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an assembly of the army was accordingly held, for the purpose of avenging the death of Numerianus, and electing a new emperor. Their choice fell upon Dioclesian, who, immediately after his election, put Arrius to death with his own hands, without giving him an oprtunity of justifying himself, which might, perhaps, i. proved dangerous to the new emperor. The virtues of Numerianus are mentioned by most of his biographers. His manners were mild and affable; and he was celebrated among his contemporaries for eloquence and poetic talent. He successfully contended with Nemesianus for the prize of poetry; and the senate voted to him a statue, with the inscription, “To Numerianus Caesar, the most powerful orator of his times.” (Vopisc., Wit. Numerian.—Aurel. Victor, de Cas., c. 38.-Eutrop., 9, 12.-Zonaras, lib. 12.) Numicia Via, a Roman road, traversing the northern part of Samnium. It communicated with the Walerian, Latin, and Appian Ways, and, after crossing through part of Apulia, fell into the Via Aquilia in Lucania. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 260.) Numicius, a small river of Latium near Lavinium, in which, according to some authorities, Æneas was drowned. (Ovid, Fast., 3,647–Virg., AEm., 7, 150, seqq.—Ovid, Met, 14, 358, seqq.) It is now the Rio Torto. (Nibby, Viaggio Antiquario, vol. 2, p. 266.) NUMída, Plotius, a friend of Horace, who had returned, after a long absence, from Spain, where he had been serving under Augustus in the Cantabrian war. The poet addresses one of his odes to him, and bids his friends celebrate in due form so joyous an event. (Horat., Od., 1, 36.) NUMIDía, a country of Africa, bounded on the east by Africa Propria, on the north by the Mediterranean, on the south by Gaetulia, and on the west by Mauritania. The Roman province of Numidia was, however, of much smaller extent, being bounded on the west by the Ampsagas, and on the east by the Tusca (or Zain), and thus corresponded to the eastern part of Algiers. The Numidians were originally a nomadic people; and hence some think they were called by the Greeks Nonades (Nouáðec), and their country Nomadia (No. Hadia), whence came by corruption Numidae and Numidia. (Compare Polyb., 37, 3.—Sall., Bell. Jug., 18.-Plin, 5, 2.) Others, however, are in favour of a Phoenician etymology. (Wid. Nomades.)—When the Greek and Roman writers speak of the Numidians, the term is usually limited to the two great tribes of the Massaesyli and Massyli, the former of which extended along the northern part of Africa, from the Mulucha on the west to the Ampsagas on the east; and the latter from the Ampsagas to the territories of Carthage. When the Romans first became acquainted with the Numidians, which was during the second Punic war, Syphax was king of the Massassyli, and Gala of the Massyli, Masinissa, son of Gala, succeeded to the throne after various turns of fortune, and, siding with the Romans during the latter part of the second Punic war, yielded them very important assistance, which they requited by bestowing upon him all the dominions of his rival Syphax, and a considerable part of the Carthaginian territory, so that his kingdom extended from the Mulucha on the west to Cyrenaica on the east, and completely surrounded the small district which was left to the Carthaginians on the coast. (Appian, 8, 106.) Masinissa laid the foundation of a great and powerful state in Numidia. He introduced the arts of agriculture and civilized life, amassed considerable wealth, and supported a wellappointed army. (Wid. Masinissa.)—Masinissa left three sons, Micipsa, Mastanabal, and Gulussa. The two latter died soon after their father, but Micipsa lived to B.C. 118, and bequeathed the kingdom to his two sons Adherbal and Hiempsal, and to his nephew Jurtha. The two former soon sell victims to the amitious schemes of the last-mentioned individual; but

he himself, no long time thereafter, paid the penalty of

his crimes with his own life. (Wid. Jugurtha.)—After the capture and death of Jugurtha (B.C. 106), the kingdom of Numidia appears to have been given by the Romans to Hiempsal II. (Hirtius, Bell. Afr., 56), who was probably the nephew of Hiempsal the son of Micipsa. Hiempsal was succeeded, about B.C. 50, by his son Juba I., who took an active part in the civil contest between Pompey and Caesar, and had the misfortune to espouse the party of the former. After the victory of Thapsus, therefore, Caesar declared the whole kingdom of Numidia to be Roman territory, and Sallust the historian was sent thither as its governor. (Appian, Bell. Cir., 2, 100.) The western district, around the city of Cirta, was bestowed on Sittius, in recompense for his services to Caesar. (Vid. Cirta.) The country, however, still remained in an unsettled state, a prey to intestine commotions, until it sell into the hands of the triumvir Lepidus, and after him into those of Augustus, under the latter of whom the aspect of affairs was completely changed, and a more regular administration introduced into Numidia. Juba, son of the first Juba, an intelligent prince, who had been educated at Rome, and had gained the friendship of Augustus, received back from that emperor his father's former kingdom, but with very important alterations. The western part of Numidia, included between the rivers Mulucha and Ampsagas, which had formed the old territory of the Massaesyli and Syphax, together with all Mauritania, were assigned him for his kingdom, which now assumed the general name of Mauritania. At a later period, in the reign of Claudius, the western portion of Numidia, from the river Ampsagas, together with the eastern part of Mauritania as far as the Malva, were formed into a Roman province under the name of Mauritania Caesariensis, srom Caesarea, its capital; the remainder of Mauritania received the epithet of Tingitana. In the eighth century Numidia fell into the hands of the Saracens, and is now nominally under the Outoman porte.—The Numidians were a brave and hardy race, and remarkable for their skill in horsemanship. Hence the epithet of infreni applied to them by Virgil, and poetically denoting a nation who could dispense with the use of bridles. (Mela, l, 6–Plin., 5. 3.-Virg., AEm., 4, 41–Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 16, p. 369. — Mannert, Geogr., vol. 10, pt. 2, p. 192, seqq.) NUMítor, I. a son of Procas, king of Alba, and brother of Amulius. (Wid. Amulius.)—II. A son of Phorcus, who sought with Turnus against Æneas. (Virg., AEm., 10, 342.) NuNDINA, a goddess whom the Romans invoked when they named and purified their children. This happened the ninth day after their birth, whence the name of the goddess, Nona dies. (Macrob., Sat., 1, 16.) Nurs.A., a town of the Sabines, or more correctly, perhaps, in the territory of the AEqui, and near the banks of the Anio. Its particular site is unknown. (Virg., AEm., 7, 744.) Nursia, a city of the Sabines, at the foot of the central chain of the Apennines, and near the sources of the river War. It was noted for the coldness of its atmosphere. (Virg., AEm., 7,715–Sil. Ital, 8,418.) The modern Norcia corresponds to the ancient site. Polla Vespasia, the mother of Vespasian, was borr here. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 320.) Nycteis, I. a daughter of Nycteus, who was mother of Labdacus.—II. A patronymic of Antiope, the daughter of Nycteus, mother of Amphion and Zethus by Jupiter. (Ovid, Met., 6, 110) Nyctelius, a surname of Bacchus, because his orgies were celebrated in the night (vić, night, and re2.Éw, to perform). The words later Nyctelius thence signify wine. (Senec., OEd., v. 492–Hausan. 1, 40. —Ovid, Met., 4, 15.—Compare Serv. ad. Virg., MEn., 4, 303.-Liv., 39, 8.)

Nyctkus, father of Antiope. (Wid. Antiope I.) Nymphae, certain female deities among the ancients. The imagination of the Greeks peopled all the regions of earth and water with beautiful female forms called Nymphs, divided into various orders, according to the place of their abode. Thus, 1. the Mountain-Nymphs, or Oreades (Opetsides), haunted the mountains; 2. the Dale-Nymphs, or Napata (Nasraial), the valleys; 3. the Mead-Nymphs, or Leimoniades (Aetuovuićec), the meadows; 4. the Water-Nymphs, or Naiades (Natáðec), the rivers, brooks, and springs; 5, the Lake-Nymphs, or Limniades (Aluvuićec), the lakes and pools. There were also, 6, the Tree-Nymphs, or Hamadryades (Auadpváðec), who were born and died with the trees; 7, the Wood-Nymphs, or Dryades (Apváček), who presided over the forests generally ; and, 8, the Fruit-tree-Nymphs, or Flock-Nymphs (Meliades, Mn2táðeg), who watched over gardens or flocks of sheep.—The Nymphs occur in various relations to gods and men. The charge of rearing various deities and heroes was committed to them : they were, for instance, the nurses of Bacchus, Pan, and even Jupiter himself, and they also brought up Aristasus and AEneas. They were, moreover, the attendants of the f. they waited on Juno and Venus, and in untress attire they pursued the deer over the mountains in company with Diana. The Sea-Nymphs also formed a numerous class, under the appellation of Oceanides and Nereides.—The word Nymph (visuom) seems to have originally signified “bride,” and was probably derived from a verb vića), “to cover” or “veil,” and which was, akin to the Latin nubo and nubes. It was gradually applied to married or marriageable young women, for the idea of youth was always included. It is in this last sense that the goddesses of whom we have been treating were called Nymphs. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 237, seqq.) Nymphaeum, I. a place in the territory of Apollonia, in Illyriqum, remarkable for a mine of asphaltus, of which several ancient writers have given a descrip. tion. Near this spot was some rising ground, whence fire was constantly seen to issue, without, however, injuring either the grass or trees that grew there. (Aristot, Mirand. Auscult. AElian, War. Hist., 13, 16–Plin., 24, 7.) Strabo supposes it to have arisen from a mine of bitumen ... there being a hill in the vicinity whence this substance was dug out, the earth which was removed being in process of time converted into pitch, as it had been stated by Posidonius. (Strabo, 3.16.) Pliny says this spot was considered as oracular, which is confirmed by Dio Cassius, who describes at length the mode of consulting the oracle (41, 45). The phenomenon noticed by the writers here mentioned has been verified by modern travellers as existing near the village of Selenitza, on the left bank of the Aoûs, and near the junction of that river with the Sutchitza. (Jones's Journal, cited by Hughes, vol. 2, p. 262.) From Livy (42, 36 ct 49) it appears that there was a Roman encampment here for some time during the Macedonian war. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 61.) Plutarch (Wit. Syll.) tells an amusing story of a satyr having been caught asleep in this vicinity and brought to Sylla, the Roman commander, who was then on the spot!—II. A promontory of Athos, on the Singitic Gulf, now Cape S. Georgio. (Ptol., p. 82.)—III. A city in the Tauric Chersonese, on the route from Theodosia to Panticapaum, and having a good port on the Euxine. In Pliny's time it no longer existed (4. 12). The ruins, however, may still be traced in the vicinity of the modern Vosfor. (Mela, 2, 130.-Steph. Byz., p. 500.) Nymphaeus, a river of Armenia Major, which, according to Procopius, formed a separation between the Roman and Persian empires. It ran from north to south, entered the town of Martyropolis, and dis

charged itself into the Tigris southeast of Amida. (Amm. Marcell., 18, 9.) NYMphodórus, a native of Syracuse, whose era is uncertain. He wrote a work on the “Navigation along the coasts of Asia,” and another on the “Wonders in Sicily and Sardinia.” (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 2, p. 184.) Nysa, I. according to the Greek writers, a city of India, on a mountain named Mercs, whose inhabitants were said to be descended from a colony planted there by Bacchus in his Indian expedition. Arrian (5, 1) places it between the Cophenes and Indus. (Compare Plin., 6, 21. —Diod. Sic, 2, 38. Theophrast, Hist. Pl., 4, 4.— Polyaen., 1, 1, 2.) D'Anville is inclined to give a real existence to Nysa, apart, however, from the story of its origin, and seeks to identify its site with that of the ancient Nagger. (Geogr. Ancienne, vol. 2, p. 339. – Eclair.c. sur la Carte de l'Inde, p. 21.) Rennell also, and Barbier du Bocage, are in favour of the existence of such a place as Nysa, and strive to identify it with the modern Nugha, making the river Cophenes the same with the Cow. (Rennell, Description of India, vol. 2, p. 219.-Barbier du Bocage, p. 831.) Sainte-Croix, on the other hand, denies that there ever was such a place as Nysa, or such a mountain as Meros. (Examen des Hist. d’Aler., p. 241.) It is pretty evident that this last is the most correct opinion, and that the story was invented by the Greeks to flatter the vanity of Alexander, who was thus treading the same ground that Bacchus had. Hence the etymology given by them to the name Atóvvaoc (the Greek appellation of Bacchus), namely, the god (Air), from Nysa (Ast, Grundriss der Philologie, p. 44); and hence, too, the analogy that was found between the name of the mountain (Mmpóc) and the Greek term for a thigh (unpöc), which was supposed to be connected with the legend of Bacchus's concealment in the thigh of Jove, and his double birth.-II. According to Diodorus Siculus (1, 15), a city of Arabia Felix, where Osiris was nurtured. The same writer elsewhere states (4, 2) that it was situate between Phoenicia and the Nile (ueraşi bowl&nc kai Neiàov), leaving its precise situation altogether unknown.—III. A city of Cappadocia, on the Halys, between Parnassus and Osianas, now Nous Shehr. (Itin. Anton., p. 200.-Hierocles, Synecdem., p. 699.)—IV. A city of Caria, called also Pythopolis (Steph. Byz., p. 567), on the slope of Mount Messogis, in the valley of the Maeander. Strabo studied here under Aristodemus. It is now Nasli or Nosli. (Strabo, 650. Plin, 5, 29. – Pococke, vol. 3, b. 2, c. 10.—Chandler, c. 63.)—W. A place in Euboea, where the vine was said to put forth leaves and bear fruit the same day. (Steph. Byz., s. v. Nūoat.—WI. A small town on Mount Helicon, in Boeo tia. (Strabo, 403.—Steph. Byz., s. v. Nūgau.)—VII A town in the island of Naxos. (Steph. o Nysaeus, a surname of Bacchus, as the god of Nysa. (Wid. Nysa.) Nyslides, a name given to the nymphs of Nysa, to whose care Jupiter intrusted the education of his son Bacchus. (Ovid, Met., 3, 314, &c.)

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tered about the great sandy deserts of Africa. In Arabic they are called Wahys. The Arabic and the Greek names seem to contain the same root with the Coptic Ouahe, and possibly the word may be originally a native African term.—The Oases appear to be depressions in the table-land of Libya. On going from the Nile westward, the traveller gradually ascends till he arrives at the summit of an elevated plain, which continues nearly level, or with slight undulations, for a considerable distance, and rises higher on advancing towards the south. The Oases are valleys sunk in this plain; and, when you descend to one of them, you find the level space or plain of the Oasis similar to a portion of the valley of Egypt, surrounded by steep hills of limestone at some distance from the cultivated land. The low plain of the Oasis is sandstone or clay, and from this last the water rises to the surface and fertilizes the country; and, as the table-land is higher in the latitude of Thebes than in that of Lower Egypt, we may readily imagine that the water of the Oases is conveyed from some elevated point to the south, and, being retained by the bed of clay, rises to the surface wherever the limestone superstratum is removed. (Wilkinson, “On the Nile, and the present and former levels of Egypt.”—Journal of the London Geographical Society, 1839.) The principal Oases are four in number: 1. The Great Oasis ("Oaat, Meya??, Ptol.), which Strabo calls “the First Oasis” (# Trpárm ‘Oagic, 791). 2. The Little Oasis ("Oaat, Mispá, Ptolemy), called by Strabo the Second Oasis ("Oaouc devrápa). 3. The Oasis of Ammon. 4. The Western Oasis, which does not appear to have been mentioned by any ancient geographer except Olympiodorus, and was never seen by any Europeans until Sir Archibald Edmonstone visited it about 20 years ago.—These four constitute, as has been said, the principal Oases. The writers of the middle ages enlarge the number materially, from Arabic sources, and modern writers increase it still more, making upward of thirty Oases. (Bischoff und Möller, Wörterb. der Geogr., p. 795.)—The Great Oasis is the most southern of the whole, and is placed by Strabo and Ptolemy to the west of Abydos. It is the only one, with the exception of that of Ammon, with which Herodotus seems to have been acquainted (3, 26). He translates the term Oasis into Greek by Makápov viaoc, “Island of the blessed,” and without doubt this, or any other of these fertile spots, must have appeared to the traveller of former days well worthy of such an appellation, after he had suffered, during many painful weeks, the privations and fatigue of the desert. To the Greeks and Romans, however, of a later age, they generally presented themselves in a less favourable aspect, and were not unfrequently assigned as places of banishment, where the statemalefactor and the ministers of the Christian church, who were sometimes comprehended in the same class, were, in the second and third centuries, condemned to waste their days in the remote solitude of the desert. —The Great Oasis consists of a number of insulated spots, which extend in a line parallel to the course of the Nile, separated from one another by considerable intervals of sandy waste, and stretching not less than a hundred miles in latitude. Its Arabic name is ElWah, a general term in that language for Oasis. M. Poncet, who examined it in 1698, says that it contains many gardens watered with rivulets, and that its palmgroves exhibit a perpetual verdure. It is the first stage of the Darsār caravan, which assembles at Siout, being about four days’ journey from that town, and nearly the same distance from Farshout. The exer. tions of Browne, Caillaud, Edmonstone, and Henniker have supplied us with ample details relative to this interesting locality.—The Little Oasis, now El-Kassar, has not been much visited by travellers. We owe the latest and most distinct account to Belzoni,

who, proceeding in search of it westward from the valley of Fayoum, arrived at the close of the fourth day on the brink of what he calls the Elloah, that is, the Elwah or Oasis. He describes it as a valley surrounded with high rocks, forming a spacious plain of twelve or fourteen miles in length, and about six miles in breadth. There is only a small portion cultivated at present, but there are many proofs remaining that it must at one time have been all under crop, and that, with proper management, it might again be easily rendered fertile. Here also the traveller found a fountain, the waters of which resembled, in their changes of temperature at different times of the day, the famous Fons Solis in the Oasis of Ammon. It is now ascertained that such sountains are not peculiar to any one of the Oases, having been discovered in various parts of the Libyan desert. The change, in fact, takes place in the surrounding atmosphere.—The Oasis of Ammon, called by the Arabs Siwah, has already been partially alluded to under the article Ammon. It is situated in lat. 29°12' N., and in longitude 26° 6' E., being about six miles long, and between four and five in width, the nearest distance from the river of Egypt not exceeding one hundred and twenty miles. A large proportion of the land is occupied by datetrees; but the palm, the pomegranate, the fig, the olive, the vine, the apricot, the plum, and even the apple, are said to flourish in the gardens. No soil can be more fertile. Tepid springs, too, holding salts in solution, are numerous throughout the district; and it is imagined that the frequency of earthquakes is connected with the geological structure of the surrounding country. The ruins of the temple of Ammon are described as still very imposing; and nearly a mile from these ruins, in a pleasant grove of date-palms, is still discovered the celebrated Fountain of the Sun, dedicated of old to the Ammonian deity. (Wid. Ammon.) The interest of the traveller is still farther excited by a succession of lakes and remains of temples, which stretch into the desert far towards the west; all rendered sacred by religious associations, and by the traditionary legends of the native tribes. Tombs, catacombs, churches, and convents are scattered over the waste, which awaken the recollections of the Christian to the early history of his belief, and which, at the same time, recall to the pagan and Mohammedan events more interesting than are to be found in the vulgar annals of the human race, or can touch the heart of any one but those who are connected with a remote lineage by means of a family history. At a short distance from the sacred lake there is a temple of Roman or Greek construction, the architecture of which is executed with much care and precision, a circumstance which cannot fail to excite surprise in a country surrounded by the immense deserts of Libya, and at the distance of not less than 400 miles from the ancient limits of civilization. In the consecrated territory of that mysterious land is the salt lake of Arashich, distant two days and a half from Siwah, in a valley enclosed by two mountains, and extending from six to seven leagues in circumference. So holy is it esteemed, that M. Caillaud could not obtain permission to visit its banks. Even the pacha's firman failed to alter the determination of the sheiks on this essential point. They declared that they would sooner perish than suffer a stranger to approach that sacred island, which, according to their belief, contained treasures and talismans of mysterious power. It is said to possess a temple, in which are the seal and sword of the prophet, the palladium of their independence, and not to be seen by any profane eye. A reasonable doubt may however be entertained as to these assertions; for M. Drovetti, who accompanied a detachment of troops under Hassan Bey, walked round the borders of the lake, and observed nothing in its bosom but naked rocks. Mr. Browne, too, remarks that he found misshapen rocks in abundance, but nothing that he could |..." decide to be ruins; it being very unlikely, he adds, that any should be there, the spot being entirely destitute of trees and fresh water. Major Rennell has employed much learning to prove that the Oasis of Siwah is the site of the famous temple of Jupiter Ammon. He remarks that the variations between all the authorities, ancient and modern, amount to little more than a space equal to twice the length of the Oasis in question, which is, at the utmost, only six miles long. “And it is pretty clearly proved,” he remarks, “that no other Oasis exists in that quarter, within two or more days’ journey; but, on the contrary, that Siwah is surrounded by a wide desert: so that it cannot be doubted that this Oasis is the same with that of Ammon, and the edifice found there the remains of the celebrated temple whence the oracles of Jupiter Ammon were delivered.” (Geogr. of Herodotus, vol. 2, p. 230, ed. 1830.)—The Western Oasis, as it is termed, was visited in the year 1819 by Sir A. Edmonstone, in company with two friends. Having joined a caravan of Bedouins at Beni Ali, and entered the Libyan desert, they proceeded towards the southwest. At the end of six days, having travelled about one hundred and eighty miles, they reached the first village of the Western Oasis, which is called Bellata. The principal town of the Oasis, however, is El Cazar. The situation of this last-mentioned place is said to be perfectly lovely, being on an eminence at the foot of a line of rock which rises abruptly behind it, and encircled by extensive gardens filled with palm, acacia, citron, and various other kinds of trees, some of which are rarely seen even in those regions. The principal edifice is an old temple or convent called Daer el Hadjin, about fifty feet long by twentyfive wide, but presenting nothing either very magnificent or curious. The Oasis is composed of twelve villages, of which ten are within five or six miles of each other. The prevailing soil is a very light red earth, fertilized entirely by irrigation. The latitude of this Oasis is nearly the same as that of the Great Oasis, or about 26° north. The longitude eastward from Greenwich may be a little more or less than 28°. —At different distances in the desert, towards the west, are other Oases, the exact position and extent of which are almost entirely unknown to the European geographer. The ancients, who would appear to have had more certain intelligence in regard to this quarter of the globe than is yet possessed by the moderns, were wont to compare the surface of Africa to a leopard's skin; the little islands of fertile soil being as numerous as the spots on that animal.—The fertility of the Oases has always been deservedly celebrated. Strabo mentions the superiority of their wine; Abulfeda and Edrisi the luxuriance of their palm-trees. The climate, however, is extremely variable, especially in winter. Sometimes the rains in the Western Oasis are very abundant, and fall in torrents, as appears from the surrows in the rocks; but the season Sir A. Ed. monstone made his visit there was none at all, and the total want of dew in the hot months sufficiently proves the general dryness of the atmosphere. The springs are all strongly impregnated with iron and sulphur, and hot at their sources; but, as they continue the same throughout the whole year, they supply to the inhabitants one of the principal means of life. The water, notwithstanding, cannot be used until it has been cooled in an eartheu jar. (Russell's Egypt, p. 393, seqq.) Oaxes, a river of Crete, said to have derived its name from Oaxes, a son of Apollo. (Virg., Eclog., l, 66.—Serp., ad loc.). It is now the Mylopotomo, and is apparently one of the most considerable streams in the island. Some, however, identify it with the Petrea. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 381.—

Bischoff und Möller, Wörterb, der Geogr., p. 795.) Oaxus, a town of Crete, on the northern side of the

island, at the mouth, probably, of the Oaxes. It was the capital of a kingdom which had its appropriate sovereign, and was said to have been founded by the Oaxes mentioned in the preceding article. (Herod., 5, 153.-Serv. ad Virg., Eclog., 1, 66.-Steph. Byz., s. v.–Hierocles, p. 650.) OBRINGA, a river of Germany, forming the line of separation between Germania Superior and Inferior. According to Spener, Cluverius, Cellarius, and othere it corresponds to the modern Aar or Ahr. Mannert, however, and Wilhelm, make it the same with the beginning of the Upper Rhine (“den Ansang des Ober. Rheins.”—Mannert, Geogr., vol. 3, p. 432). Obs;QUENs, Julius, a Latin writer, whose era is uncertain. Vossius places him a short period prior to Honorius; but his style indicates an earlier era. Scaliger makes him to have been before the time of St. Jerome; while Saxe assigns him to about 107 A.D. (G. I. Voss, de Hist. Lat., 3, p. 710. — Sare, Onomast., vol. 1, p. 289. — Funce., de veget. L. L. senect., 8, 11, seq). He was probably either a Roman or an Italian, and some are inclined to identify him with the M. Livius Obsequens whose name occurs in one of Gruter's inscriptions (Inscript., 241), on the supposition that Livius may have been altered to Julius in the only MS. that has come down to us of this work. (Fuhrmann, Handbuch., vol. 2, p. 490.) Obsequens has left us a work “On Prodigies” (de Prodigiis), containing a brief account of all the presages remarked at Rome from the consulship of Scipio and Laelius, A.U.C. 453, down to that of Paulus Fabius and Quintus AElius, in the time of Augustus, or A.U.C. 742. The portion of the work which comprehended the history of the first five or six centuries is lost. This production is taken in part from Livy; but it contains, at the same time, some historical details which are nowhere else to be found. It is written in a pure style, and is not unworthy of the Augustan age. The contents, however, are full of absurdity. The best edition is that of Kapp, Curiae, 1772, 8vo. (Fuhrmann, Handbuch, vol. 2, p. 490–Schöll, Hist. Lit. Rom., vol. 2, p. 465.-Bühr, Gesch. Röm. Lit., p.658, seq.) OcEANídes ('Qweavíðec), the Ocean-Nymphs, daughters of Oceanus and Tethys, and sisters of the rivers. Mythologists make them three thousand in number. (Hes., Theog., 364.—Apollod., 1, 2.-Heyne, not. crit., ad loc.) From their pretended names, as given by some of the ancient writers, they appear to be only personifications of the various qualities and appearances of water. (Theog., 346. Göttling, ad loc.— Keightley's Mythology, p. 244.) OcEXNus, I, the god of the stream Oceanus (vid. Oceanus II.), earlier than Neptune. He was the firstborn of the Titans, the offspring of Coelus and Terra, or Heaven and Earth. Oceanus espoused his sister Tethys, and their children were the rivers of the earth, and . the three thousand Oceanides or Nymphs of Ocean. (Hesiod, Theog., 337, seq.) This is all the account of Oceanus that is given in the Theogony. Homer speaks of him and Tethys as the origin of the gods. (Il., 14, 201, 302.) When Jupiter, he also says, placed his sire in Tartarus, Rhea committed her daughter Juno to the charge of Oceanus and Tethys, by whom she was carefully nurtured. (ll, 14, 202,303.) The abode of Oceanus was in the West. (Il., 14, 200, 301.) He dwelt, according to Æschylus, in a grotto-palace, beneath his stream, as it would appear. (Prom. Vinctus, 300.) In the “Prometheus Bound” of this poet, Oceanus comes borne through the air on a hippo-griff, to console and advise the lofty-minded sufferer; and from the account he gives of his journey, it is manifest that he came from the West.—When Hercules was crossing his stream in the cup of the Sun-god to procure the oxen of Geryon, Oceanus rose, and, by agitating his waters, tried to terrify him; but, on the hero's bending his bow at him, he *. (Pherec.,

ap. Athen, 11, p.470.-Keightley's Mythology, p. 51, seq.)—II. Besides being the name of a deity, the term Oceanus ('Qxeavóc) occurs in Homer in another sense also. It is made to signify an immense stream, which, according to the rude ideas of that early age, circulated around the terraqueous plain, and from which the different seas ran out in the manner of bays. This opinion, which is also that of Eratosthenes, was prevalent even in the time of Herodotus (4,36). Homer terms the ocean dipóð009, because it thus flowed back into itself. (Mus. Crit., vol. 1, p. 254.) This same river Oceanus was supposed to ebb and flow thrice in the course of a single day, and the heavenly bodies were believed to descend into it at their setting, and emerge from it at their rising. Hence the term Ökeavác is sometimes put for the horizon (Damm. Ler., s. v. 6 πov kai &moréuvav trip yīc kai Örö yiv #utagatpuov.) In Homer, therefore, Čkeavóg and 34. Aaaaa always mean different things, the latter merely denoting the sea in the more modern acceptation of the term. On the shield of Achilles the poet represents the Oceanus as encircling the rim or extreme border of the shield, in full accordance with the popular belief of the day; whereas in Virgil's time, when this primitive meaning of the term was obsolete, and more correct geographical views had come in, we find the sea (the idea being borrowed, probably, from the position of the Mediterranean) occupying in the poet's description the centre of the shield of Æneas. If it be asked whether any traces of this peculiar meaning of the term Ökeavág occurs in other writers besides Homer, the following authorities, in favour of the asfirmative, may be cited in reply. Hesiod, Theog., 242. Id., Herc. Clyp., 314.— Eurip., Orest., 1369. —Orph, Hymn, 10, 14 —Id., H., 82-1d, fragm., 44.—(Maltby, ad Morell. Thes., s. v. 'Qksavóc. — Compare Völcker, Homerische Geographie, p. 86, seq.) As regards the etymology of the term (okeavóc. we are left in complete uncertainty. The form Öyjvoc occurs in Pherecydes (Clem. Aler., Strom., 6, p. 621. —Sturz, ad Pherecyd.), from which it appears to some that the root was connected with the Greek yéa, yi, (à-yéa-voc, Ö-yń-vog). On the other hand, Munter (Rel, der Karthager, p. 63) finds the root of dyijvoc in the Hebrew hug, “in orbem ire,” as referring to the circular course of the fabled Oceanus. Creuzer is inclined to consider öyövtoc as equivalent to tražatóc, “antiquus.” (Creuzer und Hermann, Briefe, p. 160.) It is remarkable that one of the oldest names of the Nile among the Greeks was dikeavóc (Tzetz. ad Lycophron, 119), or, more correctly, perhaps, Čkeapiń. (Diod. Sic, 1, 19.-Compare Ritter's Erdkunde, vol. 1, p. 570, 2d ed.) Now in the Coptic, according to Champollion, oukamé means “black,” “dark;” and according to Marcel, ochemaw, in the same language, denotes “a great collection of water.” Will either of these give &keavóg as a derivative? The one or the other of them seems connected in some way with the Arabic Kåmus, “ocean.” (Ritter, loc. cit.) Perhaps, however, the most satisfactory derivation for the term Occanus is that alluded to in the article Ogyges. Ocellus, surnamed Lucanus, from his having been a native of Lucania, a Pythagorean philosopher, who flourished about 480 B.C. He wrote many works on philosophical subjects, the titles of which are given in a letter written by Archytas to Plato, which has been preserved by Diogenes Laertius (8,80). But the only production of his which has come down to us, is “On the Nature of the Universe” (IIepi ric toū Tavròg piaewo). Its chief philosophical topic is to maintain the eternity of the universe. Ocellus also attempts to prove the eternity of the human race (c. 3, s. 3). These works were, without doubt, written in the Doric dialect, which prevailed in the native country of Ocellus; and hence much surprise

has been occasioned by the circumstance of the last of these productions, which we still possess, being in Ionic Greek. In consequence of this discrepance, Barth (Advers., 1.42, c. 1, p. 1867), Parker (Disp. de Deo et Provid, 1678–Disp., 4, p. 355,) Thomas Burnet (Archaeol. Philos., p. 152), and Meiners (Philolog. Biblioth., vol. 1, pt. 3, p. 100 et 204.— Hist. Doctr. de vero Deo, p. 312–Gesch der Wissensch., p. 584), have attacked the authenticity of the work in question: while, on the other hand, Bentley (Phalaris, p. 307, ed. 1816), Lipsius (Manud ad Stoic. Phil., l. 1, diss. 6), Adelung (Gesch. der Philosophie für Liebhaber), Tiedemann (Griechenl erste Philosophen, p. 198 et 209), and Bardili (Epochen der vorzögl: philos. Begriffe, vol. 1, p. 165), declare in favour of the work. These conflicting opinions have been carefully examined and weighed by Rudolphi, in a Dissertation appended to his edition of the work, and he comes to the conclusion that the treatise in question was written by Ocellus. It would appear that some grammarians of subsequent ages, in copying the text of Ocellus, caused the Doric sorms to disappear, and translated the work, so to speak, into the more common dialect. This idea was first started by Bardili, and what tends to clothe it with almost absolute certainty is, that the fragments of the same work which we meet with in the selections of Stoba.us have preserved their original Doric form. And yet it must at the same time be acknowledged, that this production of Ocellus is only cited for the first time by the writers of the second century of our era, and at a period when the New-Pythagoreans began to forge works under the guise of celebrated names– The best edition is that of Rudolphi, Lips., 1801, 8vo. The edition of Batteux, Paris, 1768, 3 vols. 12mo, is also a very good one. Batteux corrected the text after two Paris MSS., and Rudolphi availed himself of Siebenkee's collation of a Vatican MS. Gale has placed the work of Ocellus in his Opuscula Mythologica, &c., Cantabr., 1671. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 2, p. 311, seqq.) OcElum, I. a city in Hispania Tarraconensis, in the territory of the Vettones, now Formoselle.—II. A city in Hispania Tarraconensis, in the territory of the Gallaici,--III. A city of Gallia Cisalpina, among the Cottian Alps, on the eastern borders of the kingdom of Cottius. According to Mannert, it is now Avigliana, a small town with a castle, in Piedmont, not far from Turin. (Caes., B. G., 1, 10.) Ochus, a surname or epithet applied to Artaxerxes III., and also to Darius II., kings of Persia. It is generally thought to indicate illegitimate birth, and to be equivalent to the Greek Nôtoc (Nothus). This explanation is opposed, however, by some Oriental scholars, who deduce the term Ochus from the Persian Ochi or Achi, which they make equivalent to the Latin dignus or majestate dignus. (Consult Gesenius, Lez. Hebr., s. v. Achas.— Bühr, ad Ctes , p. 186.) The reign of Artaxerxes Ochus has been noticed elsewhere (vid. Artaxerxes III.), that of Darius Ochus, or Darius II., will now be given. This prince was the illegitimate son of Artaxerxes Longimanus. Soon after the murder of Xerxes II., 1)arius succeeded in deposing Sogdianus, and ascended the throne himself, B.C. 423. By his wife Parysatis he had Artaxerxes Mnemon and Cyrus the Younger. Nothing very remarkable occurred during his reign, but some successful wars were carried on under Cyrus and other generals. He died B.C. 404, after a reign of nineteen years, and was succeeded by his son Artaxerxes, who is said to have asked him, on his death-bed, by what rule he had acted in his administration, that he might adopt the same, and find the same success. . The king's answer is said to have been, that he had always kept, to the best of his knowledge, the strict path of justice and religion. (Xen., Anab., 1, 1.-Diod. Sic,

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