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The final doom, both of the

CHAP. XXVI.

righteous and the wicked. A.M. 4038. I

say
unto
you,

* Inasmuch as ye did 46 And these shall go away into A. M, 4033. A. D. 99. An. Olymp. it not to one of the least of these, ye everlasting punishment: but the right- An. Olymp. did it not to me.

eous into life eternal.

CCII.1.

CCII. 1.

• Pror. 14. 31. & 17. 5. Zech. 2. 8. Acts 9. 5.

Dan. 12. 2. John 5. 29. Rom. 2. 7, &c.

Verse 46. And these shall go away into everlasting punish did for them. No! Christ's feeding the multitudes in Judea, ment] No appeal, no remedy to all eternity! No end to the pu- will not be imputed to them, while persons in their own nishment of those, whose final impenitence manifests in them, neighbourhood are perishing through want, and they have an eternal will and desire to sin. By dying in a settled oppo- | wherewithal to relieve them. He gives them a power that sition to God, they cast themselves into a necessity of conti- they may glorify his name by it, and have, in their own souls, nuing in an eternal aversion from him.

the continued satisfaction which arises from succouring the But some are of opinion that this punishment shall have an || distressed. Let it be further remarked, that Christ does not end: this is as likely as that the glory of the righteous shall say here that they have purchased the eternal life by these good have an end: for the same word is used to express the duration deeds. No! for the power to work, and the meuns of working of the punishment, xodwoty alwoody, as is used to express the du- came both from God. They first had redemption through his ration of the state of glory: Śwny cesarios. I have seen the best blood, and then his Spirit worked in them to will and to do. things that have been written in favour of the final redemption They were therefore only workers together with him, and could of damned spirits; but I never saw an answer to the argument not be said, in any sense of the word, to purchase God's glory, against that doctrine, drawn from this verse, but what sound with his own property. But though God works in them, and learning and criticism should be ashamed to acknowledge. by them, he does not obey for them. The works of piety and The original word aww is certainly to be taken here in its pro- mercy They perform under the influence, and by the aid of per grammatical sense, continued being, ani w NEVER ENDING.

Thus God preserves the freedom of the human Some have gone a middle way, and think that the wicked shall soul, and secures his own glory at the same time. Let it be rebe anni hilated. This, I think, is contrary to the text; if they marked, further, that the punishment inflicted on the foolish go into punishment, they continue to erist; for that which ccuses virgins, the slothful servant, and the cursed who are separated to be, ceases to suffer. See the note on Genesis xxi. 33. where from God, was not because of their personal crimes ; but bethe whole subject is explained.

cause they were not good, and were not useful in the world.

Their lives do not appear to have been stained with crimes,-but From what our Lord has here said, we may see, that God they were not adorned with virtues. They are sent to hell beindispensably requires of every man to bring forth good fruit; cause they did no good. They were not renewed in the image and that a fruitless tree shall be inevitably cut down, and cast of God; and hence did not bring forth fruit to his glory. If into the fire. Let it be also remarked, that God does not here these harmless people are sent to perdition ; what must the end impute to his own children, the good works which Jesus Christ be of the wicked and profligate !

his grace.

CHAPTER XXVI. Christ predicts his being betrayed and crucified, 1, 2. The chief priests, Scribes, and elders consult about his death,

3-5. A woman anoints his head at Bethany, at which the disciples are offended, but Christ vindicates her conduct, 6~-13. Judas for thirty pieces of silver, engages with the chief priests to betray him, 14–16. He eats a pass-over with his disciples, and assures them of his approaching death, and that one of them would betray him, 17–21. On each asking Is it I? Christ asserts thut Judas is the trailor, 22–25. Having eaten his last supper he institutes the eucharist to be observed in his church as a memorial of his sacrificial deuth, 26-29. They sing a hymn, go to the mount of Olives, and he again announces his approaching death and resurrection, 30–32. Peter asserts his resolution to be faithful to his master, and Christ foretells his denial and apostacy, 33--95. lle goes to Gethsemane; the transactions there, 33-46. Judas comes with the high priest's mob and betrays him with a kiss, 47-50. Peter cuts off the ear of the high priest's servant; Christ discourses with the multitude, 51–55. The disciples free, and he is led to Caiaphas, 56, 57. Peter folloze's at a distance, 53. They seek false witnesses and question our Lord, who declares himself to be the Christ, 59–64. They accuse him. of blasphemy, and abuse kim, 63–68. Peter's denial and repentance, 69–75.

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A. D. 29. An. Olynip. CCI. 1.

AN

A. D. 29.

CCII. i.

The Jews conspire against Christ. St. MATTHEW.

A woman anoints him. N D it came to pass, when Jesus 4 And consulted that they might A. M.478

had finished all these sayings, take Jesus by subtilty, and kill him. An. Olympi he said unto his disciples,

5 But they said, Not on the feast 2 * Ye know that after two days is the feast day, lest there be an uproar among the peoof the pass-over, and the Son of man is betrayed ple. to be crucified.

6 Now when Jesus was in “Bethany, in 3 [ Then assembled together the chief the house of Simon the leper, priests, and the scribes, and the elders of the 7 There came unto him a woman having an people, unto the palace of the high priest, who alabaster box of very precious ointment, and was called Caiaphas,

poured it on his head as he sat at meat.

a Mark 14. 1. Luke 29. 1. John 13. 1.-Ps. 9. %. John 11. 47.

Acts 4. 23, &c. Mark 14. 3. John 11. 1, 2. & 12. 3.

- ch. 21. 17.

NOTES ON CHAP. XXVI.

with him in the priesthood. About two years after our Lord's Verse 1. When Jesus had finished all these sayings] He began crucifixion, Caiaphas and Pilate were both deposed by these sayings on Mount Olivet, chap. xxiv. 1. and continued | Vitellius, then governor of Syria, and afterwards emperor. them till he entered into Bethany, whither he was going. Caiaphas, unable to bear this disgrace, and the stings of his

Verse 2. The pass-over] A feast instituted in Egypt, to conscience for the murder of Christ, killed himself about commemorate the destroying Angel's passing-over the houses | A. D. 35. See Joseph. Ant. b. xviii.c. 2–4. of the Israelites, when he slew the first-born of the Egyptians. Verse 4. And consulted that they might take Jesus by subtilty] See the whole of this business largely explained in the Notes The providence of God frustrated their artful machinations, on Exod. xii. 1—27. This feast began on the fourteenth day and that event which they wished to conduct with the greatest of the fir-t moon, in the first month, Nisan, and it lasted privacy and silence, was transacted with all possible celebrity, only one day, but it was immediately followed by the days of amidst the thousands who resorted to Jerusalem at this unleavened bread which were seven, so that the whole lasted season, for the keeping of the pass-over. It was, doubtless, of eight days, and all the eight days are sometimes called the the very first importance, that the crucifixion of Christ, feast of the pass-over, and sometimes the feast or days of un- which was preparatory to the most essential achievement of leavened bread. See Luke xxii. 1—7. The three most signal Christianity, viz. his resuurection from the grave, should be exbenefits vouchsafed to the Israelites were, 1. The deliverance hibited before many witnesses, and in the most open manner, from the slavery of Egypt; to commemorate which, they kept that infidelity might not attempt, in future, to invalidate the the feast of unleavened bread, and the pass-over. 2. The giving evidences of the Christian religion, by alledging that these of the law; to commemorate which, they kept the feast of things were done in a corner. See WAKEFIELD in loco. weeks. 3. Their sojourning in the wilderness, and entrance Verse 5. Not on the feast day, lest there be an uproar] It was into the promised lund; to commemorate which, they kept usual for the Jews to punish criminals at the public festivals.; the feast of tabernacles. See these largely explained Exod. but in this case they were afraid of an insurrection, as our xxiii. 14. Lev. xxiii. 2–-40.

Lord haù become very popular. The providence of God The Son of man is betrayed (rather delivered up) to be cru- directed it thus, for the reason given in the preceding cified.) With what amazing calmness and precision does our blessed Lord speak of this awful event! What a proof does he He who observes a festival on motives purely human, violates here give of his prescience in so correctly predicting it; and it in his heart, and is a hypocrite before God. It is likely they of his love in so chearfully undergoing it! Ilaving instructed feared the Galileans, as being the countrymen of our Lord, his disciples and the Jews by his discourses, edified them by more than they feared the people of Jerusalem. his example, convinced them by his miracles; he now prepares Verse 6. In Bethany] For a solution of the difficulties in to redeem them by his blood! These two verses have no this verse about the time of the anointing, see the observations proper connection with this chapter, and should be joined to at the end of this chapter. the preceding.

Simon the LEPER] This was probably no more than a sirname, Verse 3. Then assembled together the chief priests] That is, as Simon the CANAANUTE, chap. x. 4, and Barsabbas JUSTUS, during the two days that preceded the pass-over.

Acts i. 23. and several others. Yet it might have been some The high priest, who was called Caiaphas] Caiaphas suc- person that Christ had healed of this disease. See chap. xi. 5. ceeded Simon, son of Camith, about A. D. 16, or as Calmet Verse 7. There came unto him a woman) There is much thinks 25. He married the daughter of Annas, who was joined il contention among commentators about the transaction men

note.

His disciples murmur

CHAP. XXVI.

against the woman,

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A. D. 29.

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A. D. 29. An. Olymp. CCII. 1.

CCIL 1

8 ? But when his disciples saw it, they | ment on my body, she did it for my An. Olymp. had indignation, saying, To what pur- burial. . pose is this waste?

13 Verily I say unto you, Where9 For this ointment might have been sold for soever this gospel shall be preached in the much, and given to the poor.

whole world, there shall also this, that this 10 When Jesus understood it, he said unto woman hath done, be told for a memorial of them, Why trouble ve the woman? for she hath her. wrought a good work upon me.

14 f Then one of the twelve, called Judas 11 "For ye have the poor always with you; Iscariot, went unto the chief priests, but ê me ye have not always.

15 And said unto them, 'What will ye give 12 For in that she hath poured this oint-me, and I will deliver him unto you? And they

• John 12. 4.- b Deut. 15. 11. John 12. 8. See ch. 19. 20. & 28. 20.

Joj 13. 33. 14. 19. * 16. 5, 48. & 17. 11.

d Mark 11. 10, Luke 22. 3. John 13 2; 30.-e ch. 10. 4. - Zech. 11. 12.

ch. 27. 3.

tioned here, and in John xii. 14. some supposing them to be but me ye have not always, my bodily presence is about to be different, others to be the same. Bishop Newcome's view of removed from you for ever. The woman, under a presentithe subject I have placed at the end of the chapter. ment of my death, is preparing me for my

burial. Some think that the woman, mentioned here, was Mary, the Verse 12. She did it for my buriul.] Or, She hath done it to sister of Lazarus; others Mary Magdalene ; but against the embalm me150corar pe. The Septuagint use Evicepassis for the former opinion it is argued that it is not likely, had this been person whose cffice it was to embalm, Gen. 1. 2. and evic Dia Mary the sister of Lazarus, that Matthew and Mark would for the Hebrew 990 which signifies to prepare with spices, or hare suppressed her name. Besides, say they, we should not aromatics, ver. 3. Our Lord took this opportunity to tell them confound the repast which is mentioned here, with that men- once more, that he was shortly to die. tioned by John, chap. xii. 3. This one was made only two Verse 13. Wheresoever this gospel shall be preached] Anodays before the pass-over, and that one sir days before: the ther remarkable proof of the prescience of Christ. Such a one was made at the house of Simon the leper, the other at matter as this, humanly speaking, depended on mere fortuitous the house of Lazarus, John xii. 1, 2. At this, the woman circumstances, yet so bas God disposed matters, that the poured the oil on the head of Christ, at the other Mary thing has continued, hitherto, as firm and regular as the ordianointed Christ's feet with it. See on Mark xiv. 3. and see the nances of heaven. botes at the end of this chapter.

For a memorial of her.] As embalming preserves the body Verse 8. His disciples] One of them, viz. Judas. This from corruption, and she has done this good work to embalm mode of speaking was common among the Hebrews. So, and preserve this body; so will I order every thing concerning chap. xxvii. 44. the thieves also, i. e. one of them. So chap. this transaction to be carefully recorded, to preserve ber mexxvii. 17. 8oine doubted, i. e. one, Thomas. See also Gen. viii. mory to the latest ages. The actions which the world blames 4. Judg. xii. 7. Neh. vi. 7, &c. By a figure called among through the spirit of envy, covetousness, or malice, God rhetoricians Erallagé, the plural is put for the singular; it is, takes delight to distinguish and record. however, possible that Judas, who made the objection, was Verse 14. Then ---Judas] After this supper at Bethany, followed in the sentiment by the rest of the disciples.

Judas returned to Jerusalem, and made his contract with the Verse 9. And given to the poor.] How often does charity

chief priests. serve as a cloak for cove tousnes! God is sometimes robbed of Verse 15. Thirty pieces of silver.) Taxorta agyuqua, thirty his right under the pretence of devoting what is withheld, to silverlings ; but otarngas staters is the reading of the Codex some charitable purpose, to which there was no intention ever Bezæ, three copies of the Itala, Eusebius, and Origen someto give it.

times; and otatingas agyupsou, silver staters, is the reading of Verse 10. Why trouble ye the woman?] Or, Why do ye put the the famous Basil MS. No. 1. in Griesbach, and one copy of woman to pain? See this sense of xotos tagexely, established the Itala. by hyphe in loco. A generous mind is ever pained when it is A stater was the same as the shekel, and worth about 3s. denied the opportunity of doing good, or when its proftered English money, according to Dean Prideaux : a goodly price kindness is refused.

for the Saviour of the world ! Thirty staters, about 41. 109. the Verse 11. Ye have the poor always with you] And conse- common price for the meanest slave! See Exod. xxi. 32. The quently, have the opportunity of doing them good at any time; | Rabbins say, thirty robo seläin of pure silver was the standard:

Judas betrays him. The

St. MATTHEW.

disciples prepare the pass-over. AY, 4053. covenanted with him for thirty pieces | 18 And he said, "Go into the city to A.M. 4033. An. Olymp. of silver.

such a man, and say unto him, The An. Olymp. CCII. 1.

CCII. 1. 16 And from that time he sought op- master saith, My time is at hand; I portunity to betray him.

will keep the pass-over at thy house with my 17 | Now the first day of the feast of unlea- disciples. vened bread, the disciples came to Jesus, saying 19 And the disciples did as Jesus had apunto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare for pointed them; and they made ready the passe thee to eat the pass-over?

over.

. Exod. 12. 6, 18. Mark 14. 12. Luke 22.7.

• Luke 29, 10-12. Joh 14. 14. Heb. 11. 28. 1 Cor. 11. 23.

price for a slave, whether good or bad, male or female. See as not to be proprietor of a single house in his whole creation, Tract Erachin, fol. 14. and Shekalim, cap. 1. Each Selad to eat the last pass-over with his disciples! This is certainly a weighed 384 barley corns, the same number was contained in mystery, and so, less or more, is every thing that God does. a shekel, and therefore the shekel and the selad were the same. But how inveterate and destructive must the nature of sin be, See the notes on Gen. xx, 16. and Exod. xxxviii. 24.

when such emptying and humiliation were necessary to its deVerse 16. He sought opportunity] Evxougio, a convenient or struction! It is worthy of note what the Talmudists say,

that fil opportunity. Men seldom leave a crime imperfect: when the inhabitants of Jerusalem did not let out their houses to once sin is conceived, it meets, in general, with few obstacles, those who came to the annual feasts; but afforded all accomtill it brings forth death. How deceitful, how deeply damning modations of this kind gratis. A man might therefore go and is the love of money! Well might a heathen exclaim, while request the use of any room, on such an occasion, which was contemplating the grave of a person who was murdered for as yet unoccupied. The earthen jug, and the skin of the sacrithe sake of his wealth

fice were left with the host. See Lightfoot, vol. ii. p.

21. Quid non mortalia pectora cogis

Verse 18. Go-to such a man] Toy danych. It is probable AURI SACRA FAMES?

Virg. Æn. iii. 56. that this means some person with whom Christ was well ac“ 0! cursed lust of gold! what wilt thou not compel the quainted, and who was known to the disciples. Grotius obhuman heart to perpetrate?" Judas is deservedly considered serves that the Greeks use this form, when they mean some as one of the most infamous of men, his conduct base beyond particular person who is so well known that there is no need to description, and his motives vile, But how many, since his specify him by name. The circumstances are more particutime, have walked in the same way! How many, for the sake larly marked in Luke xxii. 8, &c. of worldly wealth, have renounced the religion of their Lord My time is at hand] That is, the time of my crucifixion. and Master, and sold Jesus, and their interest in heaven for || Kypke bas largely shewn tilat raiços is often used among the a short lived portion of secular good! From John xii. 6. we Greeks for afliction and calamity. It might be rendered here, learn that Judas, who was treasurer to our Lord and his dis- | the time of my crucifixion is at hand. ciples; (for he carried the bag,) was a thief, and frequently Verse 19. And the disciples did] The disciples that were purloined a portion of what was given for the support of sent on this errand were Peter and John. See Luke xxii. 9. this holy family. Being disappointed of the prey, he hoped to They made ready the pass-over] That is, they provided the have from the sale of the precious ointment, ver. 9. he sold | lamb, &c. which were appointed by the law for this solemnity. his Master to make up the sum. A thorough Jer !

Mr. Wakefield justly observes, “that the Jews considered the Verse 17. Now the first day of the feast of unleavened bread] pass-over as a sacrificial rite; Josephus calls it furiar, A SACRIAs the feast of unleavened bread did not begin till the day Fice; and Trypho, in Justin Martyr, speaks of 7064707 TCV after the pass-over, the fifteenth day of the month, Lev. xxiii. 1 726 Xo Bussy, SACRIFICING the paschal lamb. But what comes 3, 6. Numb. xxviii, 16, 17. this could not have been, properly, nearer to the point is this, that Maimonides, one of the most the first day of that feast; but as the Jews began to eat un eminent of the Jewish Rabbins, has a particular treatise on leavened bread on the fourteenth, Exod, xii. 18. this day was the paschal sacrifice, and throughout that piece, speaks of the often termed the first of unleavened bread. The Evangelists | lamb as a riction, and of the solemnity itself as a sacrifice. And use it in this sense, and call even the paschal day by this name. R. Bechai, in his commentary on Lev. ii. 11. says, that See Mark xiv. 12. Luke xxii. 7.

the paschal sacrifice was of a piacular nature, in order to erWhere wilt thou that we prepare] How astonishing is this, piate the guilt contracted by the idolatrous practices of the Isthat HE who created all things, whether visible, or invisible, || raelites in Egypt.” It was highly necessary that this should and by whom all things were upheld, should so empty himself, be considered as an expiatory sacrifice, as it typified that lamb

Christ's conversation

CHAP. XXVI.

at the last supper.

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A.D. 29.

A. D. m),

20 * Now when the even was come, 23 And he answered and said, "He A. M. 4033. An. Olymp. he sat down with the twelve.

that dippeth his hand with me in the An Olymp. CCII. 1.

CCII. 1. 21 And as they did eat, he said, Ve- dish, the same shall betray me. rily I say unto you, that one of you shall be 24 The Son of man goeth, as it is written of tray me.

him: but "woe unto that man by whom the Son 22 And they were exceeding sorrowful, and of man is betrayed ! it had been good for that began every one of them to say unto him, | man if he had not been born. Lord, is it I ?

25 Then Judas, which betrayed him, answered

• Mark 14. 17,-21. Luke 22. 14. Jolin 13. 21.

John 13. 18.

_ Ps. 41. 9. Luhe 22. 21.

Ps. 22. Isai. 53. Dan. 9. 26. Mark 9. 12. Luke 24. 25, 26, 46. Acts 17.2, 3.

& 26. 22, 23. 1 Cor. 15. 3. John 17. 12.

of God who takes away the sin of the world. For much more the table; and those who were nigh one of these, dipped their on this important subject than can, with propriety, be intro- bread in it. As Judas is represented as dipping in the same duced into these notes, see a Discourse on the Eucharist, dish with Christ, it shews he was either near or opposite to lately published by the Author of this work.

him. If this man's heart had not been hardened, and his conVerse 20. Now when the even was come, he sat down with the science seared beyond all precedent, by the deceitfulness of his twelve.] It is a common opinion that our Lord ate the pass-over sin, would he have shewed his face in this sacred assembly, or some hours before the Jews ate it; for the Jews, according to have thus put the seal to his own perdition, by eating of this custom, ate theirs at the end of the fourteenth day, but Christ sacrificial lamb? Is it possible that he could feel no compuncate his the preceding even, which was the beginning of the tion? Alas! having delivered himself up into the hands of the same sixth day, or Friday; the Jews begin their day at sunset- Devil, he was capable of delivering up his Master into the ting, we at midnight. Thus Christ ate the passover on the hands of the chief priests : and thus, when men are completely sume day with the Jews, but not on the same hour. Christ hardened by the deceitfulness of sin, they can outwardly perkept this pass-over the beginning of the fourteenth day, the form the most solemn acts of devotion, without feeling any precise day and hour in which the Jews had eaten their first sort of inward concern about the matter. pass-over in Egypt. See Exod. xii. 6–12. And in the same Verse 24. The Son of man goeth] That is, is about to die. part of the same day in which the Jews had sacrificed their first Going, going away, departing, &c. are frequently used in the paschal lamb, viz. between the two evenings, about the ninth hour best Greek and Latin writers, for death, or dying. The same or 3 o'clock, Jesus Christ our pass-over was sacrificed for us : words are often used in the Scriptures in the same sense. for it was at this hour that he yielded up his last breath; and It had been good for that man] Can this be said of any

sinner then it was that the sacrifice being completed, Jesus said, it is if there be any redemption from hell's torments? If a sinner, FINISHED. See Exod. xii. 6, &c. and Deut. xvi. 6, &c. See on should suffer millions of millions of years in them, and get out John xviij. 28. and the Treatise on the Eucharist, referred to at last to the enjoyment of heaven; then it was well for him on ver. 19. and see the notes on the 26th and following verses. that he had been born, for still he has an eternity of blessedness

Verse 21. One of you shall betray me.] Or, will deliver me before him. Can the doctrine of the non-eternity of hell's torup. Judas had already betrayed him, ver. 15. and he was now ments stand in the presence of this saying? Or can the docabout to deliver him into the lands of the chief priests, ac

trine of the annihilation of the wicked consist with this decording to the agreement he had made with them.

claration? It would have been well for that man if he had Verse 22. They were exceeding sorrowful] That is, the cleven never been born! then he must be in some state of conscious who were innocent; and the hypocritical traitor, Judas, en existence, as non-existence is said to be better than that stute in deavoured to put on the saine appearance of sorrow. Strange! || which he is now found. It was common for the Jews to say Did he not know that Christ knew the secrets of his soul? Or of any flagrant transgressor, It would have been better for him had his love of money so far blinded him, as to render him had he never been born. See several examples in Schoetgen. incapable of discerning even this, with which he had been Verse 25. Judassaid, Master, is it I] What excessive imbefore so well acquainted?

pudence! He knew, in his conscience, that he had already Verse 23. He that dippeth his hand] As the Jews ate the betrayed liis master, and was waiting now for the servants of pass-over, a whole family together, it was not convenient for the chief priests, that he might deliver him into their hands, them all to dip their bread in the same dish; they therefore and yet he says, (hoping that he had transacted his business had several little dishes or plates, in which was the juice of so privately, that it had not yet transpired) Master, is it I? the bitter herbs, mentioned Exod. xii. 8. on different parts of | It is worthy of remark, that each of the other disciples said

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