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Christ is váriously insulted ; and is
brought to Golgotha, and crucified.
A. D. 29. An. Olymp. CCII. 1.
platted a crown of thorns, and put it the father of Alexander and Rufus, to A.M. 4133. An. Olyinp. about his head,
bear his cross. 18 And began to salute him, Hail, 22 • And they bring him unto the King of the Jews!
place Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, 19 And they smote him on the head with a The place of a scull. reed, and did spit upon him, and bowing their 23 · And they gave him to drink wine min. knees worshipped him.
gled with myrrh : but he received it not. 20 And when they had mocked him, they 24 And when they had crucified him, “ they took off the purple from him, and put his own parted his garments, casting lots upon them, clothes on him, and led him out to crucify him. what every man should take.
21 * And they compel one Simoni, a Cyreni 25 And it was the third hour, and they cru. an, who passed by, coming out of the country, cified him.
• Matt. 27. 32. Luke 23. 26
_. Matt. 27. 33. Luke 23. 33. John 19. 17. Matt. 27. 34.
& Ps. 99. 18. Luke 23. 34. John 19. 23. See Matt. 27. 15. Luke 93. 44.
John 19. 14.
Verse 17. And platted a crown of thorns] In the note on thorns: and says, De Corona Militar. sect. xiv. edit. Pamel. Matt. xxvii. 29. I bave ventured to express a doubt whether || Franck. 1597. quale oro té, Jesus Christus sertum pro utroque our Lord was crowned with thorns, in our sense of the word; sexu subiit? Er spinis, opinor et tribulis. The total silence this crown being designed as an instrument of torture. I am of Polycarp, Barnabas, Clem. - Romanus, and all the other still of the same opinion, having considered the subject more Christian writers whose works are now extant, and who wrote closely since writing that note. As there, I have referred to before Tertullian, in particular, will give some weight to inBishop Pearce, a man, whose merit as a commentator, is far cline one to think that tiris crown was not platted with thorns. beyond my praise; and who, it is to be regretted, did not But as this is a point on which we have not sufficient evi. complete his work on the New Testament, I think it right to dence, I leave it almost in the same state of uncertainty in insert the whole of his note here.
which I found it. The Reader may sec a satisfactory account “ The word axarlwy may as well be the plural genitive of acanthus, bear's-foot, in Quincy's English Dispensatory, case, of the word axavdos, as of axaron; if of the latter, it is part ii. seet. 3. edit. 8. 1742.” rightly translated of thorns, but the former would signify
This is the whole of the learned and juclicious prelate's what we call beurs-foot, and the French branche ursine. This note ; on which I have only to observe, that the species of is not of the thorny kind of plants, but is soft and smooth. acanthus described by Virgil and the two Plinys, as mollis Virgil calls it mollis acanthus, Ecl. jii. 45. Geor. iv. 137. So | and lævis, soft and smooth, is no doubt, the same as that does Pliny sec. Epist. ver. 6. And Pliny the elder, in his formerly used in medicine, and described by Quincy and Nat. Hist. xxii. 22. p. 277. edit. Hard, says that it is lævis, other pharmacopæists; but there are other species of the smooth ; and that it is one of those plants that is cultivated same plant that are prickly; and particularly those called the in gardens. I have somewhere read, but cannot at present | acanthus spinosus, and the hicifolius ; the latter of which is recollect where, that this soft and smooth herb was very com common in both the Indies; this has leaves something like inon in and about Jerusalem. I find nothing in the New our common holly, the jagged edges of wbich are armed Testament said concerning this crown which Pilate's soldiers with prickles; but I do not conceive that this kind was used, put on the head of Jesus, to incline one to think that it was nor indeed any other plant of a thorny nature, as the Roman of thorns, and intended as is usually supposed, to put him to soldiers who platted the crown, could have no interest in pain. The reed put into his hand, and the scarlet robe on bis adding to our Lord's sufferings; though they smote him with back, were only meant as marks of mockery and contempt. the rod, yet their chief object was to render him ridiculous, One may also reasonably judge by the soldiers being said to for pretending, as they imagined, to regal authority. platt this crown, that it was not composed of such twigs and Verse 21. A Cyrenian] One of Cyrene, a celebrated city leaves as were of a thorny nature. I do not find that it is in the Pentapolis of Lybia. mentionel by any of the primitive Christian writers as an The father of Alerunder and Rufus] It appears that these instance of the cruelty used towards our Saviour, before he two persons were well known among the first disciples of our was led to his crucifixion, till the time of Tertullian, who | Lord. It is not unlikely, that this is the same Alerander wbo lived after Jesus's death at the distance of above 160 years. | is mentioned Acts xix. 33. and that the other is the Rufus, Ile indeed seems to have understood cxc?xx in the sense of spoken of by St. Paul, Rom, xvi. 13.
He is insulted on the cross.
He calls on God and dies.
A. D. 29. An. Olymp).
A.M. 4083. 26 And the superscription of his there was darkness over the whole land A.M.4053
. A. D. 29. An. Diymp. accusation was written over, THE until the ninth hour. CCIL. 1. KING OF THE JEWS.
34 And at the ninth hour, Jesus 27 And with him they crucify two thieves ; || cried with a loud voice, saying, "Eloi, Eloi, the one on his right hand, and the other on his lama sabachthani ? which is, being interpretleft.
ed, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken 28 And the scripture was fulfilled, which me? saith, And he was numbered with the trans 35 And some of them that stood by, when gressors.
they heard it, said, Behold, he calleth Elias. 29 [ And they that passed by railed on 36 And one ran and filled a spunge full of him, wagging their heads, and saying, Ah, vinegar, and put it on a reed, and " * thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest | to drink, saying, Let alone ; let us see whether it in three days,
Elias will come to take him down. 30 Save thyself, and come down from the 37 And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and
gave up the ghost. 31 Likewise also the chief priests mocking, 38 | And the veil of the temple was rent said among themselves with the scribes, He in twain from the top to the bottom. saved others; himself he cannot save.
39 | And when the centurion, which stood 32 Let Christ the King of Israel descend now over against him, saw that he so cried out, and from the cross, that we may see and believe. gave up the ghost, he said, Truly this man was And 'they that were crucified with him, re- the Son of God. viled him.
40 ° There were also women looking on ” afar 33 [ And when the sixth hour was come, off: among whom was Mary Magdalene, and
• Matt. 27. 57. John 19. 19.—Matt. 27. 38. c Isai. 53. 12. Luke • Matt. 27. 48. John 19 29.- Ps. 69. 21.--- Matt. 27. 50. Luke 23. 29. 37. Ps. 22. 7. ch. 14. 58. John 2. 19.- Mlalt. 27. 44. Luke 46. John 19. 30. - Matt. 27. 51. Luke 23. 45. "Matt. 27. 54. Luke 23. 39. Matt. 27. 45. Luke 23. 44. Ps. 21. 1. Matt. 27. 46. 23. 47. Matt. 27. 55. Luke 23. 49. Ps. 38. 11.
Verse 25. The third hour] It has been before observed,| MÖKnight, Lightfoot, Rosenmuller, &c. on this perplexing that the Jews diyided their night into four watches, of three point. kours each. They also divided the day into four general Verse 27. Two thieves) A copy of the Itala tells their parts. The first began at sunrise. The second three hours names: One on the right hand--named Zoathan ; and one on after. The third at mid-day. The fourth three hours after, the left hand-named Chammatha. and continued till sun-set Christ having been nailed to the Verse 28. The scripture was fulfilled] All this verse is cross a little after mid-day, John xix. 14–16, 17. and having wanting in many MSS. some Versions, and several of the expired about three o'clock, Mark xv. 33. the whole business | Fathers. of the crucifixion was finished within the space of this third Verse 32. And believe.) In him is added by DFGHP-BHV. division of the day, which Mark calls here the third hour. | and upwards of sixty others; as also the Armenian, Slavonic, Commentators and critics have found it very difficult to re and four Itala. concile this third hour of Mark, with the sixth hour of John, Verse 34. My God, my God, &c.] See on Matt. xxvii. 46. chap. xix. 14. It is supposed that the true reading in John Verse 37. Gave up the ghost.] This was about 3 o'clock, xix. 14, should be opotn, the tkird, instead of exin, the sixth : | or what was termed by the Jews the ninth hour; about the a mistake which might have readily taken place in ancient time that the paschal lamb. was usually sacrificed. The times, when the character gamma, which was put for, agorn, | darkness mentioned here, must have endured about two three, might have been mistaken for s episema, or sigma tau, hours and a half. Concerning this eclipse, see on Matt. which signifies sit. And again, the third, instead of extn, | xxvii. 45. the sixth, is the reading of some very eminent MSS. in the Verse 40. Joses] Some MSS. and Versions read Joset, others place in question, John xix. 14. See Bengel, Newcome, | Joseph. See on Matt. xxvii. 56.
Joseph of Arimathea begs the body,
and lays it in a new tomb.
A. M. 4039.
A, M, 1039. Mary, the mother of James the less 44 And Pilate marvelled if he were
already dead : and calling unto him An Olymp. 41 (Who also, when he was in Ga- the centurion, he asked him whether lilee, followed him, and ministered unto him ;) he had been any while dead. . and many other women which came up with 45 And when he knew it of the centurion, he him unto Jerusalem.
gave the body to Joseph. 42 And now when the even was come, 46 " And he bought fine linen, and took him because it was the preparation, that is, the day down, and wrapped him in the linen, and laid before the sabbath,
him in a sepulchre which was hewn out of a 43 Joseplı of Arimathea, an honourable coun- rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sellor, which also waited for the kingdom of sepulchre. God, came, and went in boldly unto Pilate, 47 And Mary Magdalene, and Mary the moand craved the body of Jesus.
ther of Joses, beheld where he was laid.
a Like 8. 2, 3.
Matt. 27. 57. Luke 23. 50. John 19. 38.
€ Luke 2. 23, S8. - Matt. 27. 59, 60. Luke 23. 53. John 19. 40.
Verse 42. The day before the sabbath] What we would call through his blood. Strange as it may appear, the death of JeFriday evening. As the law of Moses had ordered, that no sus is the grand cause of confidence and courage to a believing criminal should continue franging on a tree or gibbet till the soul. setting of the sun, and Joseph fearing that the body of our Verse 47. Beheld where he was laid.] The courage and Lord might be taken down, and thrown into the common affection of these holy women cannot be too much admired. grave with the two robbers, came and earnestly cntreated | The strength of the Lord is perfocted in weakness; for here, a Pilate, to deliver it to him, that he might bury it in his own timid man, and a few weak women, acknowledge. Jests in new tomb. See on Matt. xxvij. 56. and 60.
death, when the strong and the mighty utterly forsook him. Verse 43. Hent in boldly unto Pilate] He who was a coward before, now acts a more open fearless part, than any of Human strength and human weakness are only names in relithe disciples of our Lord! This the Holy Spirit has thought gion. The nightiest Man in the hour of trial, can do nothing wortliy of especial notice. It needed no small measure of without the strength of God; and the weakest WOMAN can do courage, to declare now for Jesus, who had been a few hours all things, if Christ strengthens her. These truths are sufficiago condemned as a blasphemer by the Jerus, and as a seditious ently exemplified, in the case of Peter and all his brother disperson by the Romuns; and this was the more remarkable inciples on the one hand; and Joseph of Arimathea and the two Joseph, because hitherto for fear of the Jews, he had been Marys, on the other. And all this is recorded, equally to preonly a secret disciple of our Lord; see Johın xix. 38.
vent both presumption and despair. Reader, let not these exThe Apostle says, We have BOLDNESS to enter into the holiest Il amples be produced before thee in vain.
CHAPTER XVI. Early in the morning after the sabbath, the three Marys come to the sepulchre, bringing sweet spices to embalm the
body, 1-4. They see an angel, who announces the resurrection of our Lord, 5-8. Jesus appears to Mary Magdalene, who goes and tells the disciples, 9-11. Ile appears also to the two disciples who were going into the country, who also tell it to the rest, 12, 13. Afterwards he appears unto the eleven, and commissions them to preach the gospel to all mankind, 14-16. And promises to endue them with power to work miracles, 17, 18. He is received up into heaven, 19. And they go forth to preach and work miracles, 20.
omen bring spices to embalm the body,
and see a vision of angels.
A M. 4033
A. M. 4053.
ND 'when the sabbath was past, 4 And when they looked, they saw
Mary Magdalene, and Mary the that the stone was rolled away : for it An. Olymp. mother of James, and Salome, "had was very great. bought sweet spices, that they might come and 5 4 And entering into the sepulchre, they saw anoint him.
a young man sitting on the right side, clothed 2 · And very early in the morning, the first in a long white garment; and they were af. day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre frighted. at the rising of the sun.
6And he saith unto them, Be not afrighted: 3 And they said among themselves, Who shall Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: roll us away the stone from the door of the se- he is risen ; he is not here : behold the place pulchre ?
where they laid hiin....
Matt 28. L. Linke 94. 2. John 201. Luke 23. 56.- Luke 24. 1.
John -0. 1.
« Łuke 24. 3. John 20. 11, 19.
- Matt. 28. 5, 6, 7,
NOTES ON CHAP. XVI.
“ IV. enn 1 Sun-rise : from the hinde of the morning Verse l. And anoint him.] Rather, to embalm him. This going forth, until the enst begins to lighten ; and from the time is a proof that they had not properly understood what Christ | the erist begins to lighten, until sun-rise, &e. had so frequently spoken, viz. that he would rise again the According to these four parts of time, one might not third day. And this inattention or unbelief of theirs, is a improperly suit the four phrases of the Evangelists. Accordproof of the truth of the resurrection.
ing to the first, Matthew's, TN (TIDxTxét, As it began to Verse 2. Very early in the morning] This was the time they | dawn. According to the second, John's, ligwí crotia; e o sons, left their own houses, and by the rising of the sun they got Early in the morning when it was yet dark. To the third, to the tons. As the preceding day was the sabbath, they Luke's, og Jes Balews, Very early in the morning. To the could not, consistently with the observances of that day, ap- fourth, Mark's, Aizu apví, Very early in the morning. And proach the tomb. See the concluling notes at the end of John. yet, AYATH?.QYTOS ndog, At the rising of the sun. For the
The following obstrvations from Lightfoot, will serve to women came twice to the sepulchre, as St. John teaches, by illustrate this subject.
whom the other Evangelists are to be explained; which being " The distinction of the twilight among the Rabbins was well considered, the reconciling them togeiher is very easy."
Verse 4. For it was very greet] Tuis clause should be read " I *77 Mb The hinle of the morning--the first ap- immediately after the third verse, according to D. three copies pearance
R. Chaiia Rirb and R. Simeon ben Chc!aphta tra of the Italu, Syriuc, Hier. and Eusebrus. “ \Vho shall roll us velling together on a certain morming in the valley of Arbel, saw away the stone from the door of the sepulchre ? for it was the hände of the morning, that its light spread the sky. R. very great. And when they looked, they saw that the stone Chaiia said, Such shall be the redemption of Isruel. First, it was rolled away.” They knew that the stone was too heavy goes forward by degrees and by little and little ; but ly how for them to roll away; and unless they got access to the much the more it shall go forward, by so much the more it shall body, they could not apply the aromatics winch they had increase. It was at that time that Christ arose, namely in the brought to finish the embalıning. first morning, as may be gathered from ihe words of St. Alat Verse 6. Jesus of Nazareth] 'The Jews had given this name thew. And to this, the litle of the 224 Psalm seems to have to Christ by way of reprouch, Matt: 11. 23. but as it was unrespection abunge by See also Rev. xxii. 16. I am the der this name that he was crucified, John xix. 19. the anged bright and morning star. And now you may imagine, the here, and the apostles after, have given him the same name ; women went out of their houses towards the sepulchre. Acts iv. 10, &c. Names, which the world, in derision, fixes' “ .
on the followers of God, often become the general appellatives tween purple colour and while. From what time do they recile of religious bodies : tlius Quakers, Puritans, Pietists, and Vetheir phylacterical prayers in the morning? From that time that thodists, have in their respective times been the nicknames, one way distinguish between purple colour and white. R. Eliezer given in derision by the world, to those who separated themsaith, Between purple colour and green. Before this time was selves from its corruptions. Our Lord, by continuing to bear obscurum adhuc capta lucis, the obscurity of the begun light, as the name of the Nazarene, teaches us not to be too nice ar Tacitus's express on is.
scrupulous in fixing our own appeltation. No matter what the “ III. Ion Woo When the east begins to lighten. name may be, as long as it implies no particular eril, and
-When one may distinguish be משיכיר בין תכלת ללבן .II "
Christ appears to Mary Magdalene ;
and to two of his disciples.
A, D. 29.
7 But go your way, tell his disciples 10° And she went and told them that A .M 4053. An. Olymp. and Peter, that he goeth before you had been with him, as they mourned An
. Olymp. into Galilee: there shall ye see him, and wept. as he said unto you.
11 ' And they, when they had heard that he 8 And they went out quickly, and fled from was alive, and had been seen of her, believed the scpulchre ; for they trembled and were not. amazed : neither said they any thing to any 12 | After that, he appeared in another form man ; for they were afraid.
E unto two of them, as they walked, and went 9. Now when Jesus was risen early the first into the country. day of the week, ‘he appeared first to Mary Mag 13 And they went and told it unto the residalene, "out of whom he had cast seven devils. due : neither believed they them.
. Mait. 26. 52. ch. 14. 28. See Matt. 28. 8. Luke 21. 9.Jolin
Luke B. 2.
-- Luke 24. 10. John 20. 18.-- Luke 24. 11. Luke
serves sufficiently to mark us out. Let us be contented to bear “ That in the verses immediately going before the discourse it, and thus carry about with us the reproach of Christ ; always is of the two disciples going to Emmaus, is without all coni. taking care to keep our garments uuspotted from the world.
troversy. And then how do these things consist with that Verse 7. Tell his disciples and Peter] Why is not Peter relation in Luke, who saith, That they two returning to Jerilincluded among the disciples. For this plain reason, he had salem, found the eleven gathered together, and they that were forfeited his discipleship, and all right to the honour and pri | with them ; who said, The Lord is risen indeed and has appear vileges of an upostle, by denying his Lord and Master. Ilow-led to Simon! Luke xxiv, 34. The word aeyortes, saying, ever he is now a penitent-tell him that Jesus is risen from evidently makes those to be the words twy indexa, of the eleven, the dead, and is ready to heal his backsliding, and love and of those that were gathered together with them: which, kim freely; so that after being converted, he may strengthen when you read the Versious, you would scarcely suspect. For his brethren.
when that word is rendered by the Srriacfino Verse 9. Now when Jesus was risen, &c.] This, to the conclusion of the Gospel, is wanting in the famous Coder Vati
cad amrin; by the Arabic, usled party wchom gekolon ; canus, and has anciently been wanting in many others. See by the VULGATE, dicentes; by the ITALIAN, dicendo; by the Wetstein and Griesbach. In the margin of the latter Syriac French, disans ; by the English, saying : who, I pray, version, there is a remarkable addition after this verse; it is would take it in another sense, than that those two that reas follows: And they declared briefly all that was commanded, | turned from Einmaus, said, The Lord is risen indeed, &c. to them that were with Peter. Afterwards Jesus kimself pub- But in the original Greek, when it is the accusatide case, lished by thein, from cast to west, the-koly and incorruptible it is plainly to be referred to the eleven disciples, and those preaching of eternal solzation. Amen.
that were together with them : as if they had discoursed Mary Magdalene) It seems likely, that after this woman among themselves of the appearance made to Peter, either had carried the news of Christ's resurrection to the disciples, before, or now in the very access of those two coming from that she returned alone in the tomb; and that it was then, Emmaus. And yet says this our Evangelist, that when those that Christ appeared to her, John xx. l-11, 12. and a little two had related the whole business, they gave no credit to after he appeared to all the women together, Matt. xxviii. 9. them : so that, according to Luke, they believed Christ was Luke xxiv. 10.
risen, and had appeared to Simon, before they told their Verse 10. Them tkat had been with him] Not only the elever story; but according to Mark, they believed it not, no not disciples, but several others who had been the occasional com when they had told it. The reconciling therefore of the Eran. panions of Christ and the apostles.
gelists is to be fetched thence, that those words pronounced Mourned and wept.) Because they had lost their Lord and by the eleven, Ore nye tin á Kuçios OYTUS, &c. The Lord is risen Master, and bad basely abandoned him in his extremity., indeed, &c. do not manifest their absolute confession of the
Verse 12. He appeared-unto two of them] These were the resurrection of Christ, but a conjectural reasoning of the sud two who were going to Emmaus. The whole account is given den and unexpected return of Peter. I believe that Peter was by Luke, chap. xxiv. 13–34. where see the notes.
going with Cleophas into Galilee, and that being moved with Dr. Lightfoot's criticism pon this passage, is worihy of the words of Christ, told him by the women, Say to his disnotice.
ciples and Peter, I go befure you inlo Galilee-think with your