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and of* eternal Vesta, grown old in the camps of hostile fathers-in-law, Jupiter Capitolinus and the city being as yet in safety? The prudent mind of Regulus had provided against this, dissenting from ignominious terms, and a precedent produc tive of destruction to the succeeding age, if the captive youth was not to perish unpitied. I have beheld, said he, the Roman standards affixed to the Carthaginian temples, and their arms taken away from our soldiers without bloodshed. I have beheld the arms of our citizens inverted behind their free-born backs, and the gates of the enemy unshut, and the fields, which were depopulated by our battles, to be cultivated anew. The sol

dier, to be sure, ransomed by gold, will return a braver fellow.-No-you add loss to infamy; for neither does the wool prepared in the dye ever resume its lost native colour; and genuine valour, when once it has failed, scorns to resume the place of which it was dispossessed through cowardice. If the hind, disentangled from the thickest toils, ever fights, then indeed shall he be valorous, who has intrusted himself to faithless enemies; and he shall trample the Carthaginians in a second war, who dastardly has felt the thongs with his arms tied behind him, and has been afraid of death. He, through cowardice, knowing no other way to preaerve his life, has confounded peace with the very act of war. O scandal! O illustrious Carthage, elevated to a higher pitch by Italy's disgraceful

that it might not be distinguished and stolen away, Numa caused eleven more to be forged exactly like it, and to be kept in the temple of Mars.

* Eternal because a perpetual fire was preserved in her temple by the vestal virgins.

downfall! He (Regulus) is reported to have rejected the embrace of his virtuous wife and his little sons, like one degraded, and to have sternly fixed his manly countenance on the ground, until - he, by his unexampled counsel, had confirmed the wavering senators, and, midst his weeping friends, hasted away, a glorious exile. Notwithstanding he knew what the barbarian executioner was providing for him, yet he pushed his opposing kindred and the populace, retarding his return from him, in no other manner, than if (after he had quitted the tedious business of his clients by determining their suit) he was only going to the Venafran plains or the Lacedæmonian Tarentum.

ODE VI.

TO THE ROMANS.

That the contempt of religion, and the corruption of morals, had brought the greatest misfortunes upon the Romans.

You shall suffer, O Rome, for the sins of your ancestors, though innocent of them, till you shall have repaired the temples and tottering edifices of the Gods, and their statues, that are defiled with sooty smoke. You justly reign, because you conduct yourself as subordinate to the Gods: to this source refer every undertaking, to this every event. The Gods, because neglected, have inflicted many evils on calamitous Italy. Already has Monæses, and the band of Pacorus, twice repelled our inauspicious attacks, and exult in having added the Roman spoils to their inferior collars. The Dacian

and Ethiopian have almost demolished the city engaged in civil broils, the one formidable for his fleet, the other more expert for missile arrows. The times, fertile in wickedness, have, in the first place, polluted the marriage state, and thereby the issue and families. From this fountain, perdition being derived, has overwhelmed the nation and people. The virgin, marriageable, delights to be taught the Ionic dances, and at this time even is fashioned in her limbs, and cherishes unchaste desires from her very infancy: for she courts younger debauchees when her husband is in his cups; nor has she any choice, to whom she shall privately grant her forbidden pleasures when the lights are removed, but, at the word of command, openly, not without the knowledge of her husband, she will come forth, whether it be a factor that calls for her, or the captain of a Spanish ship, the extravagant purchaser of her impurities. It was not a youth born from parents like these that tinged the sea with Carthaginian gore, and slew Pyrrhus, and Antiochus the Great, and the terrific Hannibal; but a manly progeny of rustic soldiers, instructed to turn the glebe with Sabine spades, and to carry clubs cut out of the woods at the pleasure of a rigid mother, what time the sun shifted the shadows of the mountains, and took the yokes from the wearied oxen, bringing on the pleasant hour with his retreating chariot. What does not wasting time decay? The age of our fathers, worse than our grandsires, produced us still more flagitious, us, who are about to produce an offspring more vicious even than ourselves.

ODE VII.

TO ASTERIE.

He comforts Asterie, troubled for the absence of her hus band, and exhorts her to persevere in her fidelity to him.

WHY, O Asterie, do you weep for Gyges, a youth of inviolable constancy, whom the kindly zephyrs shall restore to you with the beginning of the spring, enriched with a Bithynian cargo? Driven as far as Oricum by the southern winds, after the rising of the goat's tempestuous constellation, he sleepless passes the cold nights in abundant weeping for you: but the agent of his anxious landlady slily tempts him by a thousand methods, informing him that his mistress, Chloe, is sighing for him and burns with your flames. He remonstrates to him how a perfidious woman urged the credulous Prœtus, by false accusations, to hasten the death of the overchaste Bellerophon. -He tells how Peleus was like to have been given up to the infernal regions, while, out of temperance, he avoided the Magnesian Hippolyte; and the deceiver quotes histories to him that are lessons for sinning. In vain, for, heartwhole as yet, he receives his words deafer than the Icarian rocks.-But with regard to you, have a care lest your neighbour Enipeus prove too pleasing. Though no other person equally skilful to guide the steed is conspicuous in the course, nor does any one with equal swiftness swim down the Etrurian stream, yet secure your house at the very approach of night, nor look down into the streets at the sound of the doleful pipe; and

still remain inflexible, however upbraided with insensibility.

ODE VIII.

TO MECENAS.

He invites Maecenas to a domestic entertainment, which he was resolved to celebrate joyously.

O MECENAS, learned in both languages,* you wonder what I, who am a single man, have to do on the Calends† of March; what these flowers mean, and the censer replete with frankincense, and the coals laid upon the live turf. I made a vow of a joyous banquet and a white goat to Bacchus, after having been at the point of death by a blow from a tree. This day, sacred in the revolving year, shall remove the cork fastened with pitch from that jar, which was § set to fumigate in the consulship of Tullus. Take, my Mæcenas, an hundred glasses on account of the safety of your friend, and continue the wakeful lamps even to daylight; all clamour and passion be far away. Postpone your political cares with regard to the state: the army of the Dacian Cotison is defeated: the troublesome Mede is quarrelling with himself in a horrible civil war. The Cantabrian, our old enemy on the Spanish coast, is subjected to us, though con

*Greek and Latin.

A festival particularly celebrated by married people. + See Ode XIII., Book 2.

The Romans used to ripen or mellow their wine by fumigation.

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