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ing;' or if it be too much to expect any allowance to heat and flame directly, yet abate only that, and his lordship will be so good as to make it up another way, by allowing as much to fervency and warmth. His notion then of prayer is now cleared up, and his lordship shall be allowed to be orthodox (if he will pardon the imputation) whether he prints his private devotions or no; which I must own to his lordship is a very surprising method he has hit on to clear this point. The question is, what should be the temper of the mind in prayer ? ? To clear it, his lordship will print his prayers : but may not
persons use the same words, and yet one pray with devotion and the other without it? And if so, how will this matter be ended by his lordship's printing the words he makes use of in prayer, unless he should print likewise the disposition of his mind in using them? His lordship may then print his prayers if he pleases; but I cannot allow that he has a just occasion for it from any thing that has yet passed in this debate.
But to proceed. His lordship has now explained himself to a sense not to be found fault with in this particular ; but the consequence must be, that this instance can have no meaning at all as it stands applied in his sermon.
For consider : his lordship’s observation is, p. 1. of his sermon, that “ the signification of a word well known and understood by those who first made use of it, is very insensibly varied by passing through many mouths, and by being taken and given by multitudes in common discourse ; till it often comes to stand for a complication of notions as distant from the original intention of it, nay as contradictory to it as darkness is to light.”
Take notice; the abuse of words here complained of is such as affects 'multitudes in common discourses :' of such words his lordship farther observes," the very same word remaining, (which at first truly represented one certain thing,) by having multitudes of new inconsistent ideas in every age and every year added to it, becomes itself the greatest hindrance to the true understanding of the nature of the thing first intended by it. For instance,-prayer in all our Lord's directions," &c. Here you see, prayer is given as an instance of a word “taken and given by multitudes in common discourse,'
till it has come to stand for a complication of notions, as contradictory to the original intention as darkness is to light.' His lordship in his Answer agrees that in the original intention of the word, it might mean such fervency and warmth as are consistent with such calmness and undisturbedness of mind as is the ornament and defence of the understanding.' The complicated notions which he condemns, are • heat' and • flame to such a degree,' &c. that is, as he explains himself, such as amount to 'perturbation, agitation, and disorder of soul.' Now then, either in the notion of the multitude, and in common discourse, prayer signifies perturbation, agitation, and disorder of soul;' or this instance is not to his purpose, has no meaning at all.
But that this is not a common notion of prayer his lordship shall witness; for having stated this false notion in his Answer, he does no longer charge it on the multitude, but says that
some honest Christians are uneasy under such notions, as ministers of parishes find,” (if he may guess by himself): so that this notion of prayer, which stands as an instance of an abuse passing on the multitude in common discourse, is at last made out by guess only, and that guess founded in this, that his lordship has had some apply to him who were so weak as to be made uneasy by such notions. Thus the case stands : and whether his lordship did in his sermon mean to write against that fervency and warmth which by the multitude in common discourse is reckoned to be requisite to prayer, and has found himself obliged to retract it in his answer; or whether he at first chose an instance nothing to his purpose,
and scruple and misunderstanding of some weak Christians, instead of the common notion of the multitude of Christians, is not my business to inquire : only I beg his lordship to name the books
I and sermons which have recommended perturbation, agitation, and a disorder of soul, as necessary to prayer; or“ taught men to raise their passions, till they know not where they are, nor what they are doing.' I am of opinion some of his weak Christians raised the notion out of their own fears and superstition, and told his lordship that some book or sermon had filled them with the scruples, (and the best sermon may give occasion to the scruples of weak minds,) and his lordship has taken their
gave us the
word for it; and the authoritative interpretation of these weak men is all he has to support his charge. Be this as it will, his lordship is like to get little by his explications, if they prove to be all like this ; and has as little reason to complain of being exposed by a misrepresentation of his sense.
Another explication of the same sort his lordship has given us in the Answer, for though the sermon is levelled at all in common, and the word church (not peculiar to papists) set aside and changed for that of kingdom, because the complication of notions belonging to it were in the use of the multitude, and in common discourse, as contradictory to the original intention of it as light to darkness; in which view any man would suppose that his lordship meant the multitude in his own country rather than the multitude of Italy and Spain; yet with respect to the very worst of the complicated notions belonging to the word church, namely, the absolute power of churchmen, his lordship says, “I profess I never knew nor heard of any church on earth, except the church of Rome in its latter corrupted state, which ever dared to claim such an absolute authority.” And yet in the sermon preached against the church of Rome, (as we are now bound to believe,) there is not one word to show this intention; Rome, or the church of Rome, is not once mentioned, nor is there a single sentence to justify the church of which his lordship is a bishop. We have had much complaint of late, in books to which his lordship is no stranger, of protestant popery, and his lordship’s known zeal in that cause is so eminent, that I believe it was never a doubt, till his lordship raised one, against whom the sermon was designed. We are now told the corrupt church of Rome only holds the doctrine he professes to write against; and if his lordship will thus explain the other parts of his doctrine which have given offence, it will hardly be worth while to differ with him about an expression; if he will really recant, it shall be allowed him to go off with the honor of explaining.
Another term to which his complaint refers is vilify.
Were I to acquaint the world with how much respect to his lordship's episcopal and personal character the debate in the Lower House began and ended, it would appear to deserve other resentments than it has already met with from his lordship.
But as they meant not, by the respect they showed, to court his favor, so neither shall I repeat it to avoid his anger. What the Committee did is public to the world; and if his lordship can pardon the great offence of showing the tendency of his doctrine, I will undertake to prove they have done nothing to justify this part of his complaint. To vilify a man is a base unworthy design, the poor artifice of a little mind, courting reputation by whispering the supposed faults of others, or venting an impotent desire of revenge in calumny and forgery. But what is there like this to charge on the proceedings of the Lower House ? Was it base or unworthy to vindicate the church from his lordship's misrepresentations, or the just power of the king and legislature from his rash unwarrantable censures ? Was it an unbecoming part to lay before his grace and the bishops, the proper judges of the cause, the evil tendency which they saw in his lordship's book and sermon ? Had they any by-ends to serve in a cause so little favored ? or have they laid any thing to his lordship’s charge but his own words? Where then is the offence? Is it, perhaps, that they have given their reasons to support their complaint? If it is, the answer is short—they will be maintained.
The last article of his lordship’s complaint is couched in these words, use me as you please.' When these words are used to a private man, they are at once a charge and a defiance; a charge that he deals unjustly, and a defiance of all he can do. How properly soever they may be used in such cases
some occasions, yet they are words never to be used to courts of judicature; and therefore, as they respect the Convocation, they are the highest contempt and
But perhaps his lordship has no greater an idea of a convocation than he has of a church, and may think them only“ a number of men, whether small or great, whether dispersed or united :' yet whatever he may know or think of the matter, they are a number of men vested by the constitution with a judicial capacity to judge and censure. In that capacity they acted in all they did with relation to his lordship; and common decency should teach him to treat the jurisdiction he is under with proper respect; common prudence should suggest to him that such bodies never die ; and that he may not always find shelter
under a royal writ. But whatever indignation his lordship shall now think fit to show, it will be no surprise to those who remember in what manner he treated the Lower House of Convocation when he was only a private presbyter ; with what an air he condemned their proceedings, called them to their duty, and defied their authority; as if he had then been all that he now desires to be. This considered, I say, his lordship has no right to complain, supposing the manner of the Convocation's proceeding towards him to have been other than it was.
I shall not enter into a detail of his lordship’s conduct in times past, or lay. to his charge any warm expression that may be excused by the heat of controversy: I only desire the reader to take a view with me of the many civilities which lie dispersed in his · Preservative,' a book lately written against the non-jurors; in which cause the clergy need not have been made parties against the government, had not his lordship in his great tenderness and goodness gone out of his way to compel them to come in.
The title-page is the first thing that offers itself; and the book (as being nobly descended, I suppose) has more names
The first is, "A Preservative against the Principles and Practices of the Non-Jurors both in Church or State.'* Can there be a better? Does it not fully take in all that the most zealous friend to the government can wish or desire to see on the argument? Why then is a second added ? a second too, that has not one word in it to adapt it peculiarly to the controversy of the non-jurors ! Conscience and common sense extend to every cause, and are therefore peculiar to none.
It is true; but his lordship has distinguished in his second title, which is, • An Appeal to the conscience and common sense of the Christian Laity.' So flaming was his zeal against his own order, that he could not contain himself from expressing it in his title-page, and making an occasion, where none was offered, to show it. An appeal to somebody is also an appeal against somebody. Against whom is this appeal brought ? Against the non-jurors you will say : it is natural indeed to think so from the occasion of the book : but hold a little. The con
* The first edition is refcrred to.