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after what is true and fitting, and I am wholly ✰ engaged in this; I lay up and collect rules, which be able hereafter to draw out into action. And lest you should perchance inquire under what leader, in what house of philosophy I enter myself a pupil; addicted to swear implicitly to the ipse-dixits of no particular master, wherever the storm drives me, I become a guest. One while I become active, and am plunged in the waves of state affairs, a maintainer and a rigid partisan of strict virtue; then again I relapse insensibly into Aristippus's maxims, and endeavour to suit circumstances to myself, not myself to circumstances. As the night seems long to those with whom a mistress has broken her appointment, and the day seems long to those who owe their labour; as the year moves slow with minors, whom the harsh guardianship of their mothers confines; so all that time to me flows tedious and distasteful, which delays my hope and design of strenuously executing that which is of equal benefit to the poor and to the rich; which, neglected, will be of equal detriment to young and old. It remains, that I conduct and comfort myself by these principles: your sight is not so piercing as that of Lynceus; you will not, however, despise being anointed if you are sore-eyed; nor because you despair of the muscles of the invincible Glycon,* will you be careless of preserving your body from the knotty gout. There is some point in philosophy we may advance to, if we can no farther. Does your heart burn with avarice, and a wretched de

Supposed to be a statue of Hercules made by Glycon, and called THE GLYCON.

sire of more? Words there are, and charms, with which you may mitigate this pain, and rid yourself of a great part of the distemper. Do you swell with the love of praise? There are certain

purgations which can restore you, a certain treatise being perused thrice, with purity of mind. The envious, choleric, indolent, the slave to wine, to women; none is so savage, that he cannot be tamed, if he will only lend a patient ear to discipline.

It is virtue to fly vice; and the first step of wisdom is to have lived free from folly. You see with what toil of mind and body you avoid those things which you believe to be the greatest evils, a small fortune and a shameful repulse. An active merchant, you run to the remotest Indies, fleeing poverty through sea, through rocks, through flames. And will you not learn, and hear, and be advised by one that is wiser, that you may no longer regard those things which you foolishly admire and wish for? What little champion of the villages and of the streets would scorn being crowned at the great Olympic games, who had the hopes and happy opportunity of victory without toil?


Silver is less valuable than gold, gold than virO citizens, citizens, wealth is to be sought for first virtue after riches; this the highestt Janus from the lowest inculcates; young men and old repeat these maxims, having their bags and account books hung on the left arm. You have

*He considers philosophy as of musical force against the unruly passions of the mind.

There was a street in Rome, at each end of which was a statue of Janus, frequented by usurers, &c.

soul, have breeding, have eloquence and honour: if six or seven thousand sesterces be wanting to complete your four hundred thousand, you shall be a plebeian, but boys at play cry, you shall be a king, if you will do right. Let this be a man's brazen wall, To be conscious of no ill, to turn pale with no guilt. Tell me, pray, is the Roscian law best, or the boy's song, which offers the kingdom to them that do right, sung by the manly Curii and Camilli? Does he advise you best, who says, make fortune? a fortune if you can honestly, if not, a fortune by any means; that you may view from a nearer bench the tear-moving poems of Puppius; or he who friendly animates and enables you to stand free and upright, a match for haughty fortune?

If now perchance the Roman people should ask me why I do not enjoy the same sentiments with them, as I do the same porticoes, nor pursue or fly from whatever they admire or dislike? I will reply what the cautious fox once on a time answered the sick lion: Because the foot-marks all looking towards you, and none from you, affright me. Thou art a monster with many heads. For what shall I follow? or whom? One set of men delight to farm the public revenues; there are some who would inveigle covetous rich widows with sweetmeats and fruits, and ensnare old men, whom they might send like fish into their ponds; the fortunes of many grow by concealed usury. But be it, that different men are engaged in different employments and pursuits; can the same person continue an hour together approving the same things? If the man of wealth has said no bay in the world outshines delightful Baiæ, the lake

and the sea presently feel the eagerness of their impetuous master; to whom, if a vicious humour gives the omen, he will cry, to-morrow, workmen, ye shall convey from hence your tools to Teanum. Has he in his halls the genial bed, he says, nothing is preferable to, nothing better than a single life; if he has not, he swears the married only are happy. With what noose can I hold this Proteus, varying thus his forms! What does the poor man laugh at him too: is he not ever changing his garrets, beds, baths, barbers! He is as much surfeited in a hired boat, as the rich man is whom his own galley conveys.

If I meet you with my hair cut awry by an uneven barber, you laugh at me. If I chance to have a ragged shirt under a handsome coat, or if my disproportioned gown ill fits me, you laugh: What do you do when my judgment contradicts itself? when it despises what it before desired? seeks for that which lately it neglected; it is all in a ferment, and is inconsistent in the whole tenor of life; pulls down, builds up, changes square to round? In this case, you think I am mad in the common way, and you do not laugh at all, nor believe that I stand in need of a physician, or of a keeper assigned by the prætor; albeit you are the guardian of my affairs, and are disgusted at such a punctilio as an ill-pared nail of a friend that depends upon you, that reveres you.

In a word, the wise man is inferior to Jupiter alone, is rich, free, honourable, handsome; lastly, king of kings; above all, he is sound, unless when defluxions are troublesome.*

*Alluding seemingly to a passage in Epictetus, preserved by Arrian, wherein an Epicurean objects to the being of a



He prefers Homer to all the philosophers, as a moral writer, and advises an early cultivation of virtue.

WHILE you, great Lollius, declaim at Rome, I at Præneste have perused over again the writer of the Trojan war, who teaches more clearly and better than Chrysippus and Crantor,* what is laudable, what shameful, what profitable, what not So. If nothing employs you otherwise, hear why I have concluded so. The story in which, on account of Paris's intrigue, Greece is related to be wasted in a tedious war with the Barbarians, contains the tumults of foolish princes and people. Antenor gives his opinion for cutting off the cause of the war. What does Paris? He cannot be brought to comply, though it is in order that he may reign safe and live happy. Nestor labours to compose the differences between Achilles and Agamemnon; love inflames one; rage both in common. The Greeks suffer for what their princes act foolishly. Within the walls of Ilium, and without, enormities are committed, by sedition, treachery, injustice, and lust, and rage.

Again, to show what virtue and what wisdom can do, he has propounded Ulysses an instructive.

Providence, from his being tormented with a continual defluxion; for which Epicurus upbraids his pupil, and asks if it is not better to use his hands to wipe his nose, than foolishly deny the being of Providence, which had wisely formed him with hands.

*Two eminent philosophers and writers on moral subjects.

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