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our Lord and Mary.
A. AI. 4033.
me shall never die. Believest thou the house, and comforted her, when A. M. 4033 An. Olymp. this?
they saw Mary, that she rose up hasti. An. Olyanp. CCII. 1.
27 She saith unto him, Yea, Lord: ly and went out, followed her, saying, • I believe that thou art the Christ, the Son of She goeth unto the grave to weep there. God, which should come into the world.
32 Then when Mary was come where Jesus 28 And when she had so said, she went her was, and saw him, she fell down at his feet, sayway, and called Mary her sister secretly, saying, ing unto him, “Lord, if thou hadst been here, The Master is come, and calleth for thee. my brother had not died.
29 As soon as she heard that, she arose quickly, 33 When Jesus therefore saw her weeping, and and came unto him.
the Jews also weeping which came with her, he 30 Now Jesus was not yet come into the groaned in the spirit, and was troubled, town, but was in that place where Martha met 34 And said, Where have ye laid him? They him.
said unto him, Lord, come and see. 31 The Jews then, which were with her in 35 · Jesus wept.
a Matt. 16. 16. ch. 4. 42. & 6. 14, 69.-over. 19.
l'er. 21.--"Gr. he troubled himself:-*Luke 19. 41.
only as a prophet hitherto; and it was necessary that they | that in the course of three days, persons who had died, were should now be farther instructed, that as God was to exert | raised again to life. See Lightfoot. himself, they might believe that God was there.
Verse 33. He grouned in the spirit, &c.] Here the blessed Verse 27. Yea, Lord: I believe] IETISEUXQ, I have believed. Jesus shews himself to be truly man; and a man too, who, notEither meaning that she had believed this for some time past, withstanding his amazing dignity and excellence, did not feel or that since he began to teach her, her faith had been con it beneath him to sympathize with the distressed, and weep siderably increased: but verbs præter, in Greek, are often with those who wept. After this example of our Lord shall we used to signify the present. Martha here acknowledges Christ say that it is weakness, folly and sin to weep for the loss of for the Messiah promised to their fathers, but her faith goes relatives? He who says so, and can act in a similar case to no farther; and having received some hope of her brother's the above, according to his own doctrine, is a reproach to the present, resurrection, she waited for no farther instruction, name of man. Such apathy never came from God :—it is but ran to call her sister.
generally a bad cyon, implanted in a nature miserably deVerse 23. The Master is come) This was the appellation praved, deriving its nourishment from a perverted spirit or a which he had in the family; and from these words it appears hardened heart; though in some cases, it is the effect of an that Christ had enquired for Mary, desiring to have her erroneous, ascetic mode of discipline. present, that he might strengthen her faith previously to his It is abolishing one of the finest traits in our Lord's human raising her brother.
character to say, that he wept and mourned here, because of Verse 30. Jesus was not yet come into the town] As the sin and its consequences. No. Jesus bad humanity in its per: Jewish burying-places were without their cities and villages, | fection; and humanity unadulterated, is generous and sympatheit appears that the place where our Saviour was when Martha | tic. A particular friend of Jesus was dead : and as his friend, inet him, was not far from the place where Lazarus was the affectionate and friendly soul of Christ was troubled; and buried. See the note on Luke vii, 12.
he mingled his sacred tears with those of the amicted relaVerse 31. She goeth unto the grave to weep there. ] It ap- tives. Behold the man, in his deep heartfelt trouble, and in pears that it was the custom for the nearest relatives of the his flowing tears! but when he says, Luzarus, come forth! bedeceased to go at times, during the three days of weeping, liold the God! and the God too of infinite clemency, love and accompanied by their friends and neighbours, to inourn power.
Can such a Jesus refuse to comfort the distressed, or near the graves of the deceased. They supposed that the save the lost? Can he restrain his mercies from the penitent spirit hovered about the place where the body was laid, for soul, or refuse to hear the yearnings of his own bowels? Can three days, to see whether it might be again permitted to such a character be inattentive to the welfare of his creatures? cuter : but when it saw the face change, it knew that all | Here is God manifested in the fresh ! living in human nature, hope was now past. It was on this ground, that the seven feeling for the distressed, and suffering for the lost! Reader! days of lamentation succeeded the three days of weeping, be- ask thy soul, ask thy heart, ask the bowels of thy compassions, cause all hope was now taken away. They hail traditions | if thou hast any, could this Jesus unconditionally reprobate
and Martha at the grave.
A. D. 29.
A.M. 4033. 36 Then said the Jews, Behold how him, Lord, by this time he stinketh: for A.M. 4033.
A. D. 99.
he hath been dead four days.
An. Olymp. CCII. 1.
37 And some of them said, Could 40 Jesus saith unto her, Said I not not this man, a which opened the eyes of the unto thee, that if thou wouldest believe, thou blind, have caused that even this man should shouldest see the glory of God? not have died?
41 Then they took away the stone from the 38 Jesus, therefore, again groaning in himself, | place where the dead was laid. And Jesus lifted cometh to the grave. It was a cave, and a stone up his eyes, and said, Father, I thank thee that lay upon it.
thou hast heard me. 39 Jesus said, Take ye away the stone.
the stone. Mar- 42 And I know that thou hearest me always : tha, the sister of him that was dead, saith unto but because of the people which stand by I
from eternity, any soul of mau? Thou answerest NO! God | away the stone, that Lazarus was not only dead, but that pu-, repeats NO! Universal nature re-echoes NO! and the tears trescency had already taken place, that it might not be afterand blood of Jesus eternally say, NO!
wards said that Lazarus had only fallen into a lethargy; but Verse 35. Jesus wept.] The least verse in the Bible, yet in- that the greatness of the miracle might be fully evinced. ferior to none. Some of the ruthless ancients, improperly stiled He stinketh] The body is in a state of putrefaction. The fathers of the church, thought that weeping was a degradation | Greek word om signifies simply to smell, whether the scent be of the character of Christ; and therefore, according to the tes- | good or bad : but the circumstances of the case sufficiently timony of Epiphanius, Anchorat. c. 13. razed out of the Gos- || shew that the latter is its meaning here. Our translators pel of St. Luke, the place (chap. xix. 41.) where Christ is said might have omitted the uncouth term in the common text: to have wept over Jerusalem.
but they chose literally to follow the Anglo-saxon, nu he Verse 36. Behold how he loved him !) And when we see him | reincd; and it would be now useless to attempt any change, pouring out his blood and life upon the cross for mankind, we as the common reading would perpetually recur, and cause all may with exultation and joy cry out, Behold how he hath loved us! || attempts at mending, to sound even worse than that in the text.
Verse 37. Could not this man, which opened the eyes, &c.] For he hath been dead four duys.) Tetąztalos your soti, this Through the maliciousness of their hearts, these Jews consi- || is the fourth day, i. e. since his intermeni. Christ himself was dered the tears of Jesus as a proof of his weakness. We may buried on the same day on which he was crụcified, see chap, suppose them to have spoken thus : “ If he loved him so well, || xix. 42. and it is likely that Lazarus was buried also on the why did he not heal bim? And if he could have healed him, same day on which he died. See on ver. 17. why did he not do it, seeing he testifies so much sorrow at his Verse 40. If thou wouldest believe, &c.) So it appears that death? Let none hereafter vaunt the miracle of the blind it is faith alone that interests the miraculous and saving power man's cure; if he had been capable of doing that, he would of God in behalf of men. Instead of došav, the glory, one MS. not have permitted his friend to die.” Thus will men reason reads duvagess, the miraculous power. or rather madden, concerning the works and providence of Verse 41. Where the dead was laid.] These words are wantGod; till by his farther miracles of mercy or judgment, he con- || ing in BC*DL. three others, Syriac, Persic, Arabic, Sahidic, verts or confounds them.
Æthiopic, Armenian, Vulgate, Saron, and in all the Itala. Verse 38. It was a cave, &c.] It is likely that several of the Griesbach leaves them out of the text. Jewish burying-places were made in the sides of rocks; some Father, I thank thee] As it was a common opinion, that were probably dug down like a well from the upper surface, great miracles might be wrought by the power and in the and then hollowed under into niches, and a flat stone laid down name of the Devil, Jesus lifted up his eyes to heaven, and inupon the top, would serve for a door. Yet from what the voked the supreme God before these unbelieving Jews, that Evangelist says, there seems to have been something peculiar || they might see that it was by his power, and by his only, tha: in the formation of this tomb. It might have been a natural this miracle was done; that every hindrance to this people's grotto, or dug in the side of a rock or hill, and the lower faith might be completely taken out of the way, and that their part of the door level with the ground, or bow could Lazarus || faith might stand not in the wisdom of man, but in the power of have come forth, as he is said to have done, ver. 44.? the Most High. On this account our Lord says, he spoke because
Verse 39. Take ye away the stone.) He desired to convince of the multitude, that they might see there was no diabolic in-, all those who were at the place, and especially those who took || fluence here; and that God in his mercy had visited this people.,
Christ raises Luzarus
from the dead.
A. D. 29.
4. 11,4033. said it, that they may believe that thou || Mary, and had seen the things which A.M.4063 An. Olynp. hast sent me.
Jesus did, believed on him.
An. Olymp. 43 And when he thus had spoken, 46 But some of them went their ways he cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth. to the Pharisees, and told them what things Je
44 And he that was dead came forth, bound | sus had done. hand and foot with grave-clothes: and his face 47 Then gathered the chief priests and the was bound about with a napkin. Jesus saith | Pharisees a council, and said, “What do we? unto them, Loose him, and let him go.
for this man doeth
miracles. 45 Then many of the Jews which came to 48 If we let him thus alone, all men will be.
• Ch. 20.7.-och. 2. 23. & 10. 42. & 12. 11, 18.
Ps. 2. 2. Matt. 26. 3. Mark 14. 1. Luke 22.2. ch. 12. 19. Acts 4. 16
Verse 43. He cried with a loud voice] In chap. v. 25. our Verse 15. Many of the Jews--believed on him.] They saw Lord had said, that the time was coming, in which the dead that the miracle was incontestable; and they were determined should hear the voice of the Son of God, and live. He now to resist the truth no longer. Their friendly visit to these disa fulfills that prediction, and cries aloud, that the people may tressed sisters, became the means of their conversion. How take notice, and see that even death is subject to the sovereign || true is the saying of the wise man, It is better to go to the house command of Christ.
of mourning, than to the house of feasting, Eccl. vii. 2. God Jesus Christ, says Quesnel, omitted nothing to save this never permits men to do any thing, through a principle of kinddead person : he underwent the fatigue of a journey, he wept, || ness to others, without making it instrumental of good to themhe prayed, he groaned, he cried with a loud voice, and com-selves. He that watereth shall be watered also himself, Prov. xi. manded the dead to come forth. What ought not a minister || 25. Therefore, let no man withhold good, while it is in the to do in order to raise a soul, and especially a soul, long dead power of his hand to do it. Prov. iii. 27. in trespasses and sins !
Verse 46. But some of them went their ways] Astonishing! Verse 44. Bound hand and foot with grade-clothes) Swathed some that had seen even this miracle, steeled their hearts against about with rollers--xesgraos, from xsigw, I cut. These were long it; and not only so, but conspired the destruction of this most slips of linen a few inches in breadth, with which the body humane, amiable, and glorious Saviour ! Those who obstinately and limbs of the dead were swathed, and especially those who resist the truth of God, are capable of every thing that is were embalmed, that the aromatics might be kept in contact || base, perfidious, and cruel. with the flesh. But as it is evident that Lazarus had not been Verse 47. Then gathered the chief priests and the Pharisees a embalmed, it is probable that his limbs were not swathed toge- 1 council] The Pharisees, as such, had no power to assemble ther, as is the constant case with those who are embalmed, but councils; and therefore only those are meant who were scribes separately; so that he could come out of the tomb at the com- or elders of the people, in conjunction with Annas and his mand of Christ, though he could not walk freely, till the roll-son-in-law Caiaphas, who were the high-priests here mentioned. ers were taken away. But some will have it that he was See chap. xviii. 13, 24. swathed exactly like a mummy, and that his coming out in that What do we?] This last miracle was so clear, plain, and state was another miracle. But there is no need of multiply- incontestable, that they were driven now to their wit's end. ing miracles in this case : there was one wrought which was | Their own spies had come and borne testimony of it. They a most sovereign proof of the unlimited power and goodness told them what they had seen, and on their word, as being in of God. Several of the primitive Fathers have adduced this league with themselves against Jesus, they could confidently resurrection of Lazarus as the model, type, proof, and pledge of rely. the general resurrection of the dead.
Verse 48. All men will believe on him] If we permit him Loose him, and let him go.] He would have the disciples and to work but a few more miracles like these two last, (the cure those who were at hand take part in this business, that the full of the blind man, and the resurrection of Lazarus) he will be est conviction might rest on every person's mind concerning | universally acknowledged for the Messiah; the people will prothe reality of what was wrought. He whom the grace of Christ claim him king, and the Romans, who can suffer no governconverts and restores to life, comes forth at his call, from the ment here but their own, will be so irritated, that they will dark dismal grave of sin, in which his soul has long been buried : send their armies against us, destroy our temple, and utterly he walks, according to the command of Christ, in newness of dissolve our civil and ecclesiastical existence. Thus, under life; and gives, by the holiness of his conduct, the fullest proof the pretence of the public good, these men of blood hide their to all his acquaintance that he is alive from the dead. hatred against Christ, and resolve to put him to death. To
The chief priests and Pharisees
plot our Lord's destruction.
A. M,108 lieve on him: and the Romans shall | 50 • Nor consider that it is expedient 4. , 493s. An. Olymp. come and take away both our place for us, that one man should die for the An. Oiymp. and nation.
people, and that the whole nation pe49 And one of them, named “ Caiaphas, being rish not. the high priest that same year, said unto them, 51 And this spake he not of himself: but Ye know nothing at all,
being high priest that year, he prophesied
- Luke 3. 2. ch. 18. 14. Acts 4. 6.
Ch. 18. 14.
get the people on their side, they must give the alarm of de- remarkable words, Caiaphas had no other intention than struction to the nation, if this man be permitted to live: we merely to state that it was better to put Jesus to death than shall be all destroyed! their former weapons will not now avail. to expose the whole nation to ruin on his account. His On the subject of keeping the sabbath, they had been already maxim was, it is better to sacrifice one man, than a whole confounded, and his last miracles were so incontestable, that nation. In politics nothing could be more just than this: they could no longer cry out, He is a deceiver.
but there are two words to be spoken to it. First, The reliBoth our place and nation.] Literally this place, TOY TOTOY : gion of God says, we must not. do evil that good may come : but that the temple only is understood is clear from Acts vi. 13, Rom. iii. 8. Secondly, It is not certain that Christ will be 14. 2 Macc. i. 14. ii. 18. iv. 18. v. 16, 17. x. 7. where it is acknowledged as king by all the people; nor, that he will uniformly called the place, or the holy place, because they con- make any insurrection against the Romans; nor, that the sidered it the most glorious and excellent place in the world. Romans will, on his account, ruin the temple, the city, and When men act in opposition to God's counsel, the very evils the nation. This Caiaphas should have considered. A person which they expect thereby to avoid, will come upon them. should be always sure of his premises before he attempts to They said, If we do not put Jesus to death, the Romans will draw any conclusion from them. See Calmet. This saying destroy both our temple and nation. Now it was because they was proverbial among the Jews : see several instances of it in put him to death, that the Romans burnt and razed their tem- || Schoetgen. ple to the ground, and put a final period to their political ex- Verse 51. This spake he not of himself] Wicked, and istence. See Matt. xxii. 7. and the notes on chap. xxiv.
worthless as he was, God so guided his tongue, that contrary Verse 49. Caiaphas, being the high priest that same year] to bis intention he pronounced a prophecy of the death of By the law of Moses, Exod. xl. 15. the office of high priest Jesus Christ. was for life, and the son of Aaron's race always succeeded his I have already remarked, that the doctrine of a vicarious father. But at this time the high priesthood was almost atonement had gained, long before this time, universal credit in annual: the Romans and Herod put down, and raised up the world. Words similar to these of Caiaphas are by the whom they pleased, and when they pleased, without attending prince of all the Roman poets, put in the mouth of Neptune, to any other rule than merely that the person put in this when promising Venus that the fleet of Æneus should be preoffice should be of the sacerdotal race. According to Jo-served, and his whole crew should be saved, one only excepted, sephus, Ant. xviü. c. 3. the proper name of this person was whose death he speaks of in these remarkable words; Joseph, and Caiaphas was his sirname. He possessed the
multis dabitur caput.” high priesthood for eight or nine years, and was deposed by
“ One life shall fall, that many may be sav’d.” Vitellius, governor of Judea. See on Luke iii. 2.
Ye know nothing] of the perilous state in which ye stand. Which victim the poet informs us was Palinurus, the pilate of
Verse 50. Nor consider] Ye talk more at random than Æneas's own ship, who was precipitated into the deep by a according to reason, and the exigencies of the case. There is divine influence. See Virg. Æn. v. l. 815, &c. a various reading here in some MSS. that should be noticed. There was no necessity for the poet to have introduced this Instead of oude doadogo Secde, which we translate ye do not consider, | account. It was no historic fact, nor indeed does it tend to and which properly conveys the idea of conferring, or talking decorate the poem. It even pains the reader's mind; for together ; oude 2001%20be, neither do ye reason or consider rightly, after suffering so much in the sufferings of the pious hero and is the reading of ABDL. three others; and some of the pri- his crew, he is at once relieved by the interposition of a god, mitive Fathers. · Griesbach, by placing it in his inner margin, who promises to allay the storm, disperse the clouds, preserve shews that he thinks it bids fair to be the true reading. Dr. the fleet, and the lives of the men ; but,-one must perish! The White thinks that this reading is equal, and probably preferable reader is again distressed, and the book ominously closes with to that in the text. Lectio æqualis, forsitan præferenda receptæ. the death of the generous Palinurus, who strove to the last to
That one man should die for the people) In saying these be faithful to his trust, and to preserve the life of his master.
Christ retires to Ephraim
in the wilderness.
A. D. 29.
A.M. 4053. that Jesus should die for that na- among the Jews; but went thence 4. M. 1998. An. Olymp. tion;
unto a country near to the wilderness, An. Olymp. 52 And not for that nation only, into a city called * Ephraim, and there but that also he should gather together in continued with his disciples. one the children of God that were scattered 55 ° And the Jews' pass-over was nigh at abroad.
hand : and many went out of the country up 53 Then from that day forth they took coun-|| to Jerusalem before the pass-over, to purify sel together for to put him to death.
themselves. 54 Jesus therefore walked no more openly 56 ' Then sought they for Jesus, and spake
• Isai. 43. 6. 1 John 2. 2.- ch. 10. 16. Eph. 4. 14, 15, 16, 17.
• ch4. 1, 3. & 7. 1.
See 2 Chron. 13. 19.—Matt. 26. 17. Mark 14. 12.
ch. 2. 13. & 5. 1. & 6. 4. ch. 11. 7.
Luke. 22. 1.
and his friend. Why then did the poet introduce this? | wards very much extended; and that he saw, that Jesus Merely, as it appears to me, to have the opportunity of shewing | Christ was not only a propitiation for their sins (the Jews) in a few words his religious creed, on one of the most im- || but for the sins of the whole world: see his Ist Epistle, chap. portant doctrines in the world; and which the sacrificial | ii. ver. 2. All the truths of the gospel were not revealed at system of Jews and Gentiles proves, that all the nations of the once, even to the Apostles themselves. earth credited.
Verse 53. They took council together] Eurs Soua avto, they As Caiaphas was high priest, bis opinion was of most weight were of one accord in the business: and had fully made up with the council; therefore God put these words in his mouth their minds on the subject; and they waited only for a proper rather than into the mouth of any other of its members. It opportunity to put him to death. was a maxim among the Jews that no propliet ever knew the
Verse 54. Walked no more openly) Παρρησια, he did not go purport of his own prophecy, Moses and Isaiah excepted. | as before through the cities and villages, teaching, preaching, They were in general organs by which God chose to speak. and healing the sick.
Verse 52. And not for that nation only, &c.] These, and Near to the wilderness) Sorne MSS. add, of Samphoureir, the preceding words in ver. 51, are John's explication of or Samphourim, or Sapfurim. what was prophetic in the words of Caiaphas: as if John had A city called Ephraim] Variously written in the MSS. said, he is indeed to die for the sins of the Jewish nation, but Ephraim, Ephrem, Ephram, and Ephratha. This was a little not for theirs alone, but for the sins of the whole world: see village, situated in the neighbourhood of Bethel ; for the scriphis own words afterwards, 1 John i. 1, 2.
ture, 2 Chron. xiii. 19. and Josephus, War, b. iv. c. 8. s. 9. Gather together in one] That he should collect into one join them both together. Many believe that this city or body;—form one church out of the Jewish and Gentile be- || village was the same with that mentioned, 1 Macc. v. 46. lievers.
2 Macc. xii. 27. Joshua gave it to the tribe of Judah : Jos. Children of God that were scuttered abroad.] Probably || xv. 9. and Eusebius and Jerom say it was about twenty John only meant the Jews who were dispersed among all
miles north of Jerusalem. nations since the conquest of Judea by the Romans; and And there continued] Calmet says, following Toynard, that these are called the dispersed : chap. vii. 35. and Jam. i. 1. he staid there two months, from the twenty-fourth of January and it is because he refers to these only, that he terms them till the twenty-fourth of March. here, the children of God, which was an ancient character of Verse 55. The Jews' pass-over was nigh at hand] It is not the Jewish people : see Deut. xxxii. 5. Isai. xliii. 6. xlv. 11. || necessary to suppose that this verse has any particular conJer. xxxii. 1. Taking his words in this sense, then his meaning | nexion with the preceding. Most chronologists agree that our is this—That Christ was to die not only for the then inhabi- || Lord spent at least two months in Ephraim. This was the tants of Judea, but for all the Jewish race wheresoever scat- last pass-over which our Lord attended; and it was at this one tered; and that the consequence would be, that they should that he suffered death for the salvation of a lost world. As be all collected from their various dispersions, and made one the pass-over was nigh, many of the inhabitants of Ephraim body. This comports with the predictions of St. Paul: Rom. and its neighbourhood, went up to Jerusalem, some time xi. 1–32. This probably is the sense of the passage; and || (perhaps seven or eight days, for so much time was required though, according to this interpretation, the Apostle may to purify those who had touched the dead) before the feast, seem to confine the benefits of Christ's death to the Jewish || that they might purify themselves ; and not eat the pass-over people only, yet we find, from the passage already quoted otherwise than prescribed in the law. Many of the country from his first Epistle, that his views of this subject were after- || people, in the time of Hezekiah, committed a trespass by not