Obrazy na stronie

well-known town of that province on the Arcadian frontier. (Strabo, 339.-Cramer's Anc. Grecce, vol. 3, p. 146, seqq.) OEcuMENius, an ancient Greek Commentator on the Scriptures. The time at which he lived is uncertain; but it was aster the eighth century and before the tenth. He is generally placed in the ninth century; Cave assigns to him the date A.D. 990; Lardner, A.D. 950. CEcumenius was bishop of Tricca, and the author of commentaries on the Acts of the Apostles, the fourteen epistles of St. Paul, and the seven Catholic epistles, which contain a concise and perspicuous illustration of these parts of the New Testament. Besides his own remarks and notes, they consist of a compilation of the notes and observations of Chrysostom, Cyrill of Alexandrea, Gregory Nazianzen, and others. He is thought to have written also a commentary on the four gospels, compiled from the writings of the ancient fathers, which is not now extant. The works of CEcumenius were first published in Greek at Verona in 1532, and in Greek and Latin at Paris in 1631, in 2 vols. fol. To the second volume of the Paris edition is added the commentary of Arethas on the book of Revelations. (Consult Hoff. mann, Lez. Bibliogr., vol. 3, p. 156.) CEdipus (Olćistovo), was the son of Laius, king of Thebes, and of Jocasta, the daughter of Menoeceus. Homer calls his mother Epicasta. An oracle had warned Laius against having children, declaring that he would meet his death by means of his offspring ; and the monarch accordingly refrailed, until, after some lapse of time, having indulged in festivity, he forgot the injunction of the god, and Jocasta gave birth to a son. The father immediately delivered the child to his herdsman to expose on Mount Cithaeron. The herdsman, moved to compassion, according to one account (Soph, CEd. Tyr., 1038), gave the babe to a neatherd belonging to Polybus, king of Corinth, or, as others say (Eurip., Phoeniss., 28), the neatherds of Polybus found the infant after it had been exposed, and brought it to Periboea, the wise of Polybus, who, being childless, reared it as her own, and named it CEdipus, on account of its swollen feet (from oióéw, to swell, and Toto, a foot); for Laius, previous to its exposure, had pierced its ankles, and had inserted through the wound a leathern thong. The foundling OEdipus was brought up by Polybus as his heir. Happening to be reproached by some one at a banquet with being a supposititious child, he besought Periboea to inform him of the truth; but, unable to get any satisfaction from her, he went to Delphi and consulted the oracle. The god directed him to shun his native country, or else'he would be the slayer of his father and the sharer of his mother's bed. He therefore resolved never to return to Corinth, where so much crime, as he thought, awaited him, and he took his road through Phocis. Now it happened that Laius, at this same time, was on his way to Delphi, for the purpose of ascertaining whether the child which had been exposed had perish. ed or not. He was in a chariot, accompanied by his herald Polyphontes; a few attendants came aster. The father and son, total strangers to each other, met in a narrow road in Phocis. OEdipus was ordered to make way, and, on his disregarding the command, the charioteer endeavoured to crowd him out of the path. A contest thereupon ensued, and both Laius and the charioteer, together with all the attendants except one, who fled, were slain by the hand of CEdipus. Immediately after the death of Laius, Juno, always hostile to the city of Bacchus, sent a monster named the Sphinx to ravage the territory of Thebes. It had the face of a woman, the breast, feet, and tail of a lion, and the wings of a bird. This monster had been taught riddles by the Muses, and she sat on the Phicean Hill, and propounded one to the Thebans. It was this: “What is that which has one voice, is four-foot

ed, two-footed, and at last three-footed ?” or, as oth. ers give it, “What animal is that which gees on four. feet in the morning, on two at noon, and on three at evening !”. The oracle told the Theoana that they would not be delivered from her until they had solved her riddle. They often met to iry their skill; and when they had sailed, the Sphinx always carried off and devoured one of their number. At length Haemon, son of Creon, having become her victim, the father of. fered by public proclamation the throne, to which he had succeeded on the death of Laius, and the hand of his sister Jocasta, to whoever should solve the riddle of the Sphinx. OEdipus, who was then at Thebes, hearing this, came forward and answered the Sphinx that it was Man ; who, when an infant, creeps on all fours; when he has attained to manhood, goes on two feet; and when old, uses a staff, a third foot. The Sphinx thereupon flung herself down to the earth and perished; and (Ed.pus now unknowingly accomplished the remainder of the oracle. He had by his mother two sons, Eteocles and Polynices, and two daughters, Antigone and Ismene.—Aster some years Thebes was afflicted with famine and pestilence; and the oracle being consulted, ordered the land to be purified of the blood which defiled it. Inquiry was set on foot after the murder of Laius, and a variety of concurring circumstances brought the guilt home to CEdipus. Jocasta, on the discovery being made, hung herself, and her unhappy son and husband, in his grief and despair, put out his eyes. He was banished from Thebes; and, accompanied by his daughters, who faithfully adhered to him, he came, after a tedious period of miserable wandering, to the grove of the Furies at Colonus, a village not far from Athens, and there found the termination of his wretched life, having mysteriously disappeared from mortal view, and been received into the bosom of the earth. (Apollod., 3, 5, 8, seq.—Soph., (Ed. Col.) The history of his sons will be found under the articles Eteocles and Polynices.—Such is the form in which the history of CEdipus has been transmitted to us by the Attic dramatists. We will now consider its more ancient shape. The hero of the Odyssey says, “I saw (in Erebus) the mother of CEdipodes (such being his Homeric name), the fair Epicasta, who, in her ignorance, did an awful deed, marrying her own son, and he married, having slain his own father, and immediately the gods made this known unto men. Now he ruled over the Cadmasans in desirable Thebes, suffering woes through the pernicious counsels of the gods; but she, oppressed with grief, went to the abode of Aides, the strong gatekeeper, having fastened a long halter to the lofty roof, and left to him many woes, such as the Furies of a mother produce.” (Od., 11, 271, seqq.) In the Iliad (23,679) the funeral games are mentioned which were celebrated at Thebes in honour of the “fallen CEdipodes.” Hesiod (Op. et D., 162) speaks of the heroes who fell fighting at the seven-gated Thebes, on account of the sheep of CEdipodes. It would also seem that, according to the above passage of the Odyssey, and to the epic poem the “CEdipodea.” (Pausan., 9, 5, 11), Epicasta had not any children by her son; Eurygeneia, the daughter of Hyperphas, being the mother of his well-known offspring. According to the cyclic Thebais, the fatal curse of GEdipus on his sons had the following origin: Polynices placed before his father a silver table which had belonged to Cadmus, and filled a golden cup with wine for him; but when OEdipus perceived the heir-looms of his family thus set before him, he raised his hands and prayed that his sons might never divide their inheritance peaceably, but ever be at strife. Elsewhere (ap. Schol. ad Soph., (Ed. Col., 1440) the Thebais said, that his sons having sent him the loin, instead of the shoulder of the victim, he flung it to the ground, and prayed that they might fall by each other's hands. The motives as

signed by the tragedians are certainly of a more dignified nature than these, which seem trifling and insignificant.—This story affords convincing proof of the great liberties which the Attic tragedians allowed themselves to take with the ancient myths. It was purely to gratify Athenian vanity that Sophocles, contrary to the current tradition, made CEdipus die at Colonus. His blindness also seems a tragic fiction. Euripides makes Jocasta survive her sons, and terminate her life by the sword. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 340, seqq.) CENEUs, a king of Calydon in Etolia, son of Parthaon. He married Althaea, the daughter of Thestius, by whom he had, among other children, Meleager and 1)eianira. After Althaea's death, he married Periboea, the daughter of Hipponotis, by whom he became the father of Tydeus. In a sacrifice which OEneus made to all the gods, upon reaping the rich produce of his fields, he forgot Diana, and the goddess, to revenge this neglect, sent a wild boar to lay waste the territory of Calydon. The animal was at last killed by Meleager and the neighbouring princes of Greece, in a celebrated chase known by the name of the chase of the Calydonian boar. (Vid. Meleager.) After the death of Meleager, CEneus was dethroned and impris. oned by the sons of his brother Agrius. Diomede, having come secretly from the city of Argos, slew all the sons of Agrius but two, who escaped to the Peloponnesus, and then, giving the throne of Calydon to Andraemon, son-in-law of OEncus, who was himself now too old to reign, led the latter with him to Argolis. CEneus was afterward slain by the two sons of Agrius, who had fled into the Peloponnesus. Diomede buried him in Argolis, on the spot where the city of CEnoë, called after CEneus, was subsequently erected. CEneus is said to have been the first that received the vine from Bacchus. The god taught him how to cultivate it, and the juice of the grape was called after his name (olvoc, “wine.”—Apollod, 1, 8.-Hygin., fab., 129). CENiid Æ, a city of Acarnania, near the mouth of the Achelotis. Thucydides represents it as situated, on the Achelotis, a little above the sea, and surrounded by marshes caused by the overflowing of the river, which rendered it a place of great strength, and deterred the Athenians from undertaking its siege; when,

- unlike the other cities of Acarnania, it embraced the

cause of the Peloponnesians, and became hostile to Athens. (Thucyd., 1, l l l ; 2, 102.) At a later period of the war, it was, however, compelled by the Acarnanian confederacy to enter into an alliance with that power. (Thucyd., 3, 77.) The same writer gives us to understand, that GEniadae was first founded by Alcmaeon, according to an oracle which he consult. ed aster the murder of his mother, and that the province was named after his son Acarnan (2, 102). Stephanus asserts that this city was first called Erysiche, a fact of which the poet Alcman had made mention in a passage cited by more than one writer; but Strabo, on the authority of Apollodorus, places the Erysichael in the interior of Acarnania, and consequently appears to distinguish them from the OEniadae. From Pausanias we learn (4, 25), that the Messenians, who had been settled at Naupactus by the Athenians not long after the Persian invasion, made an expedition from that city to OEniadae, which, after some resistance, they captured and held for one year, when they were in their turn hesieged by the united forces of the Acarnanians. The Messenians, despairing of being able to defend the town against so great a number of troops, cut their way through the enemy, and reached Naupactus without experiencing any considerable loss. The AEtolians having, in process of time, conquered that part of Acarnania which lay on the left bank of the Achelotis, became also possessed of CEniadae, when they expelled the inhabitants under circumstances apparently of great hardship and cruelty, for which, it was said, they were threatened with the vengeance

of Alexander the Great. (Plut., Vit. Aler.) By the advice of Cassander, the OEniadae settled at Sauria (probably Thyria), another Acarnanian town. Many years afterward, the AEtolians were compelled to evacuate OEniadae by Philip the son of Demetrius, king of Macedon, in an expedition related by Polybius. This monarch, aware of the advantage to be derived from the occupation of a place so favourably situated with regard to the Peloponnesus, fortified the citadel, and enclosed within a wall both the sort and arsenal. (Polyb, 4, 65.) In the second Punic war this town was taken by the Romans, under Valerius Laevinus, and given up to the AEtolians their allies (Liv., 26, 24.— Polyb., 9, 39); but, on a rupture taking place with that people, it was finally restored to the Acarnanians. (Liv. 38, 11.-Polyb., fragm., 22, 15) The precise site of this ancient city remains yet unascertained ; for, though many antiquaries have supposed that it is represented by a place called Trigardon, close to the mouth of the Achelotis, and on its right bank, there are several strong objections against the correctness of this. A principal obstacle to the reception of such an opinion is found in the fact, that Trigurdon is situated on the right bank of the Acheiotis, whereas the ancient town was evidently on the left. The ruins which Sir W. Gell describes as situated above Missolonghi and the lake of Anatolico, on the spot named Kuria Irene, seem to possess many of the characteristic features appertaining to OEniadae. (Itin. of Greece, p. 297.) Dodwell, however, decides against Kuria Irene, and in favour of Trigardon. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 21, seqq.) CENIDEs (Oiveiðmc), a patronymic of Meleager, son of OEneus. (Opid, Met, 8,414.) CENöe, I. a town, and demus or borough, of At tica, classed by Harpocration and the other lexicogra phers under the tribe AEantis. We are informed by the same writers that it was part of the Tetrapolis. (Harpocr., s. v. Olván.-Steph. Byz. s. v.–Strabo, 383.) From Dodwell we learn (vol. 2, p. 163) that the site of this town still retains its name and some vestiges near the cave of Pan.—II. Another borough of Attica, on the confines of Baeotia, near Eleutherae.—III. A small Corinthian fortress, near the promontory of Olmiæ. (Strabo, 380.) Xenophon states (Hist. Gr., 4, 5, 5) that it was taken on one occasion by Agesilaus.—IV. A city of Elis, supposed by some to be the same with Ephyre, situated near the sea on the road leading from Elis to the coast, and 120 stadia from that city. (Strabo, 338.)—V. A town of Argolis, between Argos and Mantinea, and on the Arcadian frontier. It was said to have been founded by Diomede, and named aster his grandfather OEneus. (Pausan., 2, 25. Apollod., 1, 8, 6.) The site of this place, according to modern maps, is still called Enoa. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol 3, p. 292.) CENow Kus, a son of Mars by Sterope, the daughter of Atlas. The legend connected with his name will be found under the article Pelops. OENöNe, a nymph of Mount Ida, daughter of the river Cebrenus in Phrygia. Paris, when a shepherd on Mount Ida, and before he was discovered to be a son of Priam, had united himself in marriage to QEnone; and as she had received from Apollo the gist of prophecy, she warned her husband against the consequences of his voyage to Greece. She at the same time told him to come to her if ever he was wounded, as she alone could cure him. Paris came to her, accordingly, when he had been wounded by one of the arrows of Philoctetes, but OEnone, offended at his desertion of her, refused to aid him, and he died on his return to Ilium. Repenting of her cruelty, CEnone hastened to his relief; but, coming too late, she threw herself on his funeral pile and perished. (Apollod., 3, 12, 6.-Quint., Smyr., 10, 259, seqq.— Conon., 22.)

OEN opia, one of the ancient names of the island AEgina. (Ovid, Met., 7, 473.) CENorío N, a son of Bacchus and Ariadne, and king of Chios. His name is connected with the legend of Orion. (Wid. Orion.) CENotri, the inhabitants of CEnotria. CENotRIA, a name derived from the ancient race of the OEnotri, and in early use among the Greeks to designate a portion of the southeastern coast of Italy. The name is derived by some from oivog, “wine,” and they maintain that the early Greeks called the country CEnotria, or the wine-land, from the number of vines they found growing there when they first became acquainted with the region. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 1, p. 542.) With the poets of a later age it is a general appellation for all Italy. The OEnotri, as they were called, appear to have been spread over a large portion of Southern Italy, and may be regard. ed, not as a very early branch of the primitive Italian stock, but rather as the last scion propagated in a southerly direction. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 336.) OENotRides, small islands, two in number, off the coast of Lucania, and a little above the promontory of Palinurus. They lay in front of the city of Velia, where the river Heles empties into the sea. (Plin., 7, 7.) CENôtrus, a son of Lycaon. He was fabled to have passed with a body of followers from Arcadia into Southern Italy, and to have given the name of CEnotria to that part of the country where he settled. (But consult remarks under the article CEnotria, where a more probable etymology is given for the name of the country.) CENús A. or CENuss E, I. small islands in the AEgean Sea, between Chios and the mainland, now Spermadori, or (as the modern Greeks more commonly term them.) Egonuses. (Herod., 1, 165.- Thucyd, 8, 24.—Plin., 5, 31.-Bischaff und Möller, Wörterb. der Geogr., p. 800.)—II. Small islands off the coast of Messenia, and nearly facing the city of Methone. They are two in number, and are now called Sapienza and Cabrera. (Pausan., 4, 34.—Plin., 4, 11.) CENUs, I. a town of Laconia, supposed to have been situated on the river of the same name flowing near Sellasia. (Polyb., 2, 65.-Liv., 34, 28.) The modern name is Tchelesina. Sir W. Gell describes the river as a large stream, which falls into the Eurotas a little north of Sparta. (Itin. of the Morea, p. 223.) —II. or Ænus, a river of Germany, separating Noricum from Windelicia, and falling into the Danube at Boiodurum or Passau. It is now the Inn. (Tacit., Hist, 3, 5.—Id., Germ., 28.-Ptol., 2, 14.) CETA, a celebrated chain of mountains in Thessaly, whose eastern extremity, in conjunction with the sea, forms the famous pass of Thermopylae. It extended its ramifications westward into the country of the Dorians, and still farther into AFStolia, while to the south it was connected with the mountains of Locris, and those of Boeotia. (Liv., 36, 15.-Strabo, 428.—Herod., 7, 217.) Its modern name is Katavothra. Sophocles represents Jove as thundering on the lofty crags of QEta. (Trach., 436.) As regards the expression of Virgil, “tibi deserit Hesperus (Etam,” the meaning of which many have misconceived, consult the remarks of Heyne (ad Eclog., 8, 30). The highest summit of CEta, according to Livy, was named Callidromus : it was occupied by Cato with a body of troops in the battle sought at the pass of Thermopylae between the Romans under Acilius Glabrio and the army of Antiochus, and, owing to this manoeuvre, the latter was entirely routed. (Lip., 36, 15.-Plin, 4, 7.) Herodotus describes the path by which the Persian army turned the position of the Greeks as begin. ning at the Asopus. Its name, as well as that of the mountain, is Anopæa.

as Alponus, the first Locrian town (7, 216). On the summit of Mount CEta were two castles, named Tichius and Rhoduntia, which were successfully defended by the AEtolians against the Romans. (Lit., 36, 19.—Strabo, 428.--Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 445.) OETYLUs, a town of Laconia, so called from an Arive hero of that name, was situate eighty stadia from Thalamae. (Pausan., 3, 26.) Homer has noticed it among the towns subject to Menelaus. (Il., 2, 585.) Strabo observes that it was usually called Tylus. (Strab., 360.) Ptolemy writes the name Bityla (p. 90), and it is still known by that of Vitulo. (Gell's Itin., p. 237.) Pausanias noticed here a temple of Serapis, and a statue of Apollo Carneius in the forum. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 187.) OF Ellus, a character drawn in one of the satires of Horace. Ofellus represents a Sabine peasant, whose plain good sense is agreeably contrasted with the extravagance and folly of the great. (Horat., Sat., 2, 2.) OGLAs A, a small island off the coast of Etruria, some distance below Planasia, famed for its wine, now Monte Cristo. (Plin., 3, 7.) OGYges or OGYGus ('Qyvync or 'Qyvyoc) is said to have been the first king of Athens and of Thebes. (Tzetz. ad Lycophr., 1206.) Thus, Pausanias tells us that the Ectenes, who were the most ancient inhabitants of Boeotia, were the subjects of Ogyges, and that Thebes itself was called Ogygian, an epithet which is also applied to it by Æschylus. (Pausan, 9, 5, 1. –42.sch., Pers., 37.) That Ogyges was closely connected with Thebes as well as Attica, appears from the tradition, according to which he was said to be the son of Boeotus. (Schol. ad Apollon. Rh., 3, 1178.) It may also be mentioned, that the oldest gate in Thebes was called Ogygian. (Pausan., 9, 8, 3.) The name of Ogyges is connected with the ancient deluge which preceded that of Deucalion, and he is said to have been the only person saved when the whole of Greece was covered with water. We possess scarcely any particulars respecting him ; and the accounts which have come down to us are too vague and unsatisfactory to form any definite opinion on the subject. He clearly belongs to mythology rather than to history. The earlier Greek writers, Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, &c., make no mention of his name; but the accounts preserved by Pausanias and other authors appear to indicate the great antiquity of the traditions respecting him. Varro places the deluge of Ogyges, which he calls the first deluge, 400 years before Inachus, and, consequently, 1600 years before the first Olympiad. This would reser it to a period of 2376 years before Christ; and the deluge of Noah, according to the Hebrew text, is 2349, there being only 27 years difference. Varro's opinion is mentioned by Censorinus (de Die Nat., c. 21). It appears from Julius Africanus (ap. Euseb., Prep. Ev.) that Acusilaus, the first author who placed a deluge in the reign of Ogyges, made this prince contemporary with Phoroneus, which would have brought him very near the first Olympiad. Julius Africanus makes only an interval of 1020 years between the two epochs; and there is even a passage in Censorinus conformable to this opinion. Some also read Erogitium in place of Ogygium, in the passage of Varro which wo have quoted. But what would this be but an Erogitian cataclysm, of which nobody has ever heard (Curier, Theory of the Earth, p. 144, Jameson's transl.)—In a note appended to Lemaire's edition of Ovid's Metamorphoses, Cuvier enumerates the Mosaic, Grecian, Assyrian, Persian, Indian, and "Chinese traditions concerning a universal deluge, and concludes from them that the surface of the globe, five or six thousand years ago, underwent a general and sudden revolution, by which the lands inhabited by various species of unimals known at the present day, were overflowed by the ocean; out of which emerged the present habitable portions of the globe. This celebrated naturalist maintains, that these regions of the earth were peopled by the few individuals who were saved, and that the tradition of the catastrophe has been preserved among these new races of people, variously modified by the difference of their situation and their social condition. According to Cuvier, similar revolutions of nature had taken place at periods long antecedent to that of the Mosaic deluge. The dry land was inhabited, if not by human beings, at least by land animals at an earlier period; and must have been changed from the dry land to the bed of the ocean; and it might even be concluded, from the various species of animals contained in it, that this change, as well as its opposite, had occurred more than once. (Theory of the Earth, Jameson's transl., p. 418.) This theory, however, has been ably attacked by Jameson.—Various etymologies have been proposed for the name Ogyges. Kenrick supposes that the word was derived from the root yuyn, signifying darkness or night, and quotes a passage of Hesychius in support of his view, which appears, however, to be corrupt. The more favourite theory of modern scholars connects the name with Oceanus: which etymology is supported, as is thought, by the tradition that places Ogyges in the time of the deluge. In support of this view, it is remarked that Ogyges is only a reduplication of the radical syllable Og or Oc, which we find in Oceanus (vid. Oceanus II.), and also in Ogen (which is explained by Hesychius as equivalent to Oceanus : 'Qyńv, 'Qkeavóc). A similar reduplication appears to take place in Śrvuoc, *rīTvu0; 6trouai, Turretto &ražog, driráž20. (Kenrick, Philol. Museum, No. 5, “On the rarly Kings of Attica.”— Thirlwall, Philol. Mus., No. 6, “On Ogyges.”—Creuzer und Hermann, Briefe über Homer und Hesiodus, p. 105, in notis –Vâlcker, Mythol. des Iap. Geschl., p. 67.—Schwenck, Andeut., p. 179.) . Regarding, therefore, the name Ogyges as a general type of the waters, we may trace a resemblance between its radical syllable and the forms &r-a, “water” (compare the Latin aq-ua); aly-ec, “the waves;” 'AY-12.7c, “the water-god :” Alak-6c, another marine deity, and the ruler over the island Aoy-tva, (Schwenck, l.c.) But, whatever may be the etymology of the name, the adjective derived from it is frequently employed by the Greek writers to indicate any thing ancient or unknown. We learn from the scholiast on Hesiod, that, according to one tradition, Ogyges was the king of the gods, and some think that the name originally indicated nothing more than the high antiquity of the times to which it referred. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 16, p. 412.) Ogygia, I. an ancient maine of Boeotia, from Ogyges, who reigned there. (Wid. Ogyges.)—II. The island of Calypso. (Wid. Calypso.) The name Ogygia is supposed to reser to its being in the middle of the ocean. (Wid. Ogyges.) Oileus, king of the Locrians, was son of Odoedocus, and father of Ajax the Less, who is called, from his parent, the Oilean Ajax. Oileus was one of the Argonauts. (Apollod, 3, 10, 7. Hygin., fab., 14, 18.) Olbia, I. a city of Bithynia, in the eastern angle of the Sinus Olbianus, and probably the same with Astacus. (Plin., 5, 27—Steph Byz., p. 512.)—II. A city on the coast of Pamphylia, west of Attalea. (Ptol. Steph. Byz., p. 512.)—III. A town on the coast of Gaul, founded by Massilia. It was also called Athenopolis, and is supposed by Mannert to have been the same with Telo Martius, or Toulon, these three ancient names indicating, as he thinks, one and the same city. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 81.)— IV. A town on the eastern coast of Sardinia, in the

It leads along this ridge as far the human beings who lived at that time, and by the

northern part of the island. According to Reichard, some traces of it still remain on the shores of the bay of Volpe. (Itin. Ant., p. 79)—V. Or Borysthenis, called also Olbiopolis and Miletopolis, a city of European Sarmatia, according to Stephanus of Byzantium and Mela, at the mouth of the Borysthenes, but, according to other writers, at some distance from the sea. It was colonized by the Milesians, and is at the present day, not Otchakow, as some have thought, but Kudak, a small place in the vicinity. (Bischaff und Möller, Worterb. der Geogr., p. 195.) The latest of the ancient names of this place was Borysthenis, and the one preceding it Olbia. Olchi Nium or Olcinium, now Dulcigno, a town of Dalmatia, on the coast of the Adriatic. (Lit., 45, 26 —Plin., 3, 22 ) Ole KRos. Vid. Antiparos. Ole N ('Q2.sv), the name of one of the earliest bards mentioned in the history of Greek Poetry. According to a tradition preserved by Pausanias (10, 5, 4), he came originally from the country of the Hyperboreans, and the Delphian priestess Boeo called him the first prophet of Phoebus, and the first who, in early times, founded the style of singing in epic metre (#tr. £ov douda). He appears to have settled in Lycia, and afterward to have proceeded to Delos, whither he transplanted the worship of Apollo and Diana, and the birth of which deities, in the country of the Hyperboreans, he celebrated in his hymns. Many ancient hymns, indeed, attributed to Olen, were preserved at Delos, which are mentioned by Herodotus (4, 35), and which contained remarkable mythological traditions and significant appellatives of the gods. Mention is also made of his nomes, that is, simple and antique songs, combined with certain fixed tunes, and fitted to be sung for the circular dance of a chorus. The time when Olen flourished is uncertain. It is supposed to have been before Orpheus. (Scholl, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 1, p. 33.-Müller, Hist. Lit. Gr., p. 24.) OLENUs, I. an ancient city of AEtolia, in the vicinity of Pleuron, and known to Homer, who enumerates it in his catalogue. (Il., 2,638.) It was destroyed by the AEtolians, and preserved but few vestiges in Strabo's time. (Strab., 460.) The goat Amalthaea is called Olenia by the poets (Orid, Met, 2, 594), because nurtured in the vicinity of this place.—II. One of the most ancient of the cities of Achaia, situate on the western coast, at the mouth of the river Peyrus. According to Polybius (2, 41, 7), it was the only one of the twelve cities which refused to accede to the confederation, upon its renewal after an interruption of some years. In Strabo's time it was deserted, the inhabitants, as Pausanias affirms, having retired to the adjacent villages. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 70.) Olisippo, a city of Lusitania, at the mouth of the Tagus, near the Atlantic Ocean. (Plin., 4, 35–Id., 8, 67.-Varro, R. R., 2, 1.) It was the only municipium in this section of the country, and, as such, had the appellation of Felicitas Julia. It was very probably of Roman origin, and the story of its having been founded by Ulysses is a mere fable, arising out of an accidental coincidence of name. The horses bred in the territory adjacent to this place were remarkable for their speed. (Plin., 8, 42.) Mannert and many other geographical writers make Olisippo coincide with the modern Lisbon (Lissabon), but others oppose this. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 1, p. 342.—Compare Ukert, vol. 2, p. 394.) The name of this city is variously written. Thus we have Olisipo in some authors, and in others, who favour the account of its foundation by Ulysses, we find Ulysippo. (Consult Wesseling, ad Itin., p. 416.-Tzschucke, ad Mel., 3, l, vol. 2, pt. 3, p. 25.) - Ollius, a river rising in the Alps, and falling into the Po. It is now the Oglio, and forms in its course the Lake Sebinus, now Lago d'Iseo. (;" 3, 19.) OlympíA (orum), I. the chief of the four great national games or festivals of the Greeks. They were celebrated at Olympia, a sacred spot on the banks of the Alpheus, near Elis, every fifth year. The exact interval at which they recurred was one of forty-nine and fifty lunar months alternately; so that the celebration sometimes fell in the month Apollonius (July), sometimes in the month Parthenius (August). (Böckh, ad Pind, Olymp., 3, 18–Müller's Dorians, vol. 1, p. 281, Eng. transl.) The period between two celebrations was called an Olympiad.—The Olympic festival lasted five days. Its origin is concealed amid the obscurity of the mythic period of Grecian history. Olympia was a sacred spot, and had an oracle of Juiter long before the institution of the games. The leans had various traditions, which attributed the original soundation of the festival to gods and heroes at a long period prior to the Trojan war, and among these to the Idaean Hercules, to Pelops, and to Hercules the son of Alcmena. The Eleans farther stated, that, aster the AEtolians had possessed themselves of Elis, their whole territory was consecrated to Jupiter: that the games were revived by their king Iphitus, in conjunction with Lycurgus, as a remedy for the disorders of Greece; and that Iphitus obtained the sanction of the Delphic oracle to the institution, and appointed a periodical sacred truce, to enable persons to attend the games from every part of Greece, and to return to their homes in safety. This event was recorded on a disc, which was preserved by the Eleans, and on which the names Iphitus and Lycurgus were inscribed. (Plut., Vit. Lycurg., 1.—Pausan., 5, 20, 21.) Other accounts mention Cleosthenes of Pisa as an associate of Iphitus and Lycurgus in the revival of the festival. All that can safely be inferred from this tradition, which has been embellished with a variety of iegends, seems to be, that Sparta concurred with the two states most interested in the plan, and mainly contributed to procure the consent of the other Peloponnesians. (Thirlwall's Greece, vol. 1, p. 386.) The date of the revival by Iphitus is, according to Eratosthenes, 884 B.C.; according to Callimachus, 828 B.C. Mr. Clinton prefers the latter date. (Fast. Hell., vol. 2, p. 408, note h.) The Olympiads began to be reckoned from the year 776 B.C., in which year Coroebus was victor in the foot-race. We have lists of the victors from that year, which always include the victors in the foot-race, and in later times those in the other games. (Pausan., 5, 8, 3.)—The Olympic, like all the other public festivals, might be attended by all who were of the Hellenic race; though at first probably the northern Greeks, and perhaps the Achaeans of Peloponnesus, were not admitted. Spectators came to Olympia, not only from Greece itself, but also from the Grecian colonies in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Among them were solemn deputations sent to represent their respective states. Women, however, were forbidden to appear at Olympia, or even to cross the Alpheus, during the festival, under pain of death. But at a later period we find women taking part in the chariot-race, though it is doubtful whether they ever drove their own chariots. An exception was made to this law of exclusion in favour of the priestess of Ceres and certain virgins, who were permitted to be present at the gaines, and had a place assigned to them opposite the judges. The management of the festival was in the hands of the Eleans. Originally, indeed, Pisa, in whose territory Olympia lay, seems to have had an equal share in the administration; but in the fiftieth Olympiad the Eleans destroyed Pisa, and from that time they had the entire management of the games. They proclaimed the sacred truce, first in their own territories, and then throughout the whole of Greece. This truce took effect from the time of its proclamation in Elis, and while it lasted the Elean territory was inviolable, any armed invasion of it being

esteemed an act of sacrilege. On this privilege the | Eleans founded a claim to five their territory always | considered sacred, though in fact they themselves did not abstain from war. As the presiding nation, they gave laws for the regulation of the festival, imposed penalties on individuals and states, and had the power of excluding from the games those who resisted their decrees. They actually thus excluded the Lacedæmonians on one occasion, and the Athenians on another. The Eleans appointed the judges of the contest, who were called Hellanodica’ (‘EAZavodskat} These were instructed in the duties of their office, for a period of ten months before the festival, by Elean officers called Nomophylaces (Nouoptoaxes): they were sworn to act impartially, and an appeal might be made from their decision to the Elean senate. Their number varied at different periods: in the 106th Olympiad it was fixed at ten, which was the number ever afterward. The judges had under them different officers, called ážijrat, whose business it was to keep order. These officers were called Haatiyogopol in the other Grecian games. (Consult, in relation to these details, Pausanias, 5, 9, 4, seq.-6, 24, 3.)— The Olympic festival consisted of religious ceremonies, athletic contests, and races. The chief deity who presided over it was Jupiter Olympius, whose temple at Olympia, containing the ivory and gold statue of the god, was one of the most magnificent works of art in Greece. The worship of Apollo was associated with that of Jupiter (Müller's Dorians, vol. 1, p. 279, seqq., Eng. transl.); and the early traditions connect Hercules with the festival. (Id. ib., p. 453.) This is another proof of the Dorian origin of the games, for Apollo and Hercules were two of the principal deities of the Doric race. There were altars at Olympia to other gods, which were said to have been erected by Hercules, and at which the victors sacrificed. The most magnificent sacrifices and presents were also offered to Jupiter Olympius by the competitors, and by the different states of Greece.— The games consisted of horse and foot races, leaping, throwing, wrestling and boxing, and combinations of these exercises. 1. The earliest of these games was the foot-race (općuoc), which was the only one revived by Iphitus. The space run was the length of the stadum, in which the games were held, namely, about 600 English feet. In the 14th Olympiad (724 B.C.), the Ötavzog was added, in which the stadium was traversed twice. The 66Atkoç, which consisted of several lengths of the stadium (seven, twelve, or twenty-four, according to different authorities), was added in the 15th Olympiad (B.C. 720). A race in which the runners wore armour (67%tröv ćpóuog) was established in the 65th Olympiad, but soon after abolished. 2. Wrestling (Trážm) was introduced in the 18th Olympiad (B.C. 708). The wrestlers were matched in pairs by lot. When there was an odd number, the person who was left by the lot without an antagonist wrestled last of all with him who had conquered the others. He was called $986pog. The athlete who gave his antagonist three throws gained the victory. There was another kind of wrestling (āvakzavortion), in which, if the combatant who fell could drag down his antagonist with him, the struggle was continued on the ground, and the one who succeeded in getting uppermost and holding the other down gaine the victory.—3. In the same year was introduced the pentathlon (Tévrat)Zov), or, as the Romans called it, quinquertium, which consisted of the five exercises enumerated in the following verse, ascribed to Simonides :

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