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A. M. 4033
A. D. 29.
The parable of the
Pharisee and the publican. · which trusted in themselves that himself, God,
that || himself, “God, I thank thee, that I A M. 4035. An. Olymp. they were righteous, and despised am not as other men are, extortioners, An. Olymp. others :
unjust, adulterers, or even as this pub10 Two men went up into the temple to lican. pray; the one a Pharisee, and the other a pub- 12 I fast twice in the week, I give tithes of all lican. 11 The Pharisee stood and prayed thus with 13 And the publican, standing afar off, would
that I possess.
Ch. 10. 29. & 16. 15. Or, as being righteous.
• Ps. 135. 2.
_ Isai. 1. 15. & 58. 2. Rev. S. 17.
forth a harvest proportioned to the culture bestowed on it? man's ignorance in buying or selling. I avoid every species No! And therefore he destroyed that land.
of uncleanness. In a word, I do to others as I wish them to Verse 9. Despised] Ežouberourtas, disdained, made nothing do to me. How many of those called Christiuns, are not half of others, treated them with sovereign contempt. Our Lord as good as this Pharisee ! and yet, he was far from the kingdom grants that the Pharisees made clean the outside: but alas ! of God. what pride, vain glory, and contempt for others, were lodged 2. He observed the ordinances of religiou-I fast twice in within.
the week. The Jewish days of fasting in each week, were Verse 10. A Pharisee] For a description of the Pharisees the second and fifth; what we call Monday and Thursday. and their tenets, see on Matt. xvi. I.
These were instituted in remembrance of Moses's going up to Publican.] See an account of these on Matt. v. 46. Both the mount to receive the law, which they suppose to bave these persons went to the temple to pray, i. e. to worship God: been on the fifth day; and of his descent, after he had rethey were probably both Jews, and felt themselves led by dif-ceived the two tables, which they suppose was on the second ferent motives to attend at the temple, at the hour of prayer; day of the week, the one to return thanks for the mercies he had received ; the Verse 12. I give tithes of all that I possess.] Or, of all I acother to implore that grace which alone could redeem himquire, xwpor. Raphelius has well observed, that this verb in from his sins.
the present tense, signifies to acquire_in the preter, to possess : Verse 11, Stood and prayed thus with himself] Or, stood by the Pharisee's meaning seems to be, “ As fast as I gain any himself and prayed, as some would translate the words. He thing, I give the tenth part of it to the house of God and to probably supposed it disgraceful to appear to have any con- the poor.” Those who dedicate a certain part of their earnnexion with this penitent publican : therefore his conductings to the Lord, should never let it rest with themselves, lest seemed to say, “ Stand by thyself; I am more holy than possession should produce covetousness. This was the Pharithou.” He seems not only to have stood by himself, but also see's righteousness, and the ground on which he builded his to have prayed by himself ; neither associating in person nor hope of final salvation. That the Pharisees had a strong opiin petitions with his poor guilty neighbour.
nion of their own righteousness, the following history will God, I thank thee, &c.] In Matt. v. 20. our Lord says, I'n-prove : less your righteousness abound more than that of the scribes and “ Rabbi Simeon, the son of Jochai, said : The whole world Pharisees, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of God: see the is not worth thirty righteous persons, such as our father Abranote there. Now, the righteousness of the scribes and Pha- ham. If there were only thirty righteous persons in the risees, is deseribed here by a Pharisee bimself. We find it was world, I and my son should make two of them : and if there twofold: 1. It consisted in doing no harm to others. 2. In ' were but twenty, I and my son would be of the number: attending all the ordinances of God, then established in the and if there were but ten, I and my son would be of the Jewish economy: and in these things they were not like number : and if there were but five, I and my son would be Other men ; the bulk of the inhabitants of the land pay- il of the five : and if there were but two, I and my son would ing little or no attention to them. That the Pharisees were | be those two: and if there were but one, myself should be in their origin a pure and holy people, can admit of little that one.” Bereshith Rabba, s. 35. fol. 34. This is a genudoubt: but that they had awfully degenerated before our Lord's ine specimen of Pharisaic pride. No wonder that our Lord time, is sufficiently evident. They had lost the spirit of their accused these of pride and vain glory: they were far from institution; and retained nothing else than its external regula- humility, and consequently far from righteousness. tions. See on Matt. xvi, 1.
Verse 13. The publican, standing afar off" ] Not because be 1. This Pharisee did no harm to others-I am not rapa- || was a heathen, and dared not approach the holy place ; (for it cious, nor unjust, nor an adulterer. I seize no man's pro- is likely he was a Jew) but because he was a true penitent, and perty through false pretences. I take the advantage of no ll felt himself utterly unworthy to appear before God.
Little children are
brought to Chrisi.
A. D. 29.
A. M. 4053. not lift up so mach as his eyes unto 0|1.15 And they brought unto him 126.96.36.199 An. Olymp. heaven, but smote upon his breast, also infants, that he would touch them: An. Olymp,
CCII. 1. saying, God be merciful to me a but when his disciples saw it, they resinner.
buked them. 14 I tell you, this man went down to his house 16 But Jesus called them unto him, and said, justified rather than the other : * for every one Suffer little children to come unto me, and forthat exalteth himself shall be abased ; and he bid them not: for of such is the kingdom of that humbleth hiinself shall be exalted.
Job 22. 29. Matt. 23. 12. ch. 14. 11. James 4. 6. 1 Pet. 5. 5, 6.
Matt. 19. 13. Mark 10. 13.1 Cor. 14. 20. 1 Pet. 2. 2.
Would not lift up--his eyes] Holding down the head with was the doctrine publicly and solemnly preached by every sathe eyes fixed
upon the earth, was 1. A sign of deep distress. crifice offered under the Jewish law. Without shedding of 2. Of a consciousness and confession of guilt. And 3. It blood there is no remission, was the loud and constant cry of. was the very posture that the Jewish Rabbins required in the whole Mosaic æconomy. From this we may see, what it those who prayed to God. See Ezra ix. 6. and Mishna, in is to have a righteousness superior to that of the Scribes and Berachoth, chap. v. and Kypke's note here. So the Pharisee Pharisees. We must humble ourselves before God, which they appears to have forgotten one of his own precepts.
did not : we must take refuge in the blood of the cross, which But smote upon his breast) Simiting the breast was a token they would not : and be meek and humble of heart, which they of excessive grief, commonly practised in all nations. It were not. seems to intimate a desire in the penitent, to punish that Many suppose, that the Pharisees thought they could acheart, through the evil propensities of which, the sin deplored quire righteousness of themselves, independantly of God; and had been committed. It is still used among the Roman Ca- that they did not depend on him for grace or power : but let tholics in their general confessions.
us not make them worse than they were for this is disclaimGod be merciful to me) 'Inacenti Moombe propitious towarded by the Pharisee in the text, who attributes all the good be me through sucrifice—or, let an atonement be made for me. had to God: 0 God, I thank thee, that I am not as others I am a sinner, and cannot be saved but in this way. The it is thou who hast made me to differ. But this was not suffiGreek word inaoxw, or inaonquas, often signifies to make ex cient : restraining grace must not be put in the place of the piation for sin; and is used by the Septuagint, Psal. Ixv. 4. great atonement. Guilt, he had contracted—and this guilt must Lxxviii. 38. lxxix. 9. for 993 kipper, he mude an atonement. be blotted out; and that there was no way of doing this but So inaouos, a propitiation, is used by the same, for nama cha- through an atonement, the whole Jewish law declared. See taah, a sacrifice for sin, Ezek. xliv. 27. and inattnetov, the the note on Matt. v. 20. mercy seat, is, in the above version, the translation of moss Verse 14. Went down to his house justified] His sin blotted kapporelh, the lid of the ark of the covenant, on and before out, and himself accepted. which, the blood of the expiatory victim was sprinkled, on Rather than the other] H EXELYOS : that is, the other was not the great day of atonement. The verb is used in exactly the accepted, because he exalted himself-he made use of the same sense by the best Greek writers. The following from mercies which he acknowledged he owed to God, to make Herodotus, lib. i. p. 19. edit. Gale, is full in point. Ovoinor claims on the divine approbation; and to monopolize the salμεγαλησι τον εν Δελφοισι θεον ΙΛΑΣ ΚΕΤΟ. .
Cræsus appeased, or vation of the Most High! He was abased, because be vainly made an atonement to the Delphic god by immense sacrifices. || trusted that he was righteous, and depended on what he had We see then at once, the reason why our blessed Lord said been enabled to do; and looked not for a change of heart, por that the tar-gatherer went down to his house justified rather than for reconciliation to God. It is a strange perversion of the the other :-he sought for mercy through an atonement for sin, human mind, to attempt to make God our debtor, by the rery which was the only way in which God had from the begin blessings which bis mere mercy has conferred upon us! It ning, purposed to save sinners. As the Pharisee depended on was a maxim among the Jews, that whoever brought a sacrihis doing no harm, and observing the ordinances of religion, | fice to the temple, returned justified. But our Lord shews, for bis acceptance with God; according to the economy of that this depended on the state of mind if they were not grace and justice, he must be rejected : for as all bad sinned | humbled under a sense of 'sin, they were not justified, though and coine short of the glory of God, and no man could make they had even offered a sacrifice. an atonement for his sins, so he who did not take refuge in Verses 15-17. They brought unto him also infants) 01 that which God's mercy had provided, must be excluded these verses, the Reader is requested to consult the notes on from the kingdom of heaven. This was no new doctrine :-it | Matt. xix. 13, 14. and on Mark x. 16.
À certain ruler enquires
how he may be saved.
A. M. 4033.
A. D. 29. An. Olymp. CCII. 1.
18 • And a certain ruler asked him, saying, 27
17 'Verily I say unto you, Whoso-needle's eye, than for a rich man to A. M. 4033. Au. Olymp. ever shall not receive the kingdom of enter into the kingdom of God.
God as a little child, shall in no wise 26 And they that heard it said, Who enter therein.
then can be saved ? 18 • And a certain ruler asked him, saying, | 27 And he said, The things which are im. Good Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal possible with men, are possible with God. life?
28 Then Peter said, Lo, we have left all, 19 And Jesus said unto him, Why callest and followed thee. thou me good ? none is good, save one, that is, 29 And he said unto them, Verily I say unto God.
you, . There is no man that hath left house, or 20 Thou knowest the commandments, “Do || parents, or brethren, or wife, or children, for not commit adultery, Do not kill, Do not steal, the kingdom of God's sake, Do not bear false witness, "Honour thy father 30 * Who shall not receive manifold more in and thy mother.
this present time, and in the world to come life 21 And he said, All these have I kept from everlasting. my youth up
31 T ' Then he took unto him the twelve, and 22 Now when Jesus heard these things, he said unto them, Behold, we go up to Jerusa-said unto him, Yet lackest thou one thing : lem, and all things that are written by the * sell all that thou hast, and distribute unto the prophets concerning the Son of man shall be poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven : accomplished. and come, follow me.
32 For he shall be delivered unto the Gen23 And when he heard this, he was very sor- | tiles, and shall be mocked, and spitefully enrowful : for he was very rich.
treated, and spitted on : 24 | And when Jesus saw that he was very 33 And they shall scourge him, and put him sorrowful, he said, 'How hardly shall they that to death : and the third day he shall rise have riches enter into the kingdom of God! again. 25 For it is easier for a camel to go through a 34 ° And they understood none of these things:
* Mark 10. 15. Matt. 19. 16. Mark 10. 17. Exod. 20. 12, 16. Deut. 5. 16-40. Rom. 13. 9.- d Eph. 6. 2. Col. 3. 20.- e Matt. 6. 19, 20. & 19. 21. 1 Tim. 6. 19. .f Prov. 11. 28. Matt 19. 23. Mark 10. 33. Jer. 32. 17. Zech. 8. 6. Matt. 19, 26. ch. 1. 37.
1 Matt. 19. 27.- Deut. 33. 9.- Lk Job 42. 10,- Matt. 16. 21. & 17. 99. & 20. 17. Mark 10, 32. „in Ps. 22. Isai. 53. Matt. 27. 2. ch. 23. 1. John 18. 28. Acts 3. 13.- - Mark 9. 32. ch. 2. 50. & 9. 45. John 10. 6. & 12. 16.
Verses 18–23. A certain ruler] See the case of this per- Or brethren] H adea@as, or sisters, is added by the Cod.. son largely explained on Matt. xix. 16–22. and Mark x. Bezce, and some others. 21, 22.
Verse 31. Behold, we go up to Jerusalem] See the Verse 24. How hardly shall they that have riches, &c.] See notes on this discourse, Matt. xx. 17-19. and Mark x.. the notes on this discourse of our Lord, on Matt. xix. 24–30. 32: and Mark x. 30.
Verse 33. And the third day he shall rise again.) See Hos. Verse 25. It is easier for a camel] Instead of raundor, a vi. 2. and let the Reader observe, that the passage should be camel, S. and four other MSS. read nausnov, a cable. See read thus : In the third day he will raise him up, (199pe) and the same reading noticed on the parallel place, Matt. xix. we shall live before him : his resurrection shall be the pledge,' 24.
loken, and cause of ours. Verse 28. We have left all]. Our trades, our houses, and Verse 34. They understood none of these things] Notwith-. families. The Reader is desired to consult the notes on Matt. standing all the information which Christ had given them iv. 20. xix. 27, &c.
concerning this awful subject, they could not as yet fully Verse 29. That hath left house, or parents, &c.] See on comprehend how the Messiah should suffer; or how their Matt. xix. 28, 29. and Mark x. 29, 30.
Master, whose power they knew was unlimited, should per-Å blind man cured
A. D. 29. An. Olymup. CCIII,
A. M, 1033. and this saying was hid from them,|| much the more, Thou son of David, 4.11.4638 An. Olymp. neither knew they the things which have mercy on me. were spoken.
40 And Jesus stood, and command35 [ · And it came to pass, that as he was ed him to be brought unto him: and when he come nigh unto Jericho, a certain blind man sat was come near, he asked him, by the way side begging :
41 Saying, What wilt thou that I shall do un36 And hearing the multitude pass by, he to thee? And he said, Lord, that I may receive asked what it meant.
my sight. 37 And they told him, that Jesus of Nazareth 42 And Jesus said unto him, Receive thy passeth by.
sight : thy faith hath saved thee. 38 And he cried, saying, Jesus, thou son of 43 And immediately he received his sight, David, have mercy on me.
and followed him, “glorifying God : and all the 39 And they which went before rebuked him, people, when they saw it, gave praise unto that he should hold his peace : but he cried so God.
• Matt. 20. 29. Mark 10. 46.
6 Ch. 17. 19.sch. 5. 26. Acts 4. 21. & 11. 18.
mit the Jews and Gentiles to torment and slay him, as he || him! A true conversion, which no way contradicts itself
, here intimates they would.
but is followed by an edifying life, makes known the majesty Verse 35. A certain blind man] Bartimeus. See this trans- and power of God in a more eminent manner, than the greataction explained at large, on Matt. xx. 29—34. and Mark x. est external miracles. Quesnel. 46, &c.
Verse 40. And when he was come near] See the remark- For a practical use of the principal subjects in this chapable account of the negro and white man, related on Mark ter, see the parallel places in Matthew and Mark. How shall
I be justified ? is a most important question, which the paraVerse 43. And all the people--gade praise unto God.) ble of the Pharisee and the publican most distinctly answers. They saw the finger of God in what was done ; and they A deep consciousness of sin, humiliation of heart, and taking gave him that praise wbich was due to his name. The Pha- | refuge by faith in the great atonement, is the way, and the risees either saw not, or would not acknowledge this. The only way. Even the worst transgressors coming thus to God, common people are often better judges of the work of God, are accepted. Blessed news for penitent sinners! for though than the Doctors themselves. They are more simple, are not they cannot boast of a righteousness equal to that of the puffed up with the pride of learning, and are less liable to be Scribes and Pharisees; yet they find they can, coming as the warped by prejudice or self-interest. Happy are those spirit- publican, be justified freely, through the blood of the cross, ually blind persons, to whom Christ has given eyes, that they from all things, from which they could not be justified by the may know him : feet, that they may follow him: a tongue, law of Moses. If this be so, how shall they escape who negthat they may praise him : and a heart, that they may love | lect so GREAT I SALVATION !
The conversion of Zaccheus, 1--10. The parable of the nobleman, his ten servants, and the ten pounds, 11—27.
Christ sends his disciples for a colt, on which he rides into Jerusalem, 28—40. He weeps over the city, and foretells its destruction, 41–44. Goes into the temple, and custs out the buyers and sellers, 45, 46. The chief priests and the scribes seek to destroy him, but are afraid of the people, who hear him attentively, 47, 48.
Account of the
conversion of Zaccheus.
A. D. 99. An. OlympCCII. 1.
ND Jesus entered and passed looked up, and saw him, and said un-
to him, Zaccheus, make haste and An. Olymp. 2 And, behold, there was a man come down ; for to day I must abide named · Zaccheus, which was the chief among at thy house. the publicans, and he was rich.
6 And he made haste, and came down, and 3 And he sought to see Jesus who he was; received him joyfully. and could not for the press, because he was little 7 And when they saw it, they all murmured, of stature.
saying, “That he was gone to be guest with a 4 And he ran before, and climbed up into a man that is a sinner. sycamore tree to see him : for he was to pass 8 And Zaccheus stood, and said unto the
Lord; Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I 5 And when Jesus came to the place, he give to the poor: and if I have taken any
* Ezra 2. 9. Luke 23. 8.
• Matt. 9. 11. ch. 5. 30.
NOTES ON CHAP. XIX.
him. How often does Christ make the proposal of lodging, Verse 1. Entered and passed through] Was passing through, not only in our house, but in our heart, without its being acOur Lord had not as yet passed through Jericho—he was only || cepted! We lose much because we do not attend to the visipassing through it; for the house of Zaccheus, in which he tutions of Christ : he passes by-he blesses cur neighbours was to lodge, ver. 5. was in it.
and our friends---but often, neither curiosity nor any other Verse 2. Zaccheus] It is not unlikely, that this person was motive, is sufficient to induce us to go even to the house of a Jew by birth, see ver. 9. but because he had engaged in a God, to hear of the miracles of mercy, which he works in business so infamous, in the eyes of the Jews, he was con- || behalf of those who seek him. sidered as a mere heathen, ver. 7.
Verse 7. To be guest with a man that is a sinner.) Meaning Chief among the publicans] Either a furmer-general of the taxes, either that he was a heathen, or, though by birth a Jew, yet who had subordinate collectors under him: or else the most re- || as bad as a heathen, because of his unholy and oppressive ofspectable and honourable man among that class, at Jericho. fice. See the note on chap. vii. 37.
He was rich.) And therefore the more unlikely to pay at- Verse 8. The half of my goods I give to the poor] Probatention to an impoverished Messiah, preaching a doctrine of bly he had already done so for some time past; though it is universal mortification and self-denial.
generally understood that the expressions only refer to what Verse 3. And he sought to see Jesus who he was] So the he now purposed to do. mere principle of curiosity in him, led to his conversion and If I have taken any thing----by false accusation) Eouxo$xysalvation ; and to that of his wliole family, ver. 9.
from ouxov, a fig, and Darw, I shew or declare ; for Verse 4. He ran before] The shortness of his stature was among the primitive Athenians, when the use of that fruit amply compensated by his agility and invention. Had he was first found out, or in the time of a dearth, when all sorts been as tall as the generality of the crowd, he might have of provisions were exceedingly scarce, it was enacted that no: been equally unnoticed with the rest. His getting into the figs should be exported from Attica ; and this law (not being tree made him conspicuous : had he not been so low of sta- || actually repealed, when a plentiful harvest had rendered it ture, he would not have done so. Even the imperfections of useless, by taking away the reason of it) gare occasion to illour persons, may become subservient to the grace of God in natured and malicious fellows to accuse all persona they found our eternal salvation. As the pass-over was at hand, the road breaking the letter of it; and from them all busy, informers was probably crowded with people going to Jerusalem : but have ever since been branded with the name of sycophants. the fame of the cure of the blind man, was probably the Porter's Antiq. vol. i. c. 21. end. cause of the concourse at this time.
I restore him fourfold.] This restitution the Roman laws Verse 5. Make haste, and come down] With this invitation, our obliged the tax-gatherers to make, when it was proved they had. blessed Lord conveyed heavenly influence to his heart ; hence he || abused their power by oppressing the people. But here was was disposed to pay the most implicit and cheerful obedience no such proof: the man to shew the sincerity of his conversion, to the call, and thus he received not the grace of God in vain. does it of his own accord. He who has wronged his fellow
Verse 6. Receited him joyfully.) He had now seen who he must make restitution, if he have it in his power. He that was: and he wished to hear what he was : and therefore he || dues not do so, cannot expect the mercy of God. See the obe rejoiced in the honour that God had now conferred upon | servations at the end of Gen. xlii. and Numb. v. 7.