Obrazy na stronie

The disciples charged


not to tell that he was the Christ. A. M. 1932. thou shalt loose on earth, shall befs that they should tell no man that he A. 1. 20:32.

A. D. 23. An. Olymp. loosed in heaven.

was Jesus the Christ.

An. Olymp.

CCI. 1. 20 · Then charged he his disciples 21 T From that time forth began Jesus :

A. D. 28.

CCI. 4.

. Ch. 17. 9. Mark 8. 30. Luke 9. 21.

Jolin 11. 27. 1 Cor. 2. 8. ch. 8. 4. & 9. 30.

and loosing, or pronouncing fit or unft for fellorrship with the mayest first open the door of faith to them ; but if thou askest szembers of Christ, being always according to the doctrine || by what rule that Church is to be governed, when the Mosaic of the gospel of God, should be considered as proceeding rule may seem so improper for it, thou shalt be so guided by immediately from heaven, and consequently as divinely ra- the Holy Spirit, that whatsoever of the Law of Moses thou shalt tified.

forbid them, shall be forbidden; whatsoever thou grantest That binding and loosing were terms in frequent use among them, shall be granted, and that under a sanction made in the Jews, and that they meant bidding and forbidding, grant- heaven.' Hence, in that instant, when he should use his ing and refusing, declaring luuful or unlawful, &c. Dr. Light- | keys, that is, when he was now ready to open the gate of the foot, after having given numerous instances, thus concludes: gospel to the Gentiles, Acts x. he was taught from heaven,

“ To these may be added, if need were, the frequent, (shall that the consorting of the Jew with the Gentile, which before I say?) or infinite use of the phrases, 10121 nox Bound and had been bound, was now loosed; and the eating of any creaLoosed, which we meet with thousands of times over. Butture convenient for food, was now loosed, which before had from these allegations the reader sees abundantly enough both been bound; and he in like manner looses both these. the frequency, and the common use of this phrase, and the “ Those words of our Saviour, John xx. 23. Whose sins ye sense of it also ; namely, first, that it is used in doctrine, and in remit

, they are remitted to them, for the most part are forced to judgments, concerning things allowed or not allowed in the || the same sense with these before us, when they carry quite law. Secondly, that to bind is the same with, to forbid, or to another sense. Here the business is of doctrine only, not of declare forbidden. To think that Christ, when he used the persons ; there of persons, not of doctrine. Here of things luwcommon phrase, was not understood by his hearers, in the ful or unlauful in religion, to be determined by the Apostles ; common and rulgar sense, shall I call it a matter of laughter, or there of persons obstinate or not obstinate, to be punished by of madness?

them, or not to be punished. “ To this, therefore, do these words amount: When the As to doctrine, the Apostles were doubly instructed. 1. So tiine was come wherein the Mosaic Law, as to some part of it, || long sitting at the feet of their Master, they had imbibed the was to be abolished, and left off, and as to another part of it, evangelical doctrine. was to be continued and to last for ever, he granted Peter “ 2. The Holy Spirit directing them, they were to determine here, and to the rest of the Apostles, chap. xviii. 18. a power to concerning the legal doctrine and practice, being completely abolish or confirm what they thought good, and as they thought instructed and enabled in both, by the Holy Spirit descending good; being taught this, and led by the Holy Spirit, as if be "pon them. As to the persons, they were endowed with a peshould say, whatsoever ye

shall bind in the Law of Moses that | culiar gift, so that the samne spirit directing them if they would is forbid, it shall be forbidden, the divine authority confirm- | retain, and punish the sins of any, a power was delivered into ing it; and whatsoever ye shall loose, that is, permit, or shall their hands of delivering to Sutan, of punishing with diseases, teach, that it is permitted and lawful, shall be lawful and per-|| plagues, yea, death itself, which Peter did to Ananias and Sarmitted. Hence they bound, that is forbad, circumcision to the phira; Paul to Elymas, Hymeneus, and Philetus, &c.Believers ; eating of things offered to idols, of things strangled,

After all these evidences and proofs of the proper use of and of blood for a time, to the Gentiles ; and that which they these terms, to attempt to press the words into the service long bound on earth, was confirmed in heaven. They loosed, that assigned them by the Church of Rome, would, to use the is, allowed purification to Paul, and to four other brethren, for words of Dr. Lightfoot, be “ a matter of laughter or of madthe shunning of scandal, Acts xxi. 24. and in a word, by these || ness.” No church can use them in the sense thus imposed Words of Christ it was committed to them, the Holy Spirit di- || upon them, which was done merely to serve secular ends; reeting, that they should make decrees concerning religion, as and least of all can that very church, that thus abuses them. to the use or rejection of Mosaic rites and judgments, and that

Verse 20. Then charged he his disciples) Ausalto, he either for a time, or for ever.

strictly charged them. Some very good MSS. have pretipingey, " Let the words be applied by way of paraphrase to the he severely charged-comminatus est,--he threatened. These matter that was transacted at present with Peter. I am are the readings of the Cod. Bezæ, both in the Greek and about to build a Gentile Church,' saith Christ, and to thee, o Latin. Peter, do I give the keys of the kingdom of heaven, that thou The Christ.] The common text has Jesus the Christ, but the

A. D, 28.

Foretells his passion and death.

Peter reprored. 1.1.1932. a to shew unto his disciples, how that him, saying, "Be it far from thee, Lord: A. M.4082. An. Olymp. he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer this shall not be unto thee.

An. Olymp. many things of the elders, and chief 23 But he turned, and said unto Peter, priests, and scribes, and be killed, and be raised , Get thee behind me, "Satan: thou art an ofagain the third day.

fence unto me: for thou savourest not the things 22 Then Peter took him, and began to rebuke that be of God, but those that be of men.


CCI. 4.

a Ch. 20. 17. Mark 8. S1. & 9. 31. & 10. 33. Luke 9. 22. & 18. 31. &

21. 6, 7.

Gr. Pity thyself. See 2 Sam, 19. 22._Rom. 8. 7.

word Jesus is omitted by 54 MSS. some of which are not only better with the scope of the place. A man like Peter, who of the greatest authority, but also of the greatest antiquity. It is is of an impetuous spirit, and decides without consideraomitted also by the Syriac, later Persic, later Arabic, Sclavonic, tion, upon every subject, must of necessity be often in the 6 copies of the Itala, and several of the Fathers. The most wrong. eininent critics approve of this omission, and Griesbach has Be it far from thee, Lord] Inews for Kuge. Be merciful to thyleft it out of the text in both his editions. I believe the inser- self, Lord: see the marg. So I think the original should be rention of it here to be wholly superfluous and improper: for dered. Peter knew that Christ had power sufficient to preserve the question who is this Jesus ? Peter answers, he is, ó Xeosos, hinself from all the power and malice of the Jews; and wished the Messiah. The word Jesus is obviously improper. What him to exert that in his own behulf, which he had often exerted our Lord says here refers to Peter's testimony in ver. 16. Thou in the behalf of others. Some critics of great note think the art the Christ Jesus here says, Tell no man that I am the expression elliptical, and that the word Otos God, is necesChrist, i. e. the Messiah; as the time for his full manifestation | sarily understood, as if Peter had said, God be merciful to thee ! was not yet come-and he was not willing to provoke the but I think the marginal reading is the sense of the pasJewish malice or the Roman envy, by permitting his disciples sage. The French, Italian, and Spanish render it the same to announce him as the Saviour of a lost world. He chose way. Blind and ignorant man is ever finding fault with the rather to wait, till his resurrection and ascension had set this conduct of God. Human reason cannot comprehend the intruth in the clearest light, and beyond the power of successful carnation of the Almighty's fellow, (Zech. xiii. 7.) nor reconcontradiction.

cile the belief of his divinity with his sufferings and death. Verse 27. From that time forth began Jesus, &c.] Before this How many Peters are there now in the world, who are in effect time our Lord had only spoken of his death in a vague and ob- saying, this cannot be done unto thee—thou didst not give thy scure manner, see chap. xii. 40. because he would not afflict | life for the sin of the world—it would be injustice to cause his disciples with this matter sooner than necessity required : | the innocent to suffer thus for the guilty-But what saith God? but now, as the time of his crucifixion drew nigh, he spoke of His soul shall be made an offering for sin—he shall taste death his sufferings and death in the most express and clear terms. for every manthe iniquities of us all were laid upon him— Three sorts of persons, our Lord intimates, should be the cause | Glorious truth! may the God who published it, have eternal of his death and passion : the elders, the chief priests, and praises ! the Scribes. Pious Quesnel takes occasion to observe from this, Verse 23. Get thee behind me, Satan] TAKYEOTITW JOU TOTC:. that Christ is generally persecuted by these three descriptions Get behind me, thou adversary. This is the proper translation of men: rich men, who have their portion in this life : 'ambi- of the Hebrew word jou Satan, from which the Greek word tious and eoretous ecclesiastics, who seek their portion in this is taken. Our blessed Lord certainly never designed that mea life: and conceited scholars, who set up their wisdom against should believe he called Peter, Devil, because he, through the wisdom of God, being more intent on criticising words, erring affection, had wished him to avoid that death which he than in providing for the salvation of their souls. The spirit predicted to himself. This translation, which is literal, takes of Christianity always enables a man to bear the ills of life away that harshness which before appeared in our Lord's words. with patience, to receive death with joy; and to expect by

Thou art an offence unto me] Excvdaroy POU "EsThou art a faith, the resurrection of the body, and the life of the world to stumbling-block in my way, to impede me in the accomplish

ment of the great design. Verse 22. Then Peter took himn]—IIgocac@outrostook him Thou sacourest not] That is, dost not relish, ov Ogoves, or, 2.psuddenly interrupted him, as it were calling him to order, thou dost not understand or discern the things of God—thou see Wakefield. Some versions give mgoola@opteros the sense of art wholly taken up with the vain thought that my kingdom calling him aside. The word signifies also to receive in a is of this world. He who opposes the doctrine of the atonement, friendly manner-to embrace; but Mr. W.’s translation agrees is an adversary and offence to Christ, though he be as sincere


A.M. 4052
A. D. 28.

A. D. 28.

CCI. 1.

CCI. 4.

Necessity of taking up the cross.

CHAP. XVI. As is the work, so shall be the reward. 24 [ * Then said Jesus unto his dis- | or 'what shall a man give in exchange A.M. 4032. An. Olymp. ciples, If any man will come after me, for his soul?

An Olyınp let him deny himself, and take up his 27 For the Son of man shall come cross, and follow me.

in the glory of his Father with his angels; 'and 25 For whosoever will save his life, shall lose then he shall reward every man according to his it: and whosoever will lose his life for my sake, works. shall find it.

28 Verily I say unto you, & There be some stand26 For what is a man profited, if he shall ing here, which shall not taste of death, till they gain the whole world, and lose his own soul? see the Son of man coming in his kingdom.

*Ch. 10. 38. Mark 8. 34. Luke 9. 23. & 14 27. Acts 14. 22. 1 Thess, S. S2 Tim, 3. 12.-b Luke 17. 53. John 12. 25.-Ps. 49. 7, 8.

—ch. 20. 64. Mark 8. 38. Luke 9. 26.

e Dan. 7. 10. Zech, 14. 5. ch. 25. 31. Jude 14.-__f Job 34. 11. Ps. 62. 12. Prov. 24. 12. Jer. 17. 10. & 32, 19. Rom. 2. 6. 1 Cor. 3. 8. 2 Cor. 5. 10. 1 Pet. 1 17. Rev. 2. 23. & 22. 12.- Mark 9. 1. Luke 9. 23.


in his profession as Peter himself was. Let us beware of false Luxn, in the 25th verse, life, and in this verse, soul, I know friendships. Carnal relatives, when listened to, may prove not : but am certain it means life in both places.

If a man the ruin of those whom, through their mistaken tenderness, should gain the whole world, its riches, honours, and they wish to save. When a man is intent on saving his own pleasures, and lose his life, what would all these profit him, soul, his adversaries are often those of his own household. seeing they can only be enjoyed during life? But if the

Verse 24. Will come after me) i. e. to be my disciple. This words be applied to the soul, they shew the difficulty-the. discourse was intended to shew Peter and the rest of the dis- | necessityand importance of salvation. The world, the Devil, ciples the nature of his kingdom ; and that the honour that and a man's own heart are opposed to his salvation; therefore cometh from the world, was not to be expected by those who is it is difficult. The soul was made for God, and can never be followed Christ.

united to him, nor be happy till saved from sin: therefore it: The principles of the Christian life are, First. To have a is necessary. He who is saved from his sin, and united to . sincere desire to belong to Christ, If any man be willing to God, possesses the utmost felicity that the human soul can be my disciple, &c. Secondly. To renounce self-dependance, enjoy either in this, or the coming world: therefore, this and selfish pursuits.—Let him deny himself. Thirdly. To salvation is important. See also the note on Luke ix. 25. embrace the condition, which God bas appointed, and bear Verse 27. For the Son of mun shall come in the glory of his the troubles and difficulties he may meet with in walķing the Father] This seems to refer to Dan. vii. 13, 14. “. Behold Christian road.—Let him take up ars cross. Fourthly. To one like the Son of man came—to the ancient of days-and imitate Jesus, and do and suffer all in bis spirit.---Let him there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom,

that all people and nations and languages should serve him.” Let him deny himself] Ataqunocow, may well be interpreted, This was the glorious Mediatorial kingdom which Jesus Let him deny, or renounce himself fully-in all respects-per- || Christ was now about to set up, by the destruction of the severingly. It is a compounded word, and the preposition ano | Jewish nation and polity, and the diffusion of his Gospel abundantly encreases the meaning. A follower of Christ through the whole world. If the words be taken in this sense, . will need to observe it in its utmost latitude of meaning, in the angels or messengers may signify the apostles and successors order to be happy here, and glorious hereafter. A man's in the sacred ministry, preaching the Gospel in the power of self is to him the prime cause of most of his miseries. See the the Holy Ghost. It is very likely that the words do not apply note on Mark viii. 34.

to the final judgment, to which they are generally referred; Verse 25. For whosoever will save his life] That is, shall but to the wonderful display of God's grace

and power

after wish to sure his life-at the expence of his conscience, and the day of Pentecost. casting aside the cross, he shall lose it—the very evil he Verse 28. There be somewhich shall not taste of deuth] wished to avoid, shall overtake him; and he shall lose his soul | This verse seems to confirm the above explanation, as our into the bargain. See then how necessary it is to renounce Lord evidently speaks of the establishment of the Christian . one's self! But whatsoever a man loses in this world, for his Church after the day of Pentecost, and its final triumph after steady attachment to Christ and his cause, he shall have the destruction of the Jewish polity; as if he had said, "Some amply made up to him in the eternal world.

of yon, my disciples, shall continue to live until these things Verse 26. Lose his own soul] Or, lose his life, thy Huxnyl take place.” The destruction of Jerusalem, and the Jewish CITIU. On what authority many have translated the word economy, which our Lord here predicts, took place about

Observations on the whole.


The word church defined.


forty-three years after this: and some of the persons now with || Christ said that the disciple is not above the Master? Ifus him, doubtless survived that period, and witnessed the ex humbled himself, how can he look upon those who, professing tension of the Messiah's kingdom; and our Lord told them faith in his name, are conformed to the world and mind earthly these things before, that when they came to pass, they might things? These disciples affect to be above their Lord; and as be confirmed in the faith, and expect an exact fulfilment of all they neither bear his cross, nor follow him in the regeneration, the other promises and prophecies which concerned the ex- they must look for another heaven than that in which he sit: tension and support of the kingilom of Christ.

at the right hand of God. This is an awful subject, but how To his kingdom, or in his kingdom. Instead of Basina, few of those, called Christians, lay it to heart! kingdom, four MSS. later Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic, Saron, 3. The term CHURCH, in Greek, enxan51%, occurs for the and one copy of the Itala, with several of the primitive | first time, in ver. 18. of this chapter. The word simply means Fathers, read sofn, glory: and to this is added, TOU T5O-TPOS QUtcu, an assembly or congregation, the nature of which is to be underof his Father, by three MSS. and the versions mentioned stood from connecting circumstances; for the word exxancio, before. This makes the passage a little more conformable to as well as the terms congregation and assembly may be applied the passage already quoted from Daniel: and it must appear to any concourse of people, good or bad ; gathered together very clearly, that the whole passage speaks not of a future judg- for lawful or unlarful purposes. Hence, it is used, Acts xix. ment, but of the destruction of the Jewish polity; and the || 32. for the mob, or confused rabble, gathered together against glorious spread of Christianity in the earth, by the preaching | Paul, exxansocuyxExupeyn, which the town-clerk distinguished of Christ crucified by the Apostles and their immediate suc ver. 39, from a lawful assembly, evrO;19 Exxangią. The Greek cessors in the Christian Church.

word Exxancio, seems to be derived from ezxanew, to call out

of, or from, i. e. an assembly gathered out of a multitude; 1. The disciples, by being constantly with their Master, and must have some other word joined to it, to determine its were not only guarded against error, but were taught the whole nature, viz. the Church of God; the congregation collected truth: we should neglect no opportunity of waiting upon God by God, and devoted to his service. The Church of Christ :

- while Jesus continues to teach, our ear and heart should be the whole company of Christians wheresoever found; becausc open to receive his instructions. That what we have already re- by the preaching of the Gospel, they are called out of the ceived may be effectual, we must continue to hear, and pray on. spirit and maxims of the world, to live according to the Let us beware of the error of the Pharisees! they minded only | precepts of the Christian religion. This is sometimes called external performances, and those things by which they might the Catholic or universal Church, because constituted of all acquire esteem and reputation among men; thus, humility the professors of Christianity in the world, to whatever sects and love, the very soul of religion, were neglected by them or parties they may belong; and hence the absurdity of apthey had their reward--the approbation of those who were plying the tern Catholic, which signifies universal, to that as destitute of vital religion as themselves.-Let us beware also very small portion of it, the Church of Rome. In primitive of the error of the Sadducees, wko, believing no other felicity times, before Christians had any stated buildings, they worbut what depended on the good things of this world, becaine the shipped in private houses ; the people that had been converted tlatterers and slaves of those who could bestow them, and so, like, 10 God, meeting together in some one dwelling-house of a the Pharisees, had their portion only in this life. All false re fellow convert, more convenient and capacious than the rest ; ligions, and false principles conduct to the same end, however hence the church that was in the house of Aquila and Priscilla, contrary they appear to each other. No two sects could be Rom. xvi. 3, 5. and 1 Cor. xvi. 19. and the church that was more opposed to each other than the Sadducees and Pharisees, in the house of Nymphas, Col. iv. 15. Now, as these houses yet their doctrines lead to the same end—they are both wedded were dedicated to the worship of God, each was termed to this world, and separated from God in the next.

xugsou orxos kuriou oikos, the house of the Lord; which word 2. From the circumstance mentioned in the conclusion in process of time, became contracted into xugsort kurioik, and of this chapter, we may easily see the nature of the king- || xuguelxn, and kuriake ; and hence kirk of our northern neighdom and reign of Christ, it is truly spiritual and divine; | bours, and cyrıc kirik, of our Saxon ancestors, frorn which, having for its object the present holiness and future happiness by corruption, changing the hard Saxon c into ch, we have of mankind. Worldly pomp, as well as worldly maxims, | made the word church. This term, though it be generally were to be excluded from it. Christianity forbids all worldly used to signify the people worshipping in a particular place, expectations, and promises blessedness to those alone who bear yet by a metonymy, the container being put for the contained, the cross, leading a life of mortification and self-denial. Jesus we apply, as it was originally, to the building which con. Christ has left us an example that we should follow his steps. tains the worshipping people. How did he live? -What views did he entertain ?-In what In the proper use of this word there can be no such thing light did he view worldly ponip and splendor? These are as the church, exclusively-there may be a church, and the questions which the most superficial reader may, without churches, signifying a particular congregation, or the differdifficulty, answer to his immediate conviction. And bas not | ent assemblies of religious people: and hence, the Church of

Christ is transfigured.


Moses and Elijah appear.

Rome, by applying it exclusively to itself, abuses the term, to be “a congregation of faithful men, in the which, the pure and acts as ridiculously, as it does absurdly. Church is very word of God is preached, and the sacraments duly ministered, properly defined in the 19th article of the Church of England, according to Christ's ordinance."

A.V. 4032
A. D. 28.

A. D. 28.

CHAPTER XVII. The transfiguration of Christ, 1-8.. Christ's discourse with his disciples on the subject, 9—13. He heals a lunatic,

14-18. His discourse with his disciples on this subject also, 19–21. He foretells his own sufferings and death, 29, 23. He is required to pay tribute at Capernaum, 24-26; and provides the money by a miracle, 07.

ND after six days, Jesus taketh| 3 And, behold, there appeared unto 4.1.4032. An. Olymp.

ther, and bringeth them up into a him. high mountain, apart,

4 Then answered Peter, and said unto Jesus, 2 And was transfigured before them: and his Lord, it is good for us to be here: if thou wilt, face did shine as the sun, and his raiment was let us make here three tabernacles; one for white as the light.

thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias.

A ,

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CCI, 4.

. Mark 9. 2. Luke 9. 28. Rev. 1. 16. Dan. 10. 6.

• Luke 9. 30. Rev. 11. 3. Luke 9. 33.


same body which he had upon earth, for he was translated; Verse 1. After six days] Mark ix. 2. has the same number; and did not see death, 2 Kings ii. 11. And the body of but Luke says, ix. 28. after eight days: the reason of this Moses was probably raised again, as a pledge of the resurrecdifference seems to be the following: Matthew and Mark | rion; and as Christ is to come to judge the quick and the reckon the days from that mentioned in the preceding chapter, deud, for we shall not all die, but all shall be changed, 1 Cor. to that mentioned in this. Luke includes both days as well xv. 51. he probably gave the full representation of this in the as the six intermediate; hence, the one makes eight, the other person of Moses, who died, and was thus raised to life, (or sis, without any contradiction.

appeared now as he shall appear when raised from the dead Peter, James, and John] He chose those, that they might in the last day ;) and in the person of Elijah, who never tasted be witnesses of his Transfiguration : two or three witnesse: death. Both their bodies exhibit the same appearance, to being required by the Scripture to substantiate any fact. | shew, that the bodies of glorified saints are the same, whether Eminent communications of the Divine favour prepare for the person had been translated, or whether he had died. and entitle to great services, and great conflicts. The same It was a constant and prevalent tradition among the Jews, three were inade witnesses of his agony in the garden, chap. that both Moses and Elijah should appear in the times of the Xxvi. 37,

Messiah, and to this very tradition the disciples refer, ver. 10. A high mountain] This was one of the mountains of Galilee, We may conceive that the Law in the person of Moses, but whether mount Tabor or not, is uncertain. Some think the great Jewish legislator; and the Prophets in the person it was Mount Hermon. St. Luke says, Christ and his dis- of Elijah, the chief of the prophets, came now to do homage ciples went up into the mountain to pray, chap. ix. 28. to Jesus Christ, and to render up their authority into his

Verse 2. Was transfigured] That fulness of the God-head, hands; as he was the End of the Law, and the grand subject which dwelt bodily in Christ, now shone forth through the of the predictions of the prophets. This appears more parhuman nature, and manifested to his disciples not only that | ticularly from what St. Luke says, chap. ix. 31. that Moses Divinity which Peter bad before confessed, chap. xvi. 16. but and Elijah conversed with our Lord on bis death, which he ako the glorious resurrection body, in which they should exist was about to accomplish, (rangour to fulfill,) because in it, all in the presence of God to eternity.

the rites, ceremonies and sacrifices of the Law, as well as the White as the light.] But the Cod. Bezæ, some of the predictions of the prophets, were fulfilled. ancient Versions, and several of the Fathers read ws Xów, us Verse 4. Peter said-let us make &c.] That is, when he mov; and this is the reading in Mark ix. 3.

saw Moses and Elijah ready to depart from the mount, Luke Verse 3. Moses and Elias) Elijah came from heaven in the lix. 33. he wished to detain them that he might always enjoy

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