them from the regular grades.
The above classes are distributed throughout the city in the following manner. Five classes are grouped into a center called the Bellevue Special School; four occupy a part of the Nathaniel Bacon School; three schools have two classes each; four schools have single classes. Our experience is that the larger the number of classes, the better the results. The most serious objection to the isolated single class is the necessity of grouping in the same room children of different mental levels.
The work of our one class for accelerated pupils is very encouraging. The teacher is assigned to a certain building and given a group of twenty children selected in the following manner. The grade teachers submit to the principal a list of superior children as evidenced by high marks. These children are given mental tests and the twenty showing the highest intelligence quotients are placed in the accelerated class. The special teacher has been able to handle two different groups in a half session, passing on to another school for the second group.
Our classes for subnormal children fall into two groups—those for border line cases (12 classes; 20 pupils to a class) and those for morons (6 classes; 15 pupils to a class). The great majority of children placed in the subnormal classes are never returned to the regular grades because of their inability to make satisfactory progress in academic subjects.
All special class teachers must have special training for their work. The majority have grown up in our system but a number came from Wisconsin, Massachusetts, New York and other states. The esprit-de-corps among this group of teachers is the best in the city system. Visits to the rooms of other special teachers are encouraged and great help is derived from the monthly meetings where our problems are discussed. Special teachers receive a bonus of $180 a year over regular teachers.
In addition to the above organization we have a psychological examiner who passes on each child before he is placed in a special class and a social worker who visits the homes of the 350 pupils in the various classes.
A most interesting experiment during the present session is the grading of the Nathaniel Bacon School on the basis of the mental ability of the 400 pupils in the school. Last June all the pupils were tested (Binet-Terman Revision) by Miss Lucille Harrison. In September, 1917, the school was