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were referred to the State Employment Bureau and to the Junior Vocational Guidance Bureau. A few children were placed directly.

Seven hundred eighty-seven cases were referred to the field agents from October 1, 1920, to June 30, 1921. The cases were referred by the following organizations:

16

State Commission for Mental Defectives, brought by parents, parole cases,

etc. ... Ungraded classes, Board of Education, over school age....

114 Excluded from school on account of low mentality.

120 Attending ungraded classes. .

89 Nonattendants.

258

581

State Charities Aid Association, cases discharged from Children's Hospital

and Schools, Randall's Island within the last two or three years...

210

Total number of cases referred by organizations.
Duplicates. .

807 20

Total number of cases.

787

Of the 787 cases 519 have been visited. A few more were cared for without visiting, by having the parents come to the office. It was impossible to visit the remainder.

Nine hundred sixty-three visits were made. Of these, 747 were at home, 73 were at schools and 143 at miscellaneous places such as clinics, employment bureaus, etc. The number of visits per case vary from one to twenty-two. The average number of visits per case for the nine months was 1.8.

Of the cases visited, 63% required only one visit, 19% only two visits. This is less than one visit in six months. Only 7% of the cases required five or more visits in the nine months (i. e., oftener than once in two months). On the average, the cases required visiting about once in four months.

The number of calls actually made is less, because of the small staff, than the number that should be made. But even with a decided increase in the number of calls per case, the amount of supervision required would be small. A good deal of attention other than visiting was given to most cases, but the number of visits represents the greatest amount of time spent. It is evident that very slight supervision can obtain fairly satisfactory results.

Per capita cost of supervision at home, per year..
Per capita cost of institutional care, per year.....

$8.90 336.425

In studying the status of the cases, it is important to consider the kind of material with which the field agents were working. In the first place, the children are very young, 59% of them are under 16 years of age. Almost none of them are over 20. Next, the mentality is decidedly low. As indicated in a later paragraph, approximately 75% of the cases are of imbecile grade or below.

An unselected group of mental defectives would of course show the opposite—that is, the higher levels of intelligence would predominate, with fewer individuals toward the lower end of the scale.

The low intelligence represented in our group is accounted for by the kind of cases that were referred:

1. Children excluded from school on account of low mentality.

2. Children reported by truant officers as nonattendant because of low mentality.

3. Children discharged from ungraded classes. With a few exceptions, only the lower grade children from this group were referred.

4. Children discharged from the Children's Hospital and Schools, Randall's Island.

II. PSYCHOMETRIC EXAMINATIONS AT CLINICS, SCHOOLS AND

INSTITUTIONS Sixty-nine all day clinics of the State Commission were attended.

In addition, 70 days were spent in making mental tests at institutions and schools. This work was undertaken in co-operation with the State Board of Charities, and local school authorities.

Thirty-one days were spent at clinics of the Department of Ungraded Classes, New York City. These were clinics for the examination of children for discharge from school at 16 years, or exclusion from school on account of low mentality. The field agents interviewed parents at the clinics and advised them as to the care of the child. Many visits were saved in this way.

The tables giving statistics covering the work of the field agents appear below.

The following are explanations of certain portions of these tables :

In Mental Diagnosis.—The unascertained group were nearly all of low mentality. These were children referred by the Bureau of Attendance to the Department of Ungraded Classes as children not attending school because of mental defect. If classified they would fall mostly into the low imbecile or idiot groups. Approximately 75% of the cases were therefore of imbecile grade or below.

STATISTICS-FIELD AGENTS The following tables give statistics of 415 *cases visited last year:

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Average weekly wage of those whose wages are known is approximately $12. The highest wage is $36.00. This boy is a roofer.

* Only 415 of the 519 cases visited have as yet been tabulatod. Of the remaining 96, 89 are children still in school, and in the 7 other cases the data is still incomplete.

Birthplace of Child.United States, 335; Italy, 9; Russia, 8; Austria, 3; England, 2; Hungary, 2; Poland, 2; Mexico, 1; Roumania, 1; unascertained, 52. American born, 92%; foreign born, 8%.

72

Birthplace
Italy. .
Russia.
United States.
Austria.
Germany.
Ireland.
Hungary.
Poland.
Sweden.
Roumania.
Sicily.
Canada.
Switzerland.
Galacia...
Finland.
England.
Denmark.
Belgium.
Bohemia
Mexico.
Norway.
Scotland.
Turkey. .
West Indies.
Unascertained.

Per cent

21.4 19.3 18.8 7.2 4.8 3.6 2.7 1.7 1.2 .7

NATIONALITY OF PARENTS

Father Per cent
95

22.9
76

18.3

17.3 32

7.7 19

4.6 14

3.4 11

2.7 7

1.7 3

.7 3

.7 3

.7 3

.7
3

.7
2
2

.5
2
1

.2
1
1
1

.2
1

.2
1
1

1
60

14.5

Mother

89 80 78 30 20 15 11 7 5 3 3 1 1 3 1

.2 .2 .7

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14.5

Foreign born fathers...
Foreign born mothers..
American born fathers..
American born mothers.

79.7% 78. % 20.3% 22. %

Child

Father American born

Foreign born

Number of Years the Family Have Been in the United States. -Less than 10 years, 12; 10 to 20 years, 102; 20 to 30 years, 88; over 30 years, 31; life, 33; unascertained, 149.

Order of Birth.-1st, 97; 2nd, 61; 3rd, 51; 4th, 38; 5th, 27; 6th, 19; 7th, 17; 8th, 12; 9th, 6; 10th, 2; unascertained, 86.

Of those listed as first born, many are the only child.

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Delinquent Tendencies (34 cases) This is only 8% of the cases. Doubtless more than this number have delinquent tendencies unknown to the field agents. But as in the most cases the parents are very ready to confide their troubles, the figure is probably fairly accurate.

Employable (89 cases) Considering the youth and low mentality of the cases, this figure is unexpectedly large. Only those were classed as employable who are or have been employed for wages.

The type of work done in the cases where this was ascertained is: Skilled, 4; semi-skilled, 11; unskilled, 30; in Navy, 1.

More than twenty-five occupations are represented. The most frequent are:

Errand boy or girl.

Helper (in laundries, lumber yards, fruit stands, barber shops, bootblack stands, etc.).

Packer (candy, crackers, cigars, hair nets, etc.).
Machine operator.

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