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business; mother, housekeeper. School attainment, Pintner Educational Scale, 13 yrs. Educational Quotient 87. Accomplishment quotient 106. First choice of occupations, musician; second, secretary. First choice of recreations, dancing; second, embroidery. She is undecided as to what she will do for a living and has no plans for further education but is going to school next year.
This is obviously a case for vocational guidance, for determining the presence or absence of a special talent which may compensate for the lower mental capacity. Her rating on the non-language scale is lower than on the language scales, which indicates that her low rating is not due to foreign birth.
Case No. 3. L. T. Age 12 yrs. 8 mo. Grade 8-B. Mental age, composite rating, 17 yrs. 11 mo. I. Q. 141. The ratings on language and non-language scales are equally high. Born in the U. S. of Italian parents. Father, salesman in a fruit market; mother, housewife. First in order of birth in a family of two children. School attainment, Pintner Educational Scale. 16 yrs. 6 mo. Educational Quotient 130. Accomplishment Quotient 92.
First choice of occupations, stenography; second, taking care of home; third, librarian. First choice of recreations, listening to music; second, drawing; third, writing stories and poetry. She expects to go to commercial high school.
As will be seen in a later chapter, the recreational choices have been discarded as unreliable for generalizations. But they are quoted in this case to show that although the limitations of home environment have probably prevented a high grade mind from realizing its own possibilities the spontaneous enjoyments give testimony of its higher capacity.
This case was reported to the Bureau of “ Vocational Guidance for Juniors.” The parents have given consent for a change from commercial high school to a classical course and special attention will be paid to her advancement and further plans.
Case No. 4. J. M. Age 15 yrs. 8 mo. Grade 8-B. Mental age, composite rating 10 yrs. 9 mo. I. Q. 72. Born in the U. S. of Italian parents. Third in order of birth in a family of five children. Father, presser; mother, housewife. School attainment, Pintner Educational Scale, 11 yrs. 11 mo. Educational Quotient 79.5. Accomplishment Quotient 110.
First choice of occupations, dressmaking; second, taking care of home. First choice of recreations, auto-driving; second, listening to music.
She expects to go to work and vocational school. The rating on the non-language scale is lower than that of the language scales, which indicates that the low mental rating is not caused by foreign birth.
On investigation it was found that this girl had always been considered as a problem case; too high grade to be classified with mental defectives, too unstable to be allowed to go to work. She had come to the 8th grade through the industrial classes.
The case is cited as one requiring special courses and not having the capacity for the academic work above 5th grade.
The data of these case studies are taken from the regular questionnaire forms and kept in abbreviated form on individual record cards 4x6 in. in size. The method is not prohibitive in either time or space requirements and apart from the giving of the tests the work can be done by clerks.
MEASURES OF INTELLIGENCE
For the study of so large a group, individual examinations were prohibitive. It was necessary, therefore, to select from available group scales a team of tests approximating as nearly as possible the results of careful individual examinations. Since the comparisons were to be founded on mental age and intelligence quotient it was further necessary to use the group tests for which age standards had been worked out. In order to avoid unduly disturbing the school routine and creating the atmosphere of excitement and nervous tension so fatal to the validity of mental records, the tests were given in the class rooms and the work of any session did not exceed the time limit of a departmental period; that is, forty minutes, including all the accessory activities such as introduction, and collection of papers.
The mental ratings of the boys of Public School No. 11 were taken from the records of the survey made by Dr. L. S. Hollingworth and her students. This survey consisted of the Pintner Survey Tests generously checked by individual examinations on the Stanford-Binet.
The scales used for the 840 girls of Public School No. 3, Manhattan, and for the group of 200 boys of the 6-A class of Public School No. 95, Manhattan, were Scales A and B, Form 1, of the National Intelligence Tests(17) Pintner Non-Language Scale, and Kelley-Trabue Language Completion Alpha(19). The total time given to the tests of intelligence was approximately two hours.
The results were formed into the following composite:
National Intelligence Tests, Form 1, Scales A and B combined ..
weight 4. Pintner Non-Language Scale .
weight 2. Kelley-Trabue Language Completion, Alpha
The weights given to each scale were determined by the time required for the test. The lesser weight given to the Language Completion Scale was also due in part to the fact that the school population is largely of Italian birth or descent and that a language test is therefore of lesser value. As will be seen on inspection of the curves of distribution the median mental age of the group was, in fact, according to this scale, one year below the median mental age of the group according to the other scales. In forming the composite this discrepancy was rectified by adding one year to the mental age of each record on this scale.
The norms used in computing the mental age according to the National Intelligence Tests were those found by Terman in the Vallejo Survey (20) for the Pintner Non-Language Scale and the Kelley-Trabue Alpha, the norms published by the authors. Interpolations were worked out by months. For the higher levels beyond the fifteenth year in the National Intelligence Tests, extra-polations were worked out by taking the average increment of the two preceding years as the probable increment of the next year. This increment was then divided by twelve for the increment per month. In the Pintner Non-Language Scale, and Kelley-Trabue, estimations were unnecessary since the norms are worked out for the upper levels.
Chart 1 shows the total distribution according to the three types of scales: National Intelligence Tests A and B, Form 1; Kelley-Trabue Language Completion Alpha, and the Pintner
Total Distribution. CHART. I.
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to y 18 G 7 y 12.2017 20.8 12.3 5.5 6.0 5.3 2.6
ny cy 4
Non-Language Scale. The total number of cases for each of these was respectively: 824, 857, and 878. The frequencies are given in percentages in order to equalize the surfaces of distribation. Units of 5 per cent. are represented by each square of one-fourth inch. For purposes of comparison the base-lines showing the mental ages are placed so that the mental ages of the three coincide.
As may be seen by inspection of the charts, the distribution according to the National Intelligence and Pintner Non-Language Scales show a marked similarity. The median mental age, the 25 percentile and the 75 percentile differ by less than half a year. At the lower end of the curve of the National Intelligence Tests there is an abrupt stop at the ninth year of mental age. Only one child of 824 who took these tests had a mental age below 9 years. In consideration of the fact that the survey covered only grades 5-B to 8-B and that the ungraded classes were not included, we may infer that the National Intelligence Tests in this combined form are an efficient measure for identiying the amount of retardation at present used for placement in ungraded classes from these grades. The curve of the Pintner Non-Language Scale, on the contrary, extends downward to 6 years mental age. At the upper end of the curve the discrepancies between the three scales are slight. Children of high I. Q., that is, above 110 according to the National Intelligence Tests, evidently overcome their language handicaps sufficiently to rate equally as a group on the two scales.
The inter-relations of the findings of the three scales is made clearer by their correlations. Equal distribution does not indicate equal meaning. A group of people may be equally distributed on a scale of honesty, and on another for physical beauty, and have a zero correlation in the two traits. A normal curve merely indicates that the measure is valid and the group probably unselected. It is the correlation which designates the comparative agreement in the traits which are the factors making for success in the tests used.
Correlations have been worked out between the Pintner NonLanguage Scale and the National Intelligence Tests with the
XV following results. The Pearson Product Moment (r
N 6x6y was the method used in all the correlations found in this investigation.
620 girls Chronological Age 10
16 Grade 5B
8B r 51 P. E. = .02
31 P. E. = .04 r 25 P. E. = .06
Effort was made to determine the effect of foreign birth on the results of the language completion scale. It was found that