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The cost to the city is great. The cost to the individual is inestimable. It is to be seen in the habits and attitudes with which these adolescents face life. They have early “caught the disease of failure."

Discussing the problems of failures in high schools, Superintendent Tildsley writes as follows in a recent publication: “For years we have been disturbed in New York City by the high percentage of failure of first term students in high schools, ranging around thirty percent. We have sought to modify the course of study, improve methods of instruction, introduce supervised study, and still the failures continue. We are slowly coming to realize that the greatest cause of failure is the faulty classification of pupils which allows pupils of great diversity of ability to be enrolled in the same section. Teachers can be found who will tell you that the presence of bright pupils is needed in the classes to stimulate the duller ones. But in all kinds of games we find that we gain most from competition with those who are not too superior in skill to ourselves to make the contest interesting.'

In order to prevent, or at least to minimize, these costly failures, the entering classes in February, 1921 (925 children), and June 30, 1921 (849 children), were examined by group psychological tests.*

For the February class the Haggerty I.Q. range was from 65 to 137. Median I.Q.'s for the different courses is as follows: Academic 106 I.Q.'s; Art 106.5 1.Q.; Commercial 102.4 I.Q.; Dressmaking 99.6 I.Q. Sections were organized on the basis of strength as that was indicated by the examination. This is at variance with methods which prevail. To quote again from Dr. Tildsley, “They (high school pupils) are classified first according to the language chosen, if any. One principal then classified them alphabetically and maintains that the presence of twenty-four Cohens in one section of whom eight are Abraham Cohens does not in any way reflect upon the reasonableness of his method of classification. Other principals keep pupils from the same schools together so that a natural group spirit may exist from the first day. Still other principals group the pupils on the basis of the report cards brought from the elementary schools."

* This was possible because of the professional services given by the New York City members of the N. Y. State Association of Consulting Psychologists.

VI. EXAMINATION OF CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE The Civic Club Committee on Education invited the Superintendent of Schools, the Commissioner of Health and the American Red Cross to coöperate in the examination, during the month of June, 1921, of 1000 children who will enter 1A classes in September. The Committee thought that the interrupted school attendance of first year children, due to the correction of physical defects found by the medical school inspector, could be obviated. If all examinations could be made in June physical defects could be corrected during the summer through the cooperation of school nurses and the services provided by the American Red Cross. The committee also thought that failures in school work with the consequent tendency to truancy and conduct disorders might be prevented or at least minimized by the organization of 1A classes on the basis of mental strength as that was revealed by individual psychological examinations. Representatives of the Club and of the three agencies named constituted a committee to do this work. This committee decided to examine the children to enter eight different schools. Four of these are in Superintendent Nicholson's district in the upper east side and four in Superintendent Kidd's district in the lower east side.

The individual psychological examination of the children was the function of this department. It was made possible by the coöperation of the New York Association of Consulting Psychologists who furnished most of the examiners and by the New York County Chapter of the Junior Red Cross, and other interested persons who furnished financial and other assistance. An analysis of this work will be submitted later.

Figure 8 is a statistical summary of the psychological work done during this school year.

Figure 8

Group Psychological

Group Educational

Children Examined
New cases (El. Sch.)
W. I. H. S.
New cases (El. Sch.)
Promotions and discharges
New cases
Pre-school age
Bureau of attendance

Examined Total

815 2589 1774 847 757 1604 1872

100 1000 823 3795

Individual Examinations

Grand Total



By MARY BURKHARDT It is desirable to have Social Efficiency as the aim of education instead of utility, character development, or happiness, because Social Efficiency changes the aim from taking to giving, from egotism to altruism, from the welfare of the individual to the common welfare.

A Socially Efficient person is one who has purposes or sees problems; who has a sense of values and weighs them; who has the power of organization; and who has initiative or ability to attack problems.

If Social Efficiency is the aim of education, the teacher will give the pupil a body of knowledge, establish a set of habits, and develop a set of attitudes which will develop him into a Socially Efficient being. The supervisor must judge whether the pupils are getting the right kind of knowledge; are acquiring the right set of habits; and are developing the right kind of attitudes which will make him Socially Efficient. In order to judge whether the aim of the teacher is being realized, the supervisor must observe the subject matter taught and the method of its presentation.

The purpose of supervision is to improve the service of the teacher and opportunities for the children. In order to do this, the supervisor must also observe the subject matter taught and the method of presentation. She must remedy the deficiencies of the teacher by teaching the teacher what were well to be done and how it should be done.

In exercising the above supervision, it must be considered in, relation to both teacher and pupil. The work of the supervisor is to criticise the instruction of the teacher from the point of view of Social Efficiency as the aim of education and she must observe whether the pupils are developing the ideal of Social Efficiency.

Unless the teacher's aim in instruction is Social Efficiency, it must necessarily follow that she cannot develop that ideal in her pupils. It is the business and privilege of the supervisor then to develop this ideal in the teacher. The supervisor must teach or educate the teacher and one of the best methods for

doing this is through conferences. If the supervisor is to be recognized as truly a specialist in educational matters, she must be recognized as a consultant. In conference with teachers, the supervisor should be a consultant offering constructive criticism; teaching the teacher; a guide, philosopher, and friend; and doing everything else within her power which will improve the service of the teacher.

Social Efficiency as the aim of education can be developed in school through subject matter and methods of teaching. In her work the teacher must have a sense of values and be able to weigh them; she must have the power of organization; and she must possess initiative or ability to attack problems. All this must likewise be developed in the pupil.

According to Strayer and Norsworthy, in order to realize Social Efficiency as the aim of education, the purpose or ideals which move the pupil should be ideals of service. These ideals of service may be developed by presenting problems in which the child is interested, and opportunities for discussion of these problems and helping the other pupils must be given. Seats must be arranged so that pupils may work in cooperation with one another. There should be cooperation instead of competition. What can be done to further the interest of his group and not what rank he can obtain for himself should be the pupil's guiding thought or purpose.

The Socially Efficient child must not only be moved by ideals of service, but he must have a sense of values and be able to weigh them. He can be led to do this by being given problems to solve which interest him and relate to his every day life.

The importance of organizing facts is generally recognized in later life. In school, the organization of all subject matter should be such as to influence orderly, systematic thinking. The child in turn must organize his ideas and the facts he is studying.

To develop the initiative of the child, problems relating to his experiences must be given him and opportunities for self direction must be presented.

If the aim of education as Social Efficiency is fulfilled, the child will become to a greater or lesser degree a Socially Effi

cient person.

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