Obrazy na stronie

had once held the command of the sea. (Dio Cass., 48, 19.) Coins still exist of this Roman leader, bearing the effigy of Neptune, with the inscription Magnus Pius Imperator iterum; or this, Prafectus classis et orde maritima er s. c. (Consult Rasche, Lex Rei Num, vol. 6, col. 1676, seqq.) Nepti Nus or Neptum Nus, the god of the sea, a Roman divinity, whose attributes are nearly the same as those of the Greek Poseidon (IIoaetóðv). They will beth, therefore, be considered in one and the same article. Neptune or Poseidon, the son of Saturn and Rhea, and the brother of Jupiter and Juno, appears to have been one of the most ancient divinities of Greece; although, according to Herodotus (2,50), he was not originally a Greek deity, but his worship was imported from Libya. This statement, however, on the part of the historian, cannot be correct. Neptune was the god of water in general, of the sea, the rivers, and the sountains, but he was more particularly regarded as the god of the sea, which he acquired in his share of the dominions of his father Saturn. His wife was Amphitrite, and their children were Triton and Rhode, or Rhodos, which last became the bride of Helius, or the Sun-god. A late legend said that Amphitrite fled the love of the god, but that he came riding on a dolphin, and thus won her affection; and for this service he placed the dolphin among the stars. (Eratosth., Catast., 31. — Hygin., Poet. Astron., 1, 17.) Neptune, like his brother Jupiter, had a numerous progeny by both goddesses and mortals. The fleet stced Arion was the offspring of the sea-god and Ceres, both having assumed the equine form. According to one account, the nymph Rhodos was his daughter by Venus. (Heroph., ap. Schol. ad Pind, Ol., 7, 24.)—Neptune is said to have produced the horse in his well-known contest with Minerva for the right of naming the city of Athens. (Vid. Cecrops.) According to some, we are to understand by this myth that the horse was imported into Greece by sea. But this explanation is far from satisfactory. It is difficult to give a reason for the connexion of Neptune with the horse ; but it is evident, from several passages in the Greek writers, that he was regarded as a kind of equestrian deity as well as the god of the sea. In the absence of a better explanation, we will give the one suggested by Knight. “The horse,” says this writer, “ was sacred to Neptune and the rivers, and was employed as a general symbol of the waters. Hence also it may have been assumed as one of the types of fertility, and may furnish a clew to the fable of Neptune and Ceres. It may also throw some light on the narrative of Pausanias, where he states (8, 24) that the Phigalenses dedicated a statue to Ceres, having the figure of a woman in every other part except the head, which was that of a horse ; and that she held in one hand a dolphin, and in the other a dove.” (Knight, Enquiry, &c., § 111, seqq. Class. Journ., vol. 25, p. 34, seqq.)—Besides his residence on Olympus, Neptune had a splendid palace beneath the sea at Ege. (Il., 13, 21.-0d., 5,381.) Homer gives a noble description of his passage from it on his way to Troy, his chariot-wheels but touching the watery plain, and the monsters of the deep gambolling around their king. His most celebrated temples were at the Corinthian Isthmus, at Onchestus, Helice, Troezene, and the promontories of Taenarum and Geraestus. –Neptune is represented, like Jupiter, of a serene and majestic aspect; his form is exceedingly strong and muscular; and hence “the chest of Neptune” (a répyov IIoaetódavoc, Il., 5,479) is the poetic expression for this characteristic of the deity, which is illustrated by the noble fragment from the pediment of the Parthenon in the British Museum. He usually bears in his hand the trident, the three-pronged symbol of his power; the dolphin and other marine objects accompany his images. The ful. offered to him in sacrifice were 5

usually black bulls, rams, and boar-pigs.--Neptune was not originally a god of the Doric race. He was principally worshipped by the Ionians, who were in most places a maritime people. In those Dorian cities, however, which acquired a love for foreign commerce, we find that the worship of Neptune extensively prevailed. (Muller's Dorians, vol. 1, p. 417, seq., Eng. transl.)—The etymology of the names Poseidon and Neptunus is doubtsul. Poseidon is written in Doric Greek Poteidan (IIoTetéâv), of which we have another example in the name of Potidaea, written Poteidaia (IIoTeudala) in the inscription, now in the British Museum, on those Athenians who fell before this city. The name, according to some writers, contains the same root in the first syllable as we find in Totò, and Totauðc; and has the same reference, in all likelihood, to water and fluidity. (Müller, Proleg., p. 289.)— Neptunus, on the other hand, is derived by the Stoic Balbus, in Cicero, from nando (N. D., 2, 26), an etymology which Cotta subsequently ridicules. (N. D., 3, 24.) Warro deduces it from nuptu, because this od “covers” (obnubit) the earth with the sea. (L. ., 4, 10.) This latter derivation, though approved of by Vossius (Etymol, s. v. nupta'), is no better than the former. We may compare the form of the word Nept-unus or Nept-umnus with Port-umnus, Vertumnus, and the word al-umnus; but the meaning or origin of the root Nept or Nep seems uncertain. It may, perhaps, be connected with the same root that is contained in the Greek virt-a, “to wet.” (Keightley's Mythology, p. 85, seqq. Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 16, p. 146.) NEReides (Nmpmtées), nymphs of the sea, daughters of Nereus and Doris. They are said by most ancient writers to have been fifty in number, but Propertius makes them a hundred (3, 5, 33). The most celebrated of them were Amphitrite, the wife of Neptune; Thetis, the mother of Achilles; Galataea, Doto, &c. The worship of the Nereids was generally connected, as might be supposed, with that of Neptune. Thus, they were worshipped in Corinth, where Neptune was held in especial honour, as well as in other parts of Greece. (Pausan., 2, 1, 7, seq.-Id., 3, 26, 5.—Id., 5, 19, 2.) The Nereids were originally represented as beautiful nymphs; but they were afterward described as beings with . hair, and with the lower part of their . like that of a fish. (Plin., 9, 4.) NEREUs (two syllables), a sea-deity, the eldest son of Pontus and Earth. (Hesiod, Theog.,233.) Though not mentioned by name in Homer, he is frequently alluded to under the title of the Sea-elder (ääioc pov), and his daughters are called Nereids. According to Hesiod, he was distinguished for his knowledge and his love of truth and justice, whence he was termed an elder; the gift of prophecy was also assigned to him. When Hercules was in quest of the apples of the Hesperides, he was directed by the nymphs to Nereus. He found the god asleep and seized him. Nereus, on awaking, changed himself into a variety of forms, but in vain : he was obliged to instruct him how to proceed before the hero would release him. (Apollodorus, 2, 5.) He also foretold to Paris, when carrying away Helen, the evils he would bring on his country and family. (Horat., Od., 1, 15.) Nereus was married to Doris, one of the oceannymphs, by whom he became the father of the Nereids, already mentioned. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 244.)—Hermann makes Nmpetic equivalent to Nefluus (vi) beiv), and understands by the term the bottom of the sea. Hence, according to the same authority, Nereus is called “the aged one,” because he is ever unchangeable; he is called true, because the bottom of the ocean never gapes in fissures, so as to allow the waters to escape: and he is termed mild and peaceful, because the depths of ocean are even tranquil and at rest. (Hermanni ope; vol. 2, p. 178.) Schwenck, on the other hand, derives the name Nereus from vio, “to flow.” (Andeut., p. 180.) The best etymology, however, is undoubtedly that which traces the form Nmpetic to the old Greek term vopóv, “water,” which last may itself be compared with the Hebrew nahar. The modern Greek vepôv, “water,” is therefore a word of great antiquity. (Compare Lobeck, ad Phryn., p. 42) Nekitos, the highest and most remarkable mountain in the island of Ithaca. (Hom., Od., 1, 21. Il., 2, 632. — Virg., AEm., 3, 270.) According to Dodwell, the modern name is Anot, which means “lofty :” he observes, also, that the forests spoken of by Homer have disappeared : it is at present bare and barren, producing nothing but stunted evergreens and aroimatic plants. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 45.) Neritum, a town of Calabria, about five miles to the north of Callipolis. (Plin., 3, 11.—Ptol., p. 62.) It is now Nardo. From an ancient inscription, cited by Muratori, it appears to have been a municipium. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 317.) Nerium, a promontory of Spain, the same with Artabrum; now Cape Finisterre. Nero, Claudius CAEs AR, the sixth of the Roman emperors, was born at Antium, in Latium, A.D. 37, mine months after the death of Tiberius. (Sueton., Wit. Ner., c. 6.) He was the son of Domitius Ahenobarbus and Agrippina the daughter of Germanicus, and was originally named Lucius Domitius. After the death of Ahenobarbus, and a second husband, Crispus Passienus, Agrippina married her uncle, the Emperor Claudius, who gave his daughter Octavia in marriage to her son Lucius, and subsequently adopted him with the formal sanction of a Lex Curiata. (Tacit., Ann., 12, 26.) The education of Nero was carefully attended to in his youth. He was placed under the care of the philosopher Seneca, and he appears to have applied himself with considerable perseverance to study. He is said to have made great progress in the Greek language, of which he exhibited a specimen in his sixteeenth year, by pleading in that tongue the rights or privileges of the Rhodians, and of the inhabitants of Ilium. (Sueton., Wit. Ner., c. 7. Tacit., Ann., 12, 58.) At the death of Claudius (A.D. 54), while Agrippina, by soothings, flatteries, and affected lamentations, detained Brittanicus, the son of Claudius and Messalina, within the chambers of the palace, Nero, presenting himself before the gates, was listed by the guard in waiting into the covered coach used for the purpose of carrying in procession an elected emperor, and was followed by a multitude of the people, under the illusion that it was Britannicus. He entered the camp, promised a donative to the cohorts, was saluted emperor, and pronounced before the senate, in honour of Claudius, an oration of fulsome panegyric composed by his preceptor Seneca. Agrippina soon endeavoured to obtain the chief management of public affairs; and her vindictive and cruel temper would have hurried Nero, at the commencement of his reign, into acts of violence and bloodshed, if her influence had not been counteracted by Seneca and Burrus, to whom Nero had intrusted the government of the state. Through their counsels the first five years of Nero's reign were distinguished by justice and clemency; and an anecdote is related of him, that, having on one occasion to sign an order for the execution of a malefactor, he exclaimed, “Would that I could not write (Sueton., Wit. Ner., 10.) He discouraged public informers, refused the statues of gold and silver which were offered him by the senate and people, and used every art to ingratiate himself with the latter. But his mother was enraged to find that her power over him became weaker every day, and that he constantly disre garded her advice and refused her requests. His neglect of his wife Octavia, and his criminal love of Acte,

a woman of low birth, still farther widened the breach between him and his parent. She frequently addressed him in the most contemptuous language; reminded him that he owed his elevation solely to her, and threatened that she would inform the soldiers of the manner in which Claudius had met his end, and would call upon them to support the claims of Britannicus, the son of the late emperor. The threats of his mother only served to hasten the death of Britannicus, whose murder forms the commencement of that long catalogue of crimes which afterward disgraced the reign of Nero. But while the management of public affairs appears, from the testimony of most historians, to have been wisely conducted by Burrus and Seneca, Nero indulged in private in the most shameless dissipation and profligacy. He was accustomed, in company with other young men of his own age, to sally into the streets of Rome at night, in order to rob and maltreat passengers, and even to break into private houses and take away the property of their owners. But these extravagances were comparatively harmless; his love for Poppaea, whom he had seduced from Otho, led him into more serious crimes. Poppaea, who was ambitious of sharing the imperial throne, perceived that she could not hope to attain her object while Agrippina was alive, and, accordingly, induced Nero to consent to the murder of his mother. The entreaties of Poppaea appear to have been supported by the advice of Burrus and Seneca; and the philosopher did not hesitate to palliate or justify the murder of a mother by her son. (Tacit., Ann., 14, 11. — Quintil.., 8, 5.)—In the eighth year of his reign, Nero lost his best counsellor, Burrus; and Seneca had the wisdom to withdraw from the court, where his presence had become disliked, and where his enormous wealth was calculated to excite the envy even of the emperor. About the same time Nero divorced Octavia and married Poppaea, and soon after put to death the former on a false accusation of adultery and treason. In the tenth year of his reign, A.D. 64, Rome was almost destroyed by fire. Of the fourteen districts into which the city was divided, four only remained entire. The fire originated at that part of the Circus which was contiguous to the Palatine and Caelian Hills, and raged with the greatest fury for six days and seven nights; and, after it was thought to have been extinguished, it burst forth again, and continued for two days longer. Nero appears to have acted on this occasion with the greatest liberality and kindness; the city was supplied with provisions at a very moderate price ; and the imperial gardens were thrown open to the sufferers, and buildings erected for their accommodation. But these acts of humanity and benevolence were insufficient to screen him from the popular suspicion. It was generally believed that he had set fire to the city himself, and some even reported that he had ascended the top of a high tower in order to witness the conflagration, where he amused himself with singing the Destruction of Troy. From many circumstances, however, it appears improbable that Nero was guilty of this crime. His guilt, indeed, is expressly asserted by Suetonius and Dio Cassius, but Tacitus admits that he was not able to determine the truth of the accusation. In order, however, to remove the suspicions of the people, Nero spread a report that the Christians were the authors of the fire, and numbers of them, accordingly, were seized and put to death. Their execution served as an amusement to the people. Some were covered with skins of wild beasts, and were torn to pieces by dogs; others were crucified; and several were smeared with pitch and other combustible materials, and burned in the imperial gardens in the night: “Whence,” says the historian, “pity arose for the guilty (though they deserved the severest punishments), since they were put to death, not for the public good, but to gratify the cruelty of a single man.” (Tacit., Ann., 15, 44.)—In the following year, A.D. 65, a powerful conspiracy was formed for the purpose of placing Piso upon the throne, but it was discovered by Nero, and the principal conspirators were put to death. Among others who suffered on this occasion were Lucan and Seneca; but the guilt of the latter is doubtful. In the same year Poppaea died, in consequence of a kick which she received from her husband while she was in an advanced state of pregnancy.—During the latter part of his reign, Nero was principally engaged in theatrical performances, and in contending for the prizes at the public games. He had previously appeared as an actor on the Roman stage; and he now visited in succession the chief cities of Greece, and received no less than 1800 crowns for his victories in the public Grecian games. On his return to Italy he entered Naples and Rome as a conqueror, and was received with triumphal honours. But while he was engaged in these extravagances, Windex, who commanded the legions in Gaul, declared against his authority; and his example was speedily followed by Galba, who commanded in Spain. The praetorian cohorts espoused the cause of Galba, and the senate pronounced sentence of death against Nero, who had fled from Rome as soon as he heard of the revolt of the praetorian guards. Nero, however, anticipated the execution of the sentence which had been passed against him, by requesting one of his attendants to put him to death, after making an ineffectual attempt to do so with his own hands. He died A.D. 68, in the 32d year of his age, and the 14th of his reign.—It is difficult to form a correct estimate of the character of this emperor. That he was a licentious voluptuary, and that he scrupled at committing no crimes in order to gratify his lust or strengthcn his power, is sufficiently proved; out that he was such a monster as Suetonius and Dio have described him, may reasonably admit of a doubt. The possession of absolute power at so early an age tended to call forth all the worst passions of human nature, while the example and counsels of his mother Agrippina must have still farther tended to deprave his mind. Though he put to death his adoptive brother, his wife, and his mother, his character appears to have been far from sanguinary ; his general administration was wise and equitable, and he never equalled, in his worst actions, either the capricious cruelty of Caligula, or the sullen ferocity of Domitian. Nero was a lover of the arts, and appears to have possessed more taste than many of the emperors, who only resembled him in their profuse expenditure. The Apollo Belvidere is supposed by Thiersch (Epochen, &c., p. 312) and some other writers to have been made for this emperor. His government secms to have been far from unpopular. He was anxious to relieve the people from oppressive taxes, and to protect the provinces from the rapacity of the governors; and it may be mentioned as an instance of his popularity, that there were persons who for many years decked his tomb with spring and summer flowers, and that, in consequence of a prevalent rumour that he had escaped from death, several impostors at various times assumed the name of Nero, and gave no small trouble to the reigning emperors. (Tacit., Hist., 1, 2–Id., ib., 2, 8.-Sueton., Vit. Ner., 57.-Casaubon, ad Sueton., l.c.) During the reign of Nero the Roman emso enjoyed, in general, a profound state of peace. m the East the Parthians were defeated by Corbulo; and in the West, the Britons, who had risen in arms under Boadicea, were again reduced to subjection under Suetonius Paulinus. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 16, p. 147, seq.)—It may not be amiss, before concluding this article, to make some mention of Nero's celebrated “Golden House” (Aurea Domus). The only description on record of this costly struc

ture is that of Suetonius: “In nothing,” says this writer, “was Nero so ruinous as in building. He erected a mansion extending from the Palatine as far as the Esquilia. At first he called it his “House of Passage,’ but afterward, when it had been destroyed by fire and restored again, he gave it the name of his * Golden House.” To form an idea of its extent and magnificence, it may suffice to state the following particulars. The vestibule admitted his colossal statue, which was 120 feet high ; the building was on so large a scale, that it had a triple portico a mile long; also, an immense pool like a sea, enclosed by buildings presenting the appearance of towns. There were, moreover, grounds laid out for tillage and for vineyards, and for pasturage and woods, stocked with a vast number of every description of cattle and wild animals. In other respects, everything was overlaid with gold, embellished with gems and with mother-ofpearl. The ceilings of the banqueting-rooms were fretted into ivory coffers made to turn, that flowers might be showered down upon the guests, and also furnished with pipes for discharging persumes. The principal banqueting-room was round, and by a perpetual motion, day and night, was made to revolve after the manner of the universe.” (Sueton. Wit. Ner., c. 31.) When the structure was completed, Nero is said to have declared “that he at length had a house fit for a human being to live in" (se quasi hominem tandem habitare capisse. Sueton., l. c.). Various explanations have been given of the way in which the contrivance was effected in the case of the principal banqueting-room. Donatus makes it a hollow globe, fixed inside a square room, and turning on its own axis; and he introduces the guests by a door near the axis, “where there is the least motion '" (Donat, de Urb. Vet, lib. 3.--ap. Graev. Thes, vol. 3, p. 680.) Dr. Adam (Rom. Ant., p. 491) thinks that the ceiling was made “to shift and exhibit new appearances as the different courses or dishes were removed;” but this does not explain “the perpetual motion, day and night, aster the manner of the universe.” Nero's architects, Severus and Celer, certainly deserve the mention of their names. (Tacit., Ann, 15, 42.) Tacitus remarks, that “the gems and the gold which this house contained were not so much a matter of wonder (being quite common at that period) as the fields and pools; the woods, too, in one direction, forming a kind of solitude; while here, again, were open spaces with commanding views.” (Tacit., l.c.)—The house of Nero and the palace of the Caesars must not, however, be confounded. They were evidently two distinct things. (Tacit., Ann., 15, 39. — Burgess, Antiquities of Rome, vol. 2, p. 172, seq.)—II. A Roman consul. (Vid. Claudius III.)— IIs. Caesar, son of Germanicus and Agrippina. He married Julia, daughter of Drusus, the son of Tiberius. By the wicked arts of Sejanus he was banished to the isle of Pontia, and there put to death. (Tacit., Ann., 4, 59, seq.—Sueton, Vit. Tib., 54.) NeroNia, a name given to Artaxata by Tiridates, who had been restored to his kingdom by Nero. (Wid. Artaxata.) Nertobrig A, I. a city of Hispania Bastica, some distance to the west of Corduba. It was also called Concordia Julia, and is now Valera la Vieja. (Polyb., 35, 2–Ukert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 381.) In Polybius it is written 'Epkóðptka by a mistake of the copyists, the N being omitted probably on account of the preceding to v. (Compare Schweigh ad Appian, 6, 48, p. 260.) On D'Anville's map this place is set down within the limits of Lusitania—II. A city of Hispania Tarraconensis, in the territory of the Celtiberi, between Bilbilis and Caesaraugusta. It is now Almuña. (Florez, 2, 17.—Appian, 6, 50–Itin. Ant., p. 437, 439.-ijkert, Geogo, vol. 2, p.400) Casaubon (ad Polyb, fragm., 35, 2) alters 'oro Nepro6ptya, but incorrectly, since the place meant is probably the Areobriga of the Itinerary. As regards the termination of the name Nertobriga, consult remarks under the article Mesembria. (Ukert, l.c.) Nerva, MARcus Cocceius, the thirteenth Roman emperor, was born at Narnia, in Umbria, A.D. 27 according to Eutropius (8, 1), or A.D. 32 according to Dio Cassius (68, 4). His family originally came from Crete; but several of his ancestors rose to the highest honours in the Roman state. His grandfather Cocceius Nerva, who was consul A.D. 22, and was a great favourite of the Emperor Tiberius, was one of the most celebrated jurists of his age. We learn from Tacitus that this individual put an end to his own life. (Ann., 6, 28.)—Nerva, the subject of the present sketch, is first mentioned in history as a favourite of Nero, who bestowed upon him triumphal honours, A.D. 66, when he was praetor elect. The poetry of Nerva, which is mentioned with praise by Pliny and Martial, appears to have recommended him to the favour of Nero. Nerva was employed in offices of trust and honour during the reigns of Vespasian and Titus, but he incurred the suspicion of Domitian, and was banished by him to Tarentum. On the assassination of Domitian, A.D. 96, Nerva succeeded to the sovereign power, through the influence of Petronius Secundus, commander of the Praetorian cohorts, and of Parthenius, the chamberlain of the palace. The mild and equitable administration of Nerva is acknowledged and praised by all ancient writers, and forms a striking contrast to the sanguinary rule of his predecessor. He discouraged all informers, recalled the exiles from banishment, relieved the people from some oppressive taxes, and granted toleration to the Christians. Many instances of his liberality and clemency are recorded by his contemporary, the younger Pliny ; he allowed no senator to be put to death during his reign; and he practised the greatest economy, in order to relieve the wants of the poorer citizens. But his impartial administration of justice met with little favour from the Praetorian cohorts, who had been allowed by Domitian to indulge in excesses of every kind. Enraged at the loss of their benefactor and favourite, they compelled Nerva to deliver into their hands Parthenius and their own commander Petronius, both of whom they put to death. The excesses of his own guards convinced Nerva that the government of the Roman empire re. quired greater energy both of body and mind than he possessed, and he accordingly adopted Trajan as his successor, and associated him with himself in the sovereignty. Nerva died A.D. 98, after a reign of sixteen months and nine days. (Dio Cass., 68, 1, seqq.— Pliny, Paneg., c. 11.-Id. ib., c. 89.-Aurel. Vict., c. 12.-Encycl. Us. Knowl, vol. 16, p. 149.) Nervis, a warlike people of Belgic Gaul, whose country lay on both sides of the Scaldis or Scheldt, near the sources of that river; afterward Hainault and Nord. Their original capital was Bagacum, now Bavia; but afterward Camaracum (Cambray) and Turnacum (Tournay) became their chief cities towards the end of the fourth century. (Cas., B. G., 5, 39.Plin., 4, 17.) Nesis (is or idis), now Nisida, an island on the coast of Campania, between Puteoli and Neapolis, and within a short distance of the shore. Cicero mentions it as a favourite residence of his friend Brutus. (Ep. ad Att., 16, 1.) Nessus, I. a centaur, who attempted the honour of Deianira. (Wid. Deianira.)—II. A river of Thrace, more correctly the Nestus. (Vid. Nestus.) Nestor, son of Neleus and Chloris, nephew of Pelias and grandson of Neptune. He was the youngest of twelve brothers, all of whom, with the single exception of himself, were slain by Hercules, for having taken part against him with Augeas, king of Elis. The tender years of Nestor saved him from sharing

their fate. (Wid. Neleus.) Nestor succeeded his father on the throne of Pylos, and subsequently, though at a very advanced age, led his forces to the Trojan war, in which he particularly distinguished himself among the Grecian chiefs by his eloquence and wisdom. Indeed, by the picture drawn of him in the Iliad, as well as by the description contained in the Odyssey, of his tranquil, virtuous, and useful life, it would appear that Homer meant to display in his character the greatest perfection of which human nature is susceptible. The most conspicuous enterprises in which Nestor bore a part prior to the Trojan war, were, the war of the Pylians against the Elians, and the affair of the Lapithae and Centaurs. Some have also placed him among the Argonauts. Nestor married Eurydice, the daughter of Clymenus (according to others, Anaxibia, the sister of Agamemnon), and had seven sons and two daughters. He returned in safety from the Trojan war, and ended his days in his native land.—Nestor is sometimes called the “Pylian sage,” from his native city Pylos. He is also styled by Homer “the Gerenian,” an epithet commonly supposed to have been derived from the Messenian town of Gerenia, in which he is said to have been educated (Heyne, ad Il., 2,336), although others refer it to his advanced age (yìpaç.—Compare Schwenck, Andeut., p. 181). Homer makes Nestor, at the time of the Trojan war, to have survived two generations of men, and to be then living among a third. This would give his age at about seventy years and upward. (Heyne, ad Îl., 1,250.) Nestorius, a Syrian by birth, who became patriarch of Constantinople A.D. 428, under the reign of Theodosius II. He showed himself very zealous against the Arians and other sects; but, after some time, a priest of Antioch named Anastasius, who had followed Nestorius to Constantinople, began to preach that there were two persons in Jesus Christ, and that the Word or divinity had not become man, but had descended on the man Jesus, born of the Virgin Mary : and that the two natures became morally united, as it were, but not hypostatically joined in one person; and that, when Jesus died, it was the human person, and not the divinity, that suffered. This doctrine being not only not discountenanced, but actually supported by Nestorius, was the origin of what is termed the Nestorian schism. Nestorius refused to allow to the Virgin Mary the title of Theotokos (0soróxor), or Mother of God, but allowed her that of Christotokos (Xptororókoc), or Mother of Christ. He met, of course, with numerous opponents, and the controversy occasioned great disturbances in Constantinople. Cyrill, bishop of Alexandrea in Egypt, with his characteristic violence, anathematized Nestorius, who, in his turn, anathematized Cyrill, whom he accused of degrading the divine nature, and making it subject to the infirmities of the human nature. The Emperor Theodosius convoked a general council at Ephesus to decide upon the question, A.D. 431. This council, which was attended by 210 bishops, condemned the doctrine of Nestorius, who refused to appear before it, as many Eastern bishops, and John of Antioch among the rest, had not yet arrived. Upon this the council deposed Nestorius. Soon after, John of Antioch and his friends came, and condemned Cyrill as being guilty of the Apollinarian heresy. The emperor, being ap. pealed to by both parties, after some hesitation sent for Nestorius and Cyrill; but it appears that he was dis. pleased with what he considered pride and obstinacy in Nestorius, and he confined him in a monastery. But, as his name was still a rallying word for faction, Theodosius banished him to the deserts of Thebais ir Egypt, where he died. His partisans, however, spread over the East, and have continued to this day to form a separate church, which is rather numerous, especially in Mesopotamia, where their patriarch resides at Diar. bekr. The Nestorians, at one time, spread into Per sia, and thence to the coast of Coromandel, where the Portuguese found a community of them at St. Thomé, whom they persecuted and compelled to turn Roman Catholics. (Doucin, Histoire du Nestorianisme, 1698. —Assemani, Biblioth. Orient, vol. 4.—Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 16, p. 155.) Nestus (less correctly Nessus), a river of Thrace, forming the boundary between that country and Macedonia in the time of Philip and Alexander. This arrangement subsequently remained unchanged by the Romans on their conquest of the latter empire. (Strabo, 331.—Liv., 45, 29.) Thucydides states that the river descended from Mount Iconius, whence the Hebrus also derived its source (2, 96), and Herodotus informs us that it fell into the AEgean Sea near Abdera (7, 109.—Compare Theophrast, Hist. Pl., 3, 2). The same writer elsewhere remarks, that lions were to be found in Europe only between the Nestus and the Achelotis of Acarnania (7, 126–Pliny, 4, 11.— Mela, 2, 3). In the middle ages, the name of this river was corrupted into Mestus; and it is still called Mesto, or Cara-sou (Black River), by the Turks. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 308.) Nzu Ri, a Scythian race, who appear to have been originally established towards the head waters of the rivers Tyras and Hypanis (Dneister and Bog). They appear also to have touched on the Bastarnian Alps, which would separate them from the Agathyrsi. (Herod., 4, 105.—Mela, 2, 1.—Plin., 4, 12.-Rennell, Geogr. of Herodotus, vol. 1, p. 112.) Nic AeA, I. a city of India, founded by Alexander in commemoration of his victory over Porus. It was situate on the left bank of the Hydaspes, on the road from the modern Attock to Lahore, and just below the southern point of the island of Jamad. (Arrian, 5, 9, 6.-Justin, 12, 8.-Curtius, 9, 4.—Vincent's Periplus, p. 110.)—II. The capital of Bithynia, situate at the extremity of the lake Ascanius. Stephanus of Byzantium informs us, that it was first colonized by the Bottiaei, and was called Anchore ('Ayyūpm). Strabo, however, mentions neither of these circumstances, but states that it was founded by Antigonus, son of Philip, who called it Antigonea. It subsequently received the name of Nicaea from Lysimachus, in honour of his wife, the daughter of Antipater. (Strab., 565.) Nicaea was built in the form of a square, and the streets were drawn at right angles to each other, so that from a monument which stood near the gymnasium, it was possible to see the four gates of the city. (Strab., l.c.) At a subsequent period, it became the royal residence of the kings of Bithynia, having superseded Nicomedea as the capital of the country. Pliny the younger makes frequent mention, in his Letters, of the city of Nicaea and its public buildings, which he had undertaken to restore, being at that time governor of Bithynia. (Ep., 10, 40– Ib., 10, 48, seqq.) In the time of the Emperor Walens, however, the latter city was declared the metropolis. (Dio Chrysost., Orat., 38.) Still Nicaea remained, as a place of trade, of the greatest importance; and from this city, too, all the great roads diverged into the eastern and southern parts of Asia Minor. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 3, p. 569, seqq.) Nicaea was the birthplace of Hipparchus the astronomer (Suidas, s. v. "ITTaproc), and also of Dio Cassius—The present town of Isnik, as it is called by the Turks, has taken the place of the Bithynian city; but, according to Leake, the ancient walls, towers, and gates are in tolerably good preservation. In most places they are formed of alternate courses of Roman tiles and large square stones, joined by a cement of great thickness. The Turkish town, however, was never so large as the Grecian Nicaea, and it seems to have been almost entirely constructed of the remains of that city. (Leake's Journal, p. 10, seq.—Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 1, p. 181.)—Nicaea is famous

in ecclesiastical history as the seat of the first and most important occumenical council held in the Christian church. It was convened by the Emperor Constantine for the purpose of settling the Arian controversy, after he had in vain attempted to reconcile Arius and Alexander, the leaders of the two opposing parties in that dispute. The council met in the year 325 A.D., and sat probably about two months. It was attended by bishops from nearly every part of the East; few, however, came from Europe, and scarcely any from Africa, exclusive of Egypt. According to Eusebius, there were more than 250 bishops present, besides presbyters, deacons, and others. Some writers give a larger number. The account generally followed is that of Socrates, Theodoret, and Epiphanius, who state that 318 bishops attended the council. It is uncertain who presided, but it is generally supposed that the president was Hosius, bishop of Corduba (Cordova) in Spain. Constantine himself was present at its meetings. The chief question debated in the council of Nice was the Arian heresy. Eusebius of Caesarea proposed a creed which the Arian party would have been willing to sign, but it was rejected by the council, and another creed was adopted as imbodying the orthodox faith. The most important seature in this creed is the application of the word consubstantial (Čuootator) to the Son, to indicate the nature of his union with the Father; this word had been purposely omitted in the creed proposed by Eusebius The creed agreed upon by the council was signed by all the bishops present except two, Secundus, bishop of Ptolemais, and Theonas, bishop of Marmarica. Three others hesitated for some time, but signed at last, namely, Eusebius of Nicomedea, Theognis of Nicapa, and Maris of Chalcedon. The council excommunicated Arius, who was immediately afterward banished by the emperor. The decision of this council had not the effect of restoring tranquillity to the Eastern church, for the Arian controversy was still warmly carried on ; but it has supplied that mode of stating the doctrine of the Trinity (as far as relates to the Father and the Son) in which it has ever since been received by the orthodox. The time for the celebration of Easter was also fixed by this council in favour of the practice of the Western church. It also decided against the schism of Meletius. The only documents which have been handed down to us from this council are, its creed, its synodical epistle, and its twenty canons.—The second council of Nice, held in the year 786, declared the worship of images to be lawsul. (Lardner's Credibility, pt. 2, c. 71. – Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 16, p. 207.)—III. A city of Liguria, on the coast, one geographical mile to the east of the mouth of the Varus. It was situate on the river Paulon, now Pagliome. Nicaea was of Milesian origin, and was established in this quarter as a tradingplace with the Ligurians. The Romans had no such inducement to establish themselves in these parts, and therefore, under the Roman sway, the city of Nicaea is seldom spoken of. The modern name is Nizza, or, as we term it, Nice. (Plin., 3, 5.-Mela, 2, 5.) NicANder, a physician, poet, and grammarian, of whose life very few particulars are found in ancient authors, and cven those few are doubtful and contradictory. Upon the whole, it seems most probable that he lived about 135 B.C. in the reign of Attalus III., the last king of Pergamus, to whom he dedicated one of his poems which is no longer extant. (Sundas— Eudoc., ap. Willois., vol. 1, p. 308. -Anon. Script., \ Wit. Nicand.) His native place, as he himself informs us, was Claros, a town of Ionia, near Colophon, whence he is commonly called Colophonius (Cic., de Orat, 1, 16), and he succeeded his father as hereditary priest of Apollo Clarius. (Eudoc., l, co-Anon. Wit.)—He appears to have been rather a yoluminous

writer, as the titles of more than wo his works 5

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