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mark, except that he ignorantly states the Prymer of 1545 to be the first translation in English of the daily Service and Litany, and that the Creed, Pater noster, and Decalogue were "to begin with, imparted, Anno 1536." I have not been able to find any explanation in Dr. Nicholls' Commentary, though it would seem that some attempt at least should be there, for the titlepage promises great things. Wheatley, to whose Illustration reference is generally made, and properly so, nevertheless does not bestow a line upon the matter, with one exception (p. 23.) where he tells us that the King's Prymer "came forth in 1545, wherein were contained, amongst other things, the Lord's prayer, Creed, Ten Commandments, Venite, Te Deum, and other hymns and collects in English, and several of them in the same version in which we now use them."


Staveley in his History of Churches, has a short notice about the Service-Books, but it is a mere translation abridged, of Lyndwood's Gloss upon the famous constitution of Archbishop Winchelsey, which I shall speak of at some length presently. His account is: Legenda. A book containing the Lessons to be read at the Morning Service. Antiphonarium. A book containing Invitatories, Hymns, Responsories, Verses, Collects, &c., to be said or sung by Priest and People, alternately. Gradale, or Graduale. A Book containing several offices, as that of the sprinkling of Holywater: the proceeds of the Mass: the Holy Offices, Kyrie, &c. Gloria in Excelsis, Gradalia, Hallelujah, the Symbols to be sung at the Offertory and the Mass.

1 Chap. 1. p. 26.

Psalterium. The book of Psalms. Troperium, or Troparium, the service in which the people answer the Priest, called also sometimes, Liber Sequentiarum. Ordinale, a Book of rules and orders, to direct the right manner of saying, and performing Holy Service. Missale. A Book containing all things belonging to the service of the Mass. Manuale. A book always at hand, containing all things belonging to the Sacraments and Sacramentals, the Hallowing of Holy Water, and all other things to be Hallowed: and the ordering of Processions."

Shepherd, a very inferior writer, (whose chief claim to the little consideration which he has met with, has probably rested on his venturing to depreciate his predecessor, Wheatley) says in the Introduction to his Elucidation," The Commissioners of 1548 proceeded to examine the Breviaries, Missals, Rituals, and other books of offices at that time in use." A footnote adds,


a general account of the contents of these books, and of their difference from each other, is given in p. 262, of the Elucidation in the note." But there is no such note in that place, nor (that I can discover) in any other part of his work.

A living writer, Mr. Palmer, in his Origines Liturgicæ, has again disappointed us. I can find no other account of the books used in the daily service than occurs in his 1st Vol. p. 207: and this being the most complete we have yet arrived at, yet not over-long, I shall also transcribe it.

"The Psalter used in the celebration of divine service generally contained, at the end, several hymns taken from the Old and New Testament, such as

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Benedictus, &c. and the Te Deum, and Athanasian Creed, all of which were appointed for the service of the Canonical Hours.

The Bible contained the lessons of Scripture, which were not formerly selected and placed in a distinct volume, but were read at the nocturns from the Bible itself.

The Antiphonarium contained the anthems and responsories, which were sung in the course of divine service.

The Hymnarium comprised the hymns in verse, which from the time of Ambrose were chanted in the canonical hours.

The Collectarium included the collects to be said at the end of the services, and the capitula or short lessons, which were also sometimes recited in the offices.

The Homilarium, Passionarium, and Martyrologium, contained the comments of the Fathers on the Gospel of the day, and the account of the martyrdom of the Saints for each distinct festival.

About the eleventh century, the Breviary was formed out of all these books; the lessons, anthems, responsories, hymns, &c. for the different days of the year, being all placed in the same volume with the Psalter, Prayers, &c. And in latter times the Breviary was divided into two parts, one for the summer, and the other for the winter half of the year, and sometimes it was divided into four parts; so that it was more portable and convenient for the use of those clergy and monks who were accustomed to recite the offices for the canonical hours at some time in the day.

• Obliged, I presume would be the proper word.

From this cause also it was sometimes entitled Portiforium."5

The above therefore appears to be the extent of the information afforded by works generally appealed to at present by the English student; I have collected it, such as it is, for two reasons: one, that it will save him much trouble in searching those authorities: and, secondly, it shews how little the whole amounts to, and that further labour is still demanded.

But there are two more authors who have touched upon the subject of old English Service Books: I am certainly bound to notice them, though they are not likely to be referred to for this purpose. These are Gough, and Dr. Dibdin. There is this to be said for the commentators who are mentioned above, that not having ventured much, they have made few mistakes, and so do not in that way mislead: but here we must complain of most egregious blunders.

Yet perhaps Gough only is to be blamed, for Dr. Dibdin has but copied his statements, and complacently (as upon a matter of no consequence) repeated his errors.6

Let us then turn at once to the British Topography7: and upon the same principle, that the reader may have collected here the chief explanations existing, I shall make a somewhat long extract, and point out his mistakes. We are told,

Not that the Portiforium was always a portable book, as will be seen hereafter.

• Bibliographical Decameron: second day. This work is admirably illustrated with woodcuts, &c., and proportionably en

tertaining. If the second day is to be taken as a criterion of the research and learning of the author, it is much to be feared, that entertainment will be all his reader will derive.

7 Vol. 2. p. 319. Wiltshire.

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"No cathedral has preserved such a variety of ser-
vice books for its Use as Sarum. This is another name
for the Ordinale: it was also named the Consuetudi-
nary. The Missal was the ritual, containing the
rites, directions to the priests, prayers used in the ad-
ministration of the sacraments," only one, viz: the
Eucharist, "blessing of holy water," sometimes, "and
the whole service used in processions": very seldom
any portion of it. "It begins with the Speculum Sa-
cerdotum, or directions for celebrating the mass": this
tract seldom occurs in the Missals, neither is it direc-
tions, &c. as Gough has it: "or with benedictions of
the bread and salt, or exorcisms. Then follows the
service of every Sunday, (from the first in Advent)
festival and eve prefaces, canons" what are
canons? "conclusio and cautelæ missæ.
masses for saints, martyrs, &c."

Then the

"The Breviary seems to have been at first confined to rubrics": this is a repetition of an hypothesis of Quesnel, which I have examined elsewhere; "after became a more compendious missal (!) containing the whole office of the mass, and all services, except the forms of marriage." Lyndwood is quoted for this extraordinary statement, but no reference given: I do not remember to have seen so compendious a Breviary.

"The Portiforium, called also in some titles the Breviarium, and like it a commodious portable" not always portable, "abridgement of the service, has a gloss or paraphrase on each portion of scripture." What does this mean? "It is sometimes called Sanctorale." Never: the edition named in the note must have been an odd volume. "It was divided into the summer and winter part according to the holidays; the summer containing only Sundays, beginning with Tri

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