Obrazy na stronie

have been preserved; but of all these we possess at present only two in a perfect state, with a few fragments of some of the others. Both are poems. One is entitled Omptakā (Theriaca), the other 'AWe;194ppuaRa (Alexipharmaca).-The Theriaca consists of nearly 1000 lines in hexameter verse, and treats of the wounds caused by different venomous animals, and the proper treatment of each. It is characterized by Haller (Biblioth. Botan.) as “longa, incondita, et nullius fidei farrago,” but still we occasionally find some curious passages relating to natural history. We have in it, for example, an exact, but rather long description of the combat between the ichneumon and serpents, whose flesh this quadruped eats with impunity. He speaks of scorpions, which he divides into nine species, an arrangement adopted by some modern naturalists. Then come some curious observations on the effect of the venom of various kinds of serpents, each differing in the appearances and symptoms to which it gives rise. Nicander thought he had discovered that the poison of serpents is concealed in a membrane surrounding the teeth; which is, after all, not very far removed from the true state of the case. He describes a species of serpents, named ofty, which always assumes the colour of the ground over which it moves. (Compare Pliny, 8, 35; Aristotle, Mirah. Auscult., c. 178; and Ælian, N. A., 16, 40.) Nicander is the first who distinguishes between the moth or night-butterfly, and that which flies by day, and he gives to the former the name of pāāava. He is one of the earliest writers also who mentions the salamander. This poem contains, too, a great number of popular sables, which were credited, however, at the time that Nicander wrote; as, for example, that wasps are produced from horse-flesh in a putrid state, and bees from that of an ox. He likewise states that the bite of the field-mouse is poisonous, and also that the animal dies if it should fall into a wheel rut, both which circumstances are repeated by Pliny (8, 83) and AElian (H. A., 2, 37).-The Aleripharmaca is rather a shorter poem, written in the same metre, and may be considered as a sort of continuation of the Theriaca. Haller's judgment on this work is as severe as that on the preceding. He says of it, “Descriptio via ulla, symptomata fuse recensentur, et magna farrago et' incondita plantarum potissimum aleripharmacarum subjicitur.” Among the poisons of the animal kingdom he mentions the cantharis of the Greeks, which is not the Lytta Vesicatoria, but Meloë Chichorii. He speaks also of the buprestis (Carabus Bucidon); of the blood of a bull; of coagulated milk in the stomach of mammiferous animals; of the leech (hirudo venenata); and of a species of gecko (cañauávópa). Among the vegetable poisons we find the aconite, coriander (which has sometimes been fatal in Egypt); the hemlock, colchicum, henbane, and the different species of fungi, the growth of which Nicander attributes to fermentation. #. mineral poisons he mentions only white lead, a carbonate of lead and litharge, or protoxide of lead.—To counterbalance, in some degree, Haller's unfavourable opinion of Nicander's extant works, it ought in justice to be stated, that his knowledge of natural history appears to be at least equal to that of other writers of his own or even a later age, while on the subject of poisons he was long considered a great authority. Galen several times quotes him; and Dioscorides, Aëtius, and Johannes Actuarius have borrowed from him largely.— “Nicander's general treatment of cases,” observes Dr. Adams, “in as far as my knowledge and experience enable me to form a judgment, is founded upon very rational principles; and, in some instances, the correctness of his physiological views is such as cannot but command our admiration, considering the age in which he lived. Thus, he states that poison is most fatal to a person when fasting, which clearly implies

his acquaintance with the fact that the vessels absorb most readily when in an empty state. This doctrine, which has been revived of late years by a celebrated French experimentalist as a new discovery, is alluded to not only by our author, but more fully by Celsus, Dioscorides, Paulus AEgineta, Avicenna, Avensoar, and Averrhoes. It was, no doubt, from his knowledge of this principle, that Nicander has nowhere recommended general bleeding, lest, by emptying the vessels, the absorption and its distribution over the system should be promoted. Hence subsequent writers on Toxicology, such, for example, as Paulus AEgineta and Avicenna, only approve of bleeding when the poison is diffused over the body; and a very late authority, Dr. Paris, is at great pains to enforce the impropriety of venesection in the early stages before absorption has taken place.—Nicander recommends cupping and the actual cautery as preservatives from absorption in cases of poisoned wounds, and both these modes of practice have been revived of late years with great encomiums. The application of leeches to the vicinity of the wound, though not generally had recourse to now, seems a remedial measure deserving of trial.—In a word, the great merit of his practice is, that his remedies appear to have been administered upon general principles, and that he did not put much trust in specifics. Of many of his medicines, indeed, no one nowadays can speak from personal experience, and it seems but reasonable to judge of them in the indulgent manner that Socrates did respecting the obscurer part of the philosophical system of Heraclitus: “What I do understand of it,' said he, with becoming modesty, * I find to be admirable, and therefore I take it for granted that what I do not understand is equally so.’” —With respect to Nicander's merits as a poet, the most opposite opinions are to be found in both ancient and modern writers. In the Greek Anthology, Colophon is congratulated for being the birthplace of Homer and Nicander (vol. 3, p. 270, ep. 567, ed. Brunck.). Cicero, in alluding to his “Georgics,” a poem not now extant, praises the poetical manner in which he treats a subject of which he was entirely ignorant (de Orat., 1, 16); while Plutarch, on the other hand, says that the Theriaca only escapes being prose because it is put into metre, and will not allow it to be called a poein because there is nothing in it “ of fable or falsehood.” (De Aud. Poèt., c. 2.) This very point, however, Julius Caesar Scaliger thinks worthy of especial commendation, and says, “Magna ci laus quod me quid ineptum aut ineptè dicut.” (Poèt., lib. 5, c

15.) He goes on to praise the accuracy of his expressions and versification, and declares that among all the Greek authors a more polished poet is hardly to be found. M. Merian, on the other hand, in an essay “Comment les Sciences influent dans la Poésie” (Mem. de l'Acad. Royal de Berlin, 1776, p. 423), mentions Nicander, to show the antipathy that exists between the language of poetry and the subjects of which he treated. He calls him “a grinder of antidotes, who sang of scorpions, toads, and spiders,” and considers his poem as fit only for the apothecaries.— Nicander's poetical genius, in all probability, was a good deal cramped by the prosaic nature of the subjects which he chose for his theme ; and we may fairly say, that his writings contain quite as much poetry as could be expected from such unpromising materials. As for his style and language, probably every one who has ever read half a dozen lines of either of his poems will agree with Bentley, who says that he studiously affected obsolete and antiquated words, and must have been an obscure writer even to his contemporaries. (Museum Criticum, vol. 1, p. 371.)—The best edition of the Alexipharmaca is that of Schneider, Halae, 1792, 8vo. The Theriaca, by the same editor, and equally valuable, appeared in 1816, Lips., 8vo. The Theriaca was also published the same year in the Museum Criticum, with Bentley's emendations (vol. 1, p. 370, seqq.). There is extant a Greek paraphrase, in prose, of both poems (printed in Schneider's editions), by Eutecnius the sophist, of whom nothing is known except that he has done the same to Oppian's Cynegetica and Halieutica. (Encyclop. Us. Knowl., vol. 16, p. 203, seq.) Nicktor (Nukátop, i.e., “Victor”) a surname assumed by Seleucus I. (Vid. Seleucus.) Nicephorium (Nukmoptov), a strongly-fortified city of Mesopotamia, south of Charrao, and at the confluence of the Billichia and Euphrates. Alexander is said to have selected the site, which was an extremely advantageous one. (Plin., 6, 26.-Isidor., Charac., p. 3.) The name remained until the fourth century, when it disappeared from history, and, in the account of Julian's expedition, a city named Callinicum (Ka22 twikov) is mentioned, which occupies the same place where Nicephorium had previously stood. This conformity of position, and sudden change of name, lead directly to the supposition that Nicephorium and Callinicum were one and the same place, and that the earlier appellation (“Victory-bringing,” vikm and oëpo) had merely been exchanged for one of the same general import (“Fair-conquering,” kažác and vikm). Hence we may reject the statement sometimes made, that the city received its later name from Seleucus Callinicus as its founder (Chron. Alexandr., Olymp. 134, 1), as well as what Walesius (ad Amm. Marcell., 23, 6) cites from Libanius (Ep. ad Aristanet.), that Nicephorium changed its name in honour of the sophist Callinicus, who died there.—Marcellinus describes Callinicum as a strong place, and carrying on a great trade (“munimentum robustum, et commercandi opimitate gratissimum”). Justinian repaired and strengthened the fortifications. (Compare Theodoret, Hist. Relig., c. 26.) At a subsequent period, the name of the city again underwent a change. The Emperor Leo, who about 466 A.D. had contributed to adorn the place, ordered it to be called Leontopolis, and under this title Hierocles enumerates it among the cities of Osroëne. (Synecdem., ed. Wesseling, p. 715.) Stephanus of Byzantium asserts that Nicephorium, at a later period, changed its name to Constantina; but this is impossible, as the city of Constantina belongs to quite a different part of the country. D'Anville fixes the site of Nicephorium near the modern Racca, in which he is followed by subsequent writers. (Mannert, vol. 5, pt. 2, p. 286, seqq.) NicePHorius, a river of Armenia Major, the same with the Centritis. (Vid. Centritis.) NicephūRUs, I. an emperor of the East, was originally Logotheta, or intendant of the finances, during the reign of the Empress Irene and her son Constan. tine V.I., in the latter part of the eighth century. Irene, having deprived her son of sight, usurped the throne, and reigned alone for six years, when a conspiracy broke out against her, headed by Nicephorus, who was proclaimed emperor, and crowned in the church of St. Sophia, A.D. 802. He banished Irene to the island of Lesbos, where she lived and died in a state of great destitution. . The troops in Asia revolted against Nicephorus, who showed himself avaricious and cruel, and they proclaimed the patrician Bardanes emperor; but Nicephorus defeated and seized Bardanes, confined him in a monastery, and deprived him of sight. The Empress Irene had consented to pay an annual tribute to the Saracens, in order to stop their incursions into the territories of the empire. Nicephorus refused to continue this payment, and wrote a message of defiance to the Caliph Haroun al Raschid. The caliph collected a vast army, which devastated Asia Minor, and destroyed the city of Heraclea on the coast of the Euxine, and Nicephorus was obliged to sue for peace, and pay tribute as Irene had done. In an attack which he

subsequently made on the Bulgarians, he was utterly

defeated by them, and lost his life A. D. 811. His son Stauracius succeeded him, but reigned only six months, and was succeeded by Michael Rhangabe, master of the palace.—II. The second emperor of the name, surnamed Phocas (but who must not be confounded with the usurper Phocas, who reigned in the beginning of the seventh century), was descended of a noble Byzantine family, and distinguished himself as a commander in the field. After the death of Romanus II., A.D. 950, his widow Theophano, who was accused of having poisoned him, reigned as guardian to her infant son; but, finding herself insecure on the throne, she invited Nicephorus to come to Constantinople, and promised him her hand. Nicephorus came, married Theophano, and assumed the title of Augustus, A.D. 963. He repeatedly attacked the Saracens, and drove them out of Cilicia and part of Syria. In 968, Otho I., emperor of Germany, sent an embassy to Nicephorus, who received it in an uncivil manner. His avarice made him unpopular, and his wife, the unprincipled Theophano, having formed an intrigue W. John Zimisces, an Armenian officer, conspired with him against her husband. Zimisces, with his confederates, was introduced at night into the bedchamber of the emperor, and murdered him, A.D. 969—We have remaining, at the present day, a portion of a military work under the name of this emperor. It is entitled IIepi Tapaépouñc Tožiuov, “Of war with light troops,” making known the mode of carrying on war in mountainous countries, as practised in the tenth century. Hase has given the first 25 chapters of this work, at the end of his edition of Leo Diaconus, these being the only ones contained in three MSS. of the Royal Library at Paris. A MS. at Heidelberg has 30 chapters more; but Hase believes that they do not belong to this work, or, rather, that they form part of a second work on the same subject. It is thought, however, that the production first mentioned appeared after the death of Phocas, and that the compiler, or perhaps author of it, lived in the time of Basilius II. and Constantine VIII. (Schöll, Gesch. Gr. Lit., vol. 3, p. 350.)—III. The third emperor of the name, surnamed Botoniates, was an old officer of some military reputation in the Byzantine army in Asia, and revolted against the Emperor Michael Ducas. A.D. 1078. With a body of troops, chiefly composed of Turkish mercenaries, he marched to Chalcedon; upon which Michael resigned the purple, and Nicephorus was proclaimed emperor at Constantinople. Michael was sent to a monastery with the title of Archbishop of Ephesus. Another aspirant to the throne, Nicephorus Bryennius, was defeated, taken prisoner, and deprived of sight. A fresh insurrection, led by Basilacius, was likewise put down by the troops of Nicephorus, under the command of Alexius Comnenus. Alexius himself, who had an hereditary claim to the throne, was soon after proclaimed emperor by the soldiers. Having entered Constantinople by surprise, he seized Nicephorus, and banished him to a monastery, where he died a short time aster, A.D. 1081. (Encyclop. Us. Knowl., vol. 16, p. 207.)—IV. Basilaces, a teacher of rhetoric at Constantinople during the latter half of the eleventh century. He has left some fables, tales, and epopees; for example, Joseph accused by Potiphar's wife; David in the cave with Saul; David pursued by Absalom, &c. These productions are contained in the collection of Leo Allatius.-W. Bryennius, a native of Orestias, in Macedonia, and son-in-law to the Emperor Alexius I. (Comnenus), who conferred upon him the title of Isavvitepaébaaroo, equivalent to that of Caesar. In 1096 A.D., his father-in-law intrusted to him the defence of Constantinople against Godfrey of Bouillon. In 1108 he negotiated the peace with Boemond, prince of Antioch. At the death of Alexius in 1118, Irene, widow of the deceased, and Anna Comnena, wife of Bryennius, wished him to ascend the throne; but his own indifference on this point, and the measures taken by John, the son of Alexius, defeated their plans. It was on this occasion that Anna Comnena passionately exclaimed, that nature had mistaken the two sexes, and had endowed Bryennius with the soul of a woman. He died in 1137. At the order of the Empress Irene, Bryennius undertook, during the life of Alexius, a history of the house of Comnenus, which he entitled "YZm 'Ioroptaç, “Materials for History,” and which he distributed into four books. He commenced with Isaac Comnenus, the first prince of this line, who reigned from 1057 to 1059 A.D., without being able to transmit the sceptre to his family, into whose hands it did not pass until 1081, when Alexius I. ascended the throne. Nicephorus stops at the period of his father-in-law's accession to the throne, after having given his history while a private individual. He had at his disposal excellent materials; but his impartiality as an historian is not very highly esteemed. In point of diction, his work holds a very favourable rank among the productions of the Lower Empire. It was continued by Anna Comnena. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 6, p. 388.)—VI. Blemmida, a monk of the 13th century. He has left three works: “a Geographical Abridgment” (Teoypadia ovvostriká), which is nothing but a prose metaphrase of the Periegesis of Dionysius the Geographer: a work entitled “A Second History (or Description) of the Earth” ("Erépa iotopia Topi to yic), in which he gives an account of the form and size of the earth, and of the different lengths of the day: and a third, “On the Hearens and Earth, the Sun, Moon, Stars, Time, and Days” (IISpi Oüpavoi, kai yijo, 'H2tov, Xe? fivno, 'Agrépany, Xpóvov, Kai Huepoy). In this last the author develops a system, according to which the earth is a plane. The first two were published by Spohn, at Leipzig, 1818, in 4to, and by Manzi, from a MS. in the Barberini Library, Rom., 1819, 4to. Bernhardy has given the Metaphrase in his edition of Dionysius, Lips., 1828; the third is unedited. It is mentioned by Bredow in his Epistola. Parisienses. – VII. Surnamed Xanthopulus, lived about the middle of the 14th century. He wrote an Ecclesiastical History in 18 books, which, along with many useful extracts from writers whose productions are now lost, contains a great number of fables. This history extends from the birth of our Saviour to A.D. 610. The arguments of five other books, which would carry it down to A.D. 911, are by a different writer. In preparing his work, Nicephorus availed himself of the library attached to the church of St. Sophia, and here he passed the greater part of his life. He has left also Catalogues, in Jambic verse, of the Greek emperors, the patriarchs of Constantinople, and the fathers of the church, besides other minor works. To this same writer is likewise ascribed a work containing an account of the church of the Virgin, situate at certain mineral waters in Constantinople, and of the miraculous cures wrought by these.—The Ecclesiastical History was edited by Ducasus (Fronton du Duc), Paris, 1630, 2 vols. fol. The metrical Catalogues are to be found in the edition of the Epigrams of Theodorus Prodromus, published at Bâle, 1536, 8vo. The account of the mineral waters, &c., appeared for the first time at Vienna in 1802, 8vo, edited by Pampereus.—VIII. Surnamed Chumnus, was Praefectus Cansclei ('O &ti Toi Kavuk?etov) under Andronicus II., surnamed Palaeologus. The canicleus (kavíkAetoc) was a small vessel filled with the red liquid with which the emperors used to sign their names to documents. His daughter Irene was married in 1304 to John Palacologus, the eldest son of Andronicus, who, together with his younger brother Michael, had been associated with him in the empire by their father, A.D. 1295, and who died A.D. 1308, without issue. Nicephorus composed a number of works, which still remain unedited. They treat of rhetorical, philosophical, and

physical subjects. He wrote also two discourses, one addressed to Andronicus II., the other to Irene, to console them for the loss of a son and husband. His letters are also preserved. Disgusted with active life, Nicephorus became a monk, and took the name of Nathaniel. Creuzer (ad Plotin. de Pulcr., p. 400) makes him a native of Philippopolis; but in this there is a double error: first, in ascribing to the father a letter written by his son Johannes; and, secondly, in reading roi; Pizarrowróżewo instead of to bottstovTóżewc, “to the Bishop of Philippopolis.” (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 3, p. 147.)—IX. Gregoras, a native of Heraclea, who wrote on grammatical, historical, and astronomical subjects. Andronicus II. appointed him chartophylax of the church, and in 1325 sent him on an embassy to the King of Servia. Gregoras did not abandon his royal patron when dethroned by Andronicus III., and it was he who, four years after this event, assisted at the deathbed of the fallen monarch. He showed himself a zealous opponent of the Palamites, a sect of fanatics who were throwing the church into confusion, but was condemned for this by the synod of Constantinople, A.D. 1351, at the instance of the patriarch Callistus, and confined in a convent, where he ended his days.—His grammatical works are in part unedited.. He wrote also a Byzantine, or, as he calls it, Roman ('Pouaiks) History, in thirtyeight books, of which the first twenty-four alone, extending from 1204 to 1331 A.D., have been published: the other books, which terminate at A.D. 1359, remain still unedited. Gregoras is vain, passionate, and partial: his style is affected, and overloaded with figures, especially hyperboles, and full of repetitions. The latest edition of the history which had been published, was, until very recently, that of Boivin, Paris, 1702, 2 vols. fol. It contained the first eleven books, with the Latin version of Wolff, and the succeeding thirteen, with a translation by the editor himself. It was to have been completed in two additional volumes, containing the last fourteen books, but these have never appeared. A new edition, however, of Gregoras, forms part of the Byzantine Historians at present in a course of publication at Bonn. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 6, p, 362, seqq.) There are also several works of Gregoras treating of Astronomy, but they are all unedited, except a treatise on the astrolabe, which appeared in a Latin translation at Paris in 1557, 12mo, edited by Walla. (Schöll, vol. 7, p. 65.) — X. A native of Constantinople, commonly surnamed the Patriarch, for distinction' sake. He was at first a notary, and afterward imperial secretary, which latter station he quitted for a convent, but was subsequently elevated to the see of Byzantium, A.D. 806. As one of the defenders of the worship of images, he was, in 815, compelled to take refuge in a monastery, where he ended his days, A.D. 828. He has left behind him two works: 1. A Chronicle or Chronographical Abridgment (Xpovoypaspia), commencing with Adam and carried down to the period of the author's own death, or, rather, somewhat farther, since it was continued by an anonymous writer: 2. An Historical Compend, 'Iaropia aivrouoc, embracing the events that occurred from A.D. 602 to 770. The latest edition of the Greek text of the Chronicle is that of Credner, Giessar, 1832, 4to. It was also given in Dindorf's edition of Syncellus, Bonn., 1829. The latest edition of the Compend is that of Petavius (Petau), Paris, 1648. (Schöll, Hist. Lit Gr., vol. 6, p. 370, seqq) NicER or Nicar, now the Necker, a river of Germany, falling into the Rhine at the modern town of Manheim. (Amm. Marcell., 28, 2. Cluv., Germ., 3, 225.—Pertz, Mon. Germ. Hist., 1,361.) NiceRitus, a physician mentioned by Dioscorides (Praf, lib. 1, p. 2, ed. Spreng.) as one of the followers of Asclepiades, and who attended particularly to materia medica. None of his writings remain, but his prescriptions are several times mentioned by Galen (Op., ed. Kuhn, vol. 12, p. 634; vol. 13, p. 96, 98, 110, 180, &c.; vol. 14, p. 197), and once by Pliny (32, 31). We learn from Caelius Aurelianus (Morb. Chron., l. 2, c. 5) that he wrote also on catalepsy. He flourished about 40 B.C. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 16, p. 207.) NicETAs, I. Eugenianus, author of one of the poorest of the Greek romances that have conne down to us. He appears to have lived not long after Theodore Prodromus, whom, according to the title of his work as given in a Paris manuscript, he selected for his model. He wrote of the Loves of Drosilla and Chariclea. Boissonade gave to the world an edition of this romance in 1819, Paris, 2 vols. 12mo, respecting the merits of which, consult Hoffmann, Ler. Bibliogr., vol. 3, p. 137.—II. Acominatus, surnamed Choniates, from his having been born at Chonae, or Colossae, in Phrygia. He filled many posts of distinction at Constantinople, under the Emperor Isaac II. (Angelus). About o 1189, he was appointed by the same monarch governor of Philippopolis, an office of which Alexius V. deprived him. He died A.D. 1216, at Nicaea, in Bithynia, to which city he had fled after the taking of Constantinople by the Latins. He wrote a History of the Byzantine Emperors, in twenty-one books, commencing A.D. 1118 and ending A.D. 1206. It forms, in fact, ten different works of various sizes, all imbodied under one general head. —Nicetas possessed talent, judgment, and an enlightened taste for the arts, and would be read with pleasure if he did not occasionally indulge too much in a satirical vein, and if his style were not so declamatory and poetical. The sufferings of Constantinople, which passed under his own eyes, appear to have imbittered his spirit, and he is accused of being one of the writers who contributed most to kindle a feeling of hatred between the Greeks and the nations of the West.—We have a life of Nicetas by his brother Michael Acominatus, metropolitan of Athens. It is entitled Monodia, and has never yet been published in the original Greek; a Latin translation of it is given in the Biblioth. Patrum Mazim. Lugd., vol. 22.—The latest edition of Nicetas was that of Paris, 1647, fol. A new edition, however, has lately appeared from the scholars of Germany, as forming part of the Byzantine collection, now in a course of publication at Bonn. —III. An ecclesiastical writer, who flourished during the latter half of the eleventh century. He was at first bishop of Serrae in Macedonia (whence he is sometimes surnamed Serrariensis), and afterward metropolitan of Heraclea in Thrace. He is known by his commentary on sixteen discourses of St. Gregory Nazianzen, and by other works connected with theology and sacred criticism. He was the author, likewise, of some grammatical productions, of which, however, only a small remnant has come down to us, in the shape of a treatise “on the Names of the Gods” (Eig Övöuara Töv Jeov), an edition of which was given by Creuzer, in 1187, from the Leipzig press.-IV. David, a philosopher, historian, and rhetorician, sometimes confounded with the preceding, but who flourished two centuries earlier. He was bishop of Dadybra in Paphlagonia, and wrote, among other things, an explanatory work on the poems of St. Gregory Nazianzen, and a paraphrase of the epigrams of St. Basil. An edition of these works appeared at Venice in 1563, 4to. Nicía, a small river of Cisalpine Gaul, rising in the territory of the Ligures Apuani, and falling into the Po at Brixellum. The Emilian Way crossed.it a little before Tanetum. It is now the Leuza. Mannert, however, gives the modern name as Crostolo; and Reichard, Ongino. Nici As, I. son of Niceratus. He was a man of birth and fortune; but in whom a o: temper, popular manners, and considerable political and military talent, were marred by unreasonable diffidence and excessive

dread of responsibility. , Nicias, however, signalized himself on several occasions. He took the island of Cythera from the Lacedaemonians, subjugated many cities of Thrace which had revolted from the Athenian sway, shut up the Megarians within tieir city-walls, cutting off all communication from without, and taking their harbour Nisaea. When the unfortunate expedition against Syracuse was undertaken by Athens, Nicias was one of the three commanders who were sent at its head, the other two being Alcibiades and Lamachus. He had previously, however, used every effort to prevent his countrymen from engaging in this affair, on the ground that they were only wasting their resources in distant warfare, and multiplying their enemies. After the recall of Alcibiades, the natural indecision of Nicias, increased by ill-health and dislike of his command, o: a principal cause of the failure of the enterprise. n endeavouring to retreat by land from before Syracuse, the Athenian commanders, Nicias and Demosthenes (the latter had come with re-enforcements), were pursued, defeated, and compelled to surrender. The generals were put to death; their soldiers were confined at first in the quarry of Epipolae, and afterward sold as slaves. We have a life of Nicias by Plutarch. (Thucyd., lib 3, 4, 5, seqq. Plut., Vit. Nic.)—II. An Athenian artist, who flourished with Praxiteles, Ol. 104, and assisted him in the decoration of some of his productions. (Plin., 35, 11. –Consult Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.)—III. The younger, an Athenian painter, . son of Nicomedes, and pupil of Euphranor. He began to practice his art Ol. 112. (Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.) Nicias is said to have been the first artist who used burned ochre in his paintings. (Plin., 35, 6, 20.) Nico, an architect and geometrician, father of Galen, who lived in the beginning of the second century of our era. (Suid., s. v. Tazmág.) Nicăcles, I. king of Paphos, in the island of Cyprus. He owed his throne to the kindness of Ptolemy I., king of Egypt, who continued thereafter to bestow upon him many marks of favour. Having learned, however, at last, that Nicocles, forgetful of past benefits, had formed an alliance with Antigonus, Ptolemy sent two of his confidential emissaries to Cyprus, with orders to despatch Nicocles in case his traitorous conduct should be clearly ascertained by them. These two individuals, having taken with them a party of soldiers, surrounded the palace of the King of Paphos, and making known to him the orders of Ptolemy, compelled him to destroy himself, although he protested his innocence. His wife Axiothea, when she heard of her husband's death, killed her maiden daughters with her own hand, and then slew herself. The other female relatives followed her example. The brothers of Nicocles, also, having shut themselves up in the palace, set fire to it, and then fell by their own hands. (Diod. Sic., 20, 21. –Wesseling, ad loc.— Polyan, 8, 48.)—II. King of Cyprus, succeeded his father Evagoras B.C. 374. He celebrated the funeral obsequies of his parent with great splendour, and engaged Isocrates to write his eulogium. Nicocles had been a pupil of the Athenian rhetorician, and recompensed his services with the greatest liberality. (Wid. Isocrates.) Nicocréon, a tyrant of Cyprus in the age of Alex ander the Great. A fabulous story is related of his having caused the philosopher Anaxarchus to be pounded alive in a mortar. (Vid. Anaxarchus.) Nicol,Rus, I. a comic poet whose era is unknown. He belonged to the New Comedy according to some. Stobaeus has a fragment of his in 44 verses, which he ascribes, however, to Nicolaus Damascenus.-II. Surnamed Damascenus (Nukóżao; 6 Aamaakmás), a na: tive of Damascus of good family. He was the friend of Herod the Great, king of the Jews, and in the year 6 B.C. was sent by that monarch on an embassy to

Augustus, who had taken offence at ho because

he had led an army into Arabia to enforce certain claims which he had upon Syllabus, the prime-minister of the King of Arabia, and the real governor of the country. (Joseph., Ant. Jud., 16, 9.) Nicolaus, having obtained an audience of the emperor, accused Syllaus, and defended Herod in a skilful speech, which is given by Josephus (Ant. Jud., 16, 10). Syllaeus was sentenced to be put to death as soon as he should have given satisfaction to Herod for the claims which the latter had upon him. This is the account of Josephus, taken probably from the history of Nicolaus himself, who appears to have exaggerated the success of

his embassy; for Syllaeus neither gave any satisfac

tion to Herod, nor was the sentence of death executed upon him. (Joseph., Ant. Jud., 17, 3, 2.) . We find Nicolaus asterward acting as the accuser of Herod's son Antipater, when he was tried before Varus for plotting against his father's life, B.C. 4 (Joseph., Ant. Jud., 16, 5, 4, seqq.—Id., Bell. Jud., 1, 32, 4); and again as the advocate of Archelaus before Augustus, in the dispute for the succession to Herod's kingdom. (Joseph., Ant. Jud., 17, 9, 6.- Id. ib., 11, 3.-Id., Bell. Jud, 2, 2, 6.)—As a writer, Nicolaus is known in several departments of literature. He composed tragedies, and, among others, one entitled Xogavvic (“Susanna”). Of these nothing remains. He also wrote comedies, and Stobaeus has preserved for us what he considers to be a fragment of one of these, but what belongs, in fact, to a different writer. (Vid. Nicolaus I.) He was the author, also, of a work on the Remarkable Customs of various nations (Xvvayoyi) trapadóšov #ffow); of another on Distinguished Actions (IIepi Tôv čv Toic. Tpaktukoic kažov); and also of several historical works. Among the last-mentioned class of productions was a Universal History ("Iatopia kaffožiká), in 144 books (hence called by Athenous tožū61620c, 6, p. 249, a.), a compilation for which he borrowed passages from various historians, which he united together by oratorical flourishes. . As he has drawn his materials in part from sources which no longer exist for us, the fragments of his history which remain make us acquainted with several facts of which we should otherwise have had no knowledge. This history included the reign of Herod; and Josephus gives the following character of the 123d and 124th books : “For, living in his kingdom and with him (Herod), he composed his history in such a way as to gratify and serve him, touching upon those things only which made for his glory, and glossing over many of his actions which were plainly unjust, and concealing them with all zeal. And wishing to make a specious excuse for the murder of Mariamne and her children, so cruelly perpetrated by the king, he tells falsehoods respecting her incontinence, and the plots of the young men. And throughout his whole history he eulogizes extravagantly all the king's just actions, while he zealously apologizes for his crimes.” (Ant. Jud., 16, 7, 1.) Nicolaus wrote also a life of Augustus, of which a fragment, marked too strongly with flattery, still remains. He was the author, too, of some metaphysical productions on the writings of Aristotle. As regards his own Biography, which has likewise come down to us, we may be allowed to doubt whether he ever wrote it.—The latest and most complete edition of the remains of Nicolaus Damascenus is that of Orellius, Lips., 1804, with a supplement published in 1811, and containing the result of the labours of Bremi, Ochsner, and others, in collecting the scattered fragments of this writer. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 4, p. 101.)—III. surnamed the Sophist, a disciple of Proclus and a New-Platonist, lived during the latter half of the fifth century. Suidas makes him to have been the author of Progymnasmata and Declamations. One MS. assigns to Nicolaus the Sophist a portion of the Progymnasmata, which have been published under the name of Libanius. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 6,

p. 210.)—IV. (or Laonicus) Chalcondylas, a native of Athens, and one of the Byzantine historians. He wrote a history of the Turks, and of the fall of the Eastern empire, from A.D. 1297 down to 1462, in ten books. It was continued by an anonymous writer to A.D. 1565. The narrative of Chalcondylas is rich in facts, but the author sometimes displays great credulity. The first edition of the text is that of Fabrot, Paris, 1650, fol., which was reprinted in 1750 at Venice, fol.—W. Bishop of Methone, about A.D. 1190, author of a commentary on the XTouxeiwat, Geo?oyuki, of Proclus. It remains unedited.—WI. Cabasila, was bishop of Thessalonica about 1350 A.D. He was a learned man, and famed for his eloquence. We have a commentary by him on the third book of the Almagest, printed at the end of the Basle edition of Ptolemari Syntaxis, 1538, fol. Nicom Xchus, the father of the philosopher Aristotle. (Vid. Aristoteles.) Nicom Edes, I. king of Bithynia, succeeded his father Ziphaetes, B.C. 278. His succession was disputed by his brother, and he called in the Gauls to support his claims, B.C. 277. With their assistance he was successful : but his allies became his masters, and the whole of Asia Minor was for a long time overrun by these barbarians. He probably died about B C. 250, and was succeeded by his eldest son Zielas.-II. The second of the name, surnamed Epiphanes, succeeded his father Prusias II., B.C. 149. He accompanied his parent to Rome, B.C. 167, where he appears to have been brought up under the care of the senate. (Liv., 45, 44.) Prusias, becoming jealous of the popularity of his son, and anxious to secure the succession of his younger children, formed a plan for his assassination; but Nicomedes, having gained intelligence of his purpose, deprived his father of the throne, and subsequently put him to death. Nicomedes remained during the o, of his long reign a faithful ally, or, rather, obedient subject, of the Romans. He assisted them in their war with Aristonicus, brother of Attalus, king of Pergamus, B.C. 131 ; and he was applied to by Marius for assistance during the Cimbrian war, about B.C. 103. During the latter part of his reign he was involved in a war with Mithradates, of which an account is given in the life of that monarch. (Vid. Mithradates VI.)—III. The third of the name, surnamed Philopator, succeeded his father Nicomedes II., B.G. 91. During the first year of his reign, he was expelled from his kingdom by Mithradates, who placed upon the throne Socrates, the younger brother of Nicomedes. He was restored, however, to his kingdom in the following year by the Romans, who sent an army under Aquilius to support him. At the breaking out of the Mithradatic war, B.C. 88, Nicomedes took part with the Romans; but his army was completely defeated by the generals of Mithradates, near the river Amnias, in Paphlagonia (Strabo, 562), and he himself was again expelled from his kingdom, and obliged to take refuge in Italy. At the conclusion of the Mithradatic war, B.C. 84, Bithynia was restored to Nicomedes. He died B.C. 74, without children, and left his kingdom to the Romans. (Memnon, ap. Phot.—Appian, Bell. Mithrad.—Clinton, Fast. Hell., vol. 3, Append, 7.-Encycl. Us. Knowl, vol. 16, p. 213.)—IV. A celebrated geometrician. He is famous for being the inventor of the curve called the conchoid, which has been made to serve equally for the solution of the two problems relating to the duplication of the cube, and the trisection of an angle. It was much used by the ancients in the construction of solid problems. It is not certain at what period Nicomedes flourished, but it was probably at no great distance from the time of Eratosthenes. Nicomedia (Nukouñóeta), a city of Bithynia, situate at the northeastern extremity of the Sinus Astacenus. It was founded by Nicomedes I. (B.C. 264), who

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