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PUBLISHED BY THE UNGRADED TEACHERS ASSOCIATION OF NEW YORK CITY AT 27-29 COLUMBLA ST., ALBANY, NEW YORK
EDITORIAL OFFICE, 17 LEXINGTON AVENUE, NEW YORK
ELIZABETH E. FARRELL, Inspector of Ungraded Classes, Editor
STELLA KRASSNER, on Methods
MARTHA BARNEY, on Class Management
JOSEPHINE VAN THOFF, on Handwork ELIZABETH A. WALSH
MABEL F. KELLY, on Revietos and EaKATHERINE MCGINN
changes ELIZABETH TEAS WOOD
Business and Advertising Manager LOCI GOARDENIER
MARIA CATALINA MAJOR
Por Advertising rates, address: Adrertising Manager, 17 Lexington Ave.,
New York City
PSYCHIATRY AND PSYCHOLOGY IN SCHOOL HYGIENE... Edgar A. Doll
INTERESTS IN RELATION TO INTELLIGENCE. ... Louise E. Poull, Ph.D. 200
AN OPPORTUNITY CLASS...
.M. Agnes Curran 222
Published monthly, excepting July, August and September, at 27-29 Columbia Street, Albany, New York, by the Ungraded Teachers Association of New York City. Editorial Office, Hall of the Board of Education, 17 Lexington Ave., New York City. Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office, Albany, N. Y.,
March 7, 1921. Copyright, 1922, by Ungraded Teachers Associatiou
Juna 10. 1922
Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office, Albany, N. Y., March 7, 1921
Signed articles are not to be understood as expressing the views of the editors
PSYCHIATRY AND PSYCHOLOGY IN SCHOOL
By EDGAR A. DOLL Psychologist, New Jersey Department of Institutions and Agencies Probably no movement in school administration has had such a rapid development as that of medical inspection in the public schools. It is hardly more than ten years since medical inspection was begun in a few of the largest cities. But the need for medical inspection as a public health measure and also as a practical means of increasing the efficiency of public education, made it possible for us to witness a very rapid and widespread extension of this necessary service. I think it is no foolish prediction to state that we are now on the verge of another such movement, or what may be called a logical extension of this movement, in the field of mental inspection. The scientific studies in psychiatry and psychology of the past decade are unanimous in their conclusion that mental abnormalities are nearly as prevalent as physical abnormalities among school children, and are in many instances of much graver import. I should like to present for your consideration some of the facts which make mental inspection necessary and some of the means whereby this may be accomplished.
The Binet-Simon scale for measuring intelligence was first published in 1905. By 1910 this method of psychological examining had won repute as an accurate and scientific device for measuring individual differences in mental ability among school
* Read before the American School Hygiene Association at its annual meeting in New York City, November, 1921.
children. It had also by that time unquestionably demonstrated its worth, in the hands of properly qualified experts, for the diagnosis of feeble-mindedness and other forms of mental deficiency and defect. In 1911 Goddard published his historical research on two thousand public school children, as a result of which he announced to a skeptical world that two per cent of the children in a representative public school system were so feebleminded as to require special training different from that given to children of ordinary intelligence. A short time later his further statement that two per cent of the public school children in New York City, or a total of about fifteen thousand, were feeble-minded and in need of special education, caused a small furore in this city and in educational and psychological circles generally. While this pioneer work of Goddard met with intense opposition on the part of many scientists and educators, all subsequent work has indicated that his estimates, while startling, were actually conservative. Repeated surveys in representative cities, counties and states have almost without exception proved that at least two per cent of the school population is feeble-minded, and not less than one per cent of the total population. Still more recently the systematic examination of recruits in the United States army showed the remarkably widespread extent of feeble-mindedness, with the general average of at least two per cent for the country at large.
There is no longer any question, therefore, that there are literally thousands of feeble-minded children in the public schools. Very many of these, perhaps a majority, are of the moron type, which is the highest type of feeble-minded. Comparatively few are custodial idiots and probably a third are of imbecile grade. Students of the subject have always been hopeful regarding remedial methods of training, but have not been able to see any constructive outlook until very recently. The unique work of Dr. Charles Bernstein, of Rome, N. Y., which shows that practically all morons and a definite percentage of imbeciles can be trained to lives of usefulness and economic efficiency under a well thought-out plan of colonization, gives courage to those who have begun to lose faith in the possibility of the social rehabilitation of the feeble-minded. Moreover, improved methods of psychological examination are enabling us to discover the special aptitudes of these defectives, thereby enabling us to undertake intensive methods of training in the hope that