Obrazy na stronie

besides establishing in it the remnant of the former inhabitants, added a considerable number of Locrians, Methymnasans, and Messenian exiles. The latter, however, through fear of offending the Lacedæmonians, were afterward transferred to the district of Abacene, and there founded Tyndaris. Messana thus came to contain as mixed a population as before. (Diod, 14, 78.) It remained under the sway of Dionysius and his son; and subsequently, after enjoying a short period of freedom, it passed into the hands of Agathocles. (Diod., 19, 102.) The following year the inhabitants revolted from his sway, and put themselves under the protection of the Carthaginians. (Diod., 19, 110.) Soon, however, a new misfortune befell the unlucky city. It was seized by the Mamertini (vid. Mamertini), its male inhabitants were either slaughtered or driven out, and their wives and children became the property of the conquerors. Messana now took the name of Mamertina, though in process of time the other appellation once more gained the ascendancy. (Polyb., 1, 7.—Diod., 21, 13.—Plin., 3, 7.) This act of perfidy and cruelty passed unpunished. Syracuse was too much occupied with intestine commotions to attend to it, and the Carthaginians gladly made a league with the Mamertini, since by them Pyrrhus would be prevented from crossing over into Sicily and seizing on a post so important to his future operations. (Diod., 22, 8.) The Mamertini, however, could not lay aside their old habits of robbery. They harassed all their neighbours, and even became troublesome to Syracuse, where King Hiero had at last succeeded in establishing order and tranquillity. This monarch defeated ...the lawless banditti, and would have taken their city, had not the Carthaginians interposed to defend it. A body of these, with the approbation of part of the inhabitants, took possession of the citadel; while another portion of the inhabitants called in the assistance of the Romans, and thus the first of the Punic wars had its origin. (Vid. Punicum Bellum, and compare Po!yb., 1, 9, seqq. Diod, 22, 15. —Id., 23, 2, seqq.) Messana and the Mamertines remained from henceforth under the Roman power; but the city, as before, could never enjoy any long period of repose. It susfered in the early civil wars between Marius and Sylla, in the war of the slaves in Sicily, and, more particular'y, in the contest between Sextus Pompey and the triamvir Octavianus. Messana formed during this war the chief station of Pompey's fleet, and his principal place of supply, and the city was plundered at its close. (Appian, B. Cip., 5, 122.) A Roman colony was af. terward planted here. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 2, p. 267, seqq.):-The modern Messina corresponds to the ancient city. Even in later times, the sates seem to have conspired against this unfortunate place. A plague swept away a great part of the inhabitants; then rebellion spread its ravages; and finally, the dreadful earthquake in 1783 completed t.e downfall of a city which rivalled, if it did not surpass, Palermo. (Hoare's Classical Tour, vol. 2, 2. 203.) Although the town has since been rebuilt according to a regular §. and although it has been declared a free port, essina is not so important as it once was. It contained before the last catastrophe a hundred thousand inhabitants: the present population does not amount to seventy thousand (Malte Brun, Geogr., vol. 7, p. 732, Am. ed.) MEssapia, a co. ...try of Italy in Magna Græcia, commonly supposed to have been the same with Iapygia, but forming, in strictness, the interior of that part of Italy. The town of Messapia, mentioned by Pliny (3, 11), is thought to have communicated its name to the Messapian nation. The generality of Italian to;ographers identify the site of this ancient town with that of Messagna, between Oria and Brindisi. (Praili, Via Appia, 4, 8–Romanelli, vol. 2, p. 127.— Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 312.)

MesséNE, a daughter of Triopas, king of Argos, who married Polycaon, son of Lelex, king of Laconia. She encouraged her husband to levy troops, and to seize a part of the Peloponnesus, which, aster it had been conquered, received her name. (Pausan, 4, 1.) Messione (or, in the Doric dialect of the country, Messäna, Meagáva), the chief city of Messenia, in the Peloponnesus: situate at the foot of Mount Ithome, and sounded by Epaminondas. It is said to have been completed and fortified in eighty-five days, so great was the zeal and activity displayed by the Thebans and their allies in this undertaking. (Diod. Sic., 15, 66.) Pausanias informs us, that the walls ol this city were the strongest he had ever seen, being entirely of stone, and well supplied with towers and buttresses. The citadel was situated on Mount Ithome, celebrated in history for the long and obstinate defence which the Messenians there made against the Spartans in their last revolt. The history of this city is identified with that of Messenia, which latter article may hence be consulted.—The ruins of Messene are visible, as we learn from Sir W. Gell, at Maurommali, a small village, with a beautiful source, under Ithome, in the centre of the ancient city. (Itin., p. 59– Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 150.—Gell's Itin, of the Morea, p. 60.—Dodwell, vol. 2, p. 365.) Messenia, a country of the Peloponnesus, between Laconia, Elis, Arcadia, and the Ionian Sea. The river Neda formed the boundary towards Elis and Ar. cadia. From the latter country it was farther divided by an irregular line of mountains, extending in a southeasterly direction to the chain of Taygetus on the Laconian border. This celebrated range marked the limits of the province to the east, as far as the source of the little river Pamisus, which completed the line of separation from the Spartan territory to the south. (Strabo, 361.—Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 130.) Its area is calculated by Clinton at 1162 square miles. (Fast. Hell, vol. 2, p. 385.) Messenia is described by Pausanias as the most fertile province of Pelopon: nesus (4, 15, 3), and Euripides, in a passage quoted by Strabo (366), speaks of it as a land well watered, very fertile, with beautiful pastures for cattle, and possessing a climate neither too cold in winter nor too hot in summer. The western part of the country is drained by the river Pamisus, which rises in the mountains between Arcadia and Messenia, and flows southward into the Messenian Gulf. The basin of the Pamisus is divided into two distinct parts, which are separated from each other on the east by some high land that stretches from the Taygetus to the Pa. misus, and on the western side of the river by Moun, Ithome. The upper part, usually called the plain of Stenyclerus, is of small extent and moderate sertility; but the lower part, south of Ithome, is an extens." plain, celebrated in ancient times for its great ferto whence it was frequently called Macaria, or "th" blessed.” Leake describes it as covered at the prese" day with plantations of the vine, the fig, and the mul. berry, and “as rich in cultivation as can well be so. gined.” (Trarels in the Morca, vol.1, p. 332) The western part of Messana is diversified by hills and * leys, but contains no high mountains. (Boy'. Us. Knowl, vol. 15, p. 126.j-We learn from Pausolo (4, 1, 2), that Messenia derived its appellation from Messene, wife of Polycaon, one of the earlies' so eigns of the country. He also observes, that who ever this name occurs in Homer, it denotes the prov. ince rather than the city of Messene, which he "" ceives did not exist till the time of Epaminondas. (Compare Straho, 358.) At the period of the o war, it appears from the poet that Messenia wo . y under the dominion of Menelaus, and partly undo" of Nestor. This is evident from the towns o has assigned to these respective leaders, and,” fart o confirmed by the testimony of Strabo and Pa"

(Strab., 350–Pausan., 4, 3.) In the division of the Peloponnesus, made after the return of the Heraclidae, Messenia sell to the share of Cresphontes, son of Aris. todemus, with whom commenced the Dorian line, which continued without interruption for many gener. ations. In the middle of the cighth century before the Christian era, a series of disputes and skirmishes arose on the borders of Messenia and Laconia, which gave rise to a confirmed hatred between the two nations. Prompted by this feeling, the Spartans are said to have bound themselves by an oath never to return home till Messenia was subdued; and they commenced the contest by a midnight attack on Ampheia, a frontier town, which they took, and put the inhabitants to the sword. This was the commencement of what was called the First Messenian War, the date of which is usually given, though it cannot be believed with certainty, as B.C. 743. Euphaës, the Messenian king, had wisdom, however, and courage sufficient for the crisis. Aware of the Lacedæmonian superiority in the field, he protracted the war, avoiding battles and defending the towns. In the fourth year, however, a battle was sought with great slaughter and doubtful success. But the Messenians were suffering from garrison-confinement and the constant plundering of their lands. New measures were taken. The people were collected from the inland posts at Ithome, a place of great natural strength, and open to supplies by sea, the Lacedæmonians having no fleet. Meanwhile they asked advice of the Delphic oracle, which bade them sacrifice to the infernal deities a virgin of the blood of AEpytus, son of the Heracleid Cresphontes. Impelled by patriotism or ambition, Aristodemus offered his own daughter; and, when it was intended to save her by falsely denying her virginity, in his rage he slew her with his own hand. The fame of the obedience paid to the oracle so far disheartened the enemy, that the war languished for five years; in the sixth an invasion took place, and a battle, bloody and indecisive like the former. Euphaës was killed, and left no issue, and Aristodemus was elected to succeed him. The new prince was brave and able, and the Lacedaemonians..weakened by the battle, confined themselves for four years to predatory incursions. At last they again invaded Messenia, and were defeated ; but, in the midst of his success, Aristodemus was so possessed with remorse for his daughter's death, that he slew himself on her tomb, and deprived his country of the only leader able to defend her. Ithome was besieged. The famished inhabitants found means to pass the Lacedaemonian lines, and fled for shelter and subsistence, some to neighbouring states where they had claims of hospitality, others to their ruined homes and about their desolated country. Ithome was dismantled; and those who remained of the Messenians were allowed to occupy most of the lands, paying half the produce to Sparta.—The absence from home to which the Lacedæmonians had bound themselves, became, by the protraction of the war, an evil threatening the existence of the state, no children being born to supply the waste of war and natural decay. The remedy said to have been adopted was a strange one, highly characteristic of Lacedæmon, and such as no other people would have used. The young men who had come to maturity since the beginning of the war were free from the oath, and they were sent home to cohabit promiscuously with the marriageable virgins. But even at Sparta this expedient, in some degree, ran counter to the popular feelings. When the war was ended, and the children of this irregular intercourse were grown to manhood, though bred in all the discipline of Lycurgus, they found themselves generally slighted. Their spirit was high, their discontent dangerous; and it was thought prudent to offer them the means of settling out of Peloponnesus. They

willingly emigrated, and, under Phalanthus, one of their own number, they founded the city of Tarentum in Italy. (Vid. Parthenii.)—During forty years Messenia bore the yoke. But the oppression of the inhabitants was grievous, and imbittered with every circumstance of insult, and the Grecian spirit of independence was yet strong in them ; they only wanted a leader, and a leader was found in Aristomenes, a youth of the royal line. Support being promised from Argos and Arcadia, allies of his country in a former war, Aristomenes attacked a body of Lacedæmonians, and, though not completely successful, did such seats of valour that the Messenians would have chosen him king ; but he declined it, and was made general-inchief. His next adventure was an attempt to practise on the superstitious fears of the enemy. Sparta having neither walls nor watch, he easily entered it alone by night, and hung against the Brazen House (a singularly venerated temple of Minerva) a shield, with an inscription declaring i. Aristomenes, srom the spoils of the Spartans, dedicated that shield to the goddess. Alarmed lest their protecting goddess should be won from them, the Lacedæmonians sent to consult the Delphian oracle, and were directed to take an Athenian adviser. The Athenians, though far from wish

ing the subjugation of Messenia, yet feared to offend the god if they refused compliance ; but, in grantin

what was asked, they hoped to make it useless, ...; sent Tyrtaeus, a poet, and supposed to be of no ability. The choice proved better than they intended, since the poetry of Tyrtaeus being very popular, kept up the spirit of the people in all reverses.—The Messenian army had now been re-enforced from Argos, Elis, Arcadia, and Sicyon, and Messenian refugees came in daily : the Lacedæmonians had been joined by the Corinthians alone. They met at Caprusema, where, by the desperate courage of the Messenians, and the conduct and extraordinary personal exertions of their leader, the Lacedæmonians were routed with such slaughter that they were on the point of suing for peace. Tyrtarus diverted them from this submission, and persuaded them to recruit their numbers by associating some Helots, a measure very galling to Spartan pride. Meanwhile Aristomenes was ever harassing them with incursions. In one of these he carried off from Caryae a number of Spartan virgins assembled to celebrate the festival of Diana. He had formed a body-guard of young and noble Messenians, who always sought by his side, and to their charge he gave the captives. Heated with wine, the young men attempted to violate their chastity, and Aristomenes, after vainly remonstrating, killed the most refractory with his own hand, and, on receiving their ransom, restored the girls uninjured to their parents. Another time, in an assault on A.gila, he is said to have been made prisoner by some Spartan women there assembled, who repelled the assault with a vigour equal to that of the men; but one of them who had previously loved him favoured his escape. — In the third year of the war, another battle took place at Megaletaphrus, the Messenians being joined by the Arcadians alone. Through the treachery of Aristocrates, prince of Orchomenus, the Arcadian leader, the Messenians were surrounded and cut to pieces, and Aristomenes, escaping with a scanty remnant, was obliged to give up the defence of his country, and collect his forces at Ira, a stronghold near the sea. Here he supplied the garrison by plundering excursions, so ably conducted as to soil every precaution of the besiegers, insomuch that they forbade all culture of the conquered territory, and even of part of Laconia. At last, falling in with a large body of Lacedæmonians under both their kings, after an obstinate defence he was struck down and taken, with about fifty of his band. The prisoners were thrown as rebels into a deep cavern, and all were killed by "..." except Aristomenes, who was wonderfully preserved and enabled to escape, and, returning to Ira, soon gave proof to the enemy of his presence by fresh exploits equally daring and judicious. The siege was protracted till the eleventh year, when the Lacedæmonian commander, one stormy night, learning that a post in the fort had been quitted by its guard, silently occupied it with his troops. Aristomenes flew to the spot and commenced a vigorous defence, the women assisting by throwing tiles from the house-tops, and many, when driven thence by the storm, even taking arms and mixing in the fight. But the superior numbers of the Lacedæmonians enabled them constantly to bring up fresh troops, while the Messenians were fighting without rest or pause, with the tempest driving in their faces. Cold, wet, sleepless, jaded, and hungry, they kept up the struggle for three nights and two days; at length, when all was vain, they formed their column, placing in the middle their women and children and most portable effects, and resolved to make their way out of the place. Aristomenes demanded a passage, which was granted by the enemy, unwilling to risk the effects of their despair. Their march was towards Arcadia, where they were most kindly received, and allotments were offered them of land. Even yet Aristomenes hoped to strike a blow for the deliverance of his country. He selected 500 Messenians, who were joined by 300 Arcadian volunteers, and resolved to attempt the surprise of Sparta while the army was in the farthest part of Messenia, where Pylos and Methone still held out. But the enterprise was frustrated by Aristocrates, who sent word of it to Sparta. The messenger was seized on his return, and the letters found on him discovering both the present and former treachery of his master, the indignant people stoned the traitor to death, and erected a pillar to commemorate his infamy.—The Messenians, who fell under the power of Lacedæmon, were made Helots. The Pylians and Methonaeans, and others on the coast, now giving up all hope of farther resistance, proposed to their countrymen in Arcadia to join them in seeking some fit place for a colony, and requested Aristomenes to be their leader. He sent his son. For himself, he said, he would never cease to war with Lacedæmon, and he well knew that, while he lived, some ill would ever be happening to it. After the former war, the town of Rhegium in Italy had been partly peopled by expelled Messenians. The exiles were now invited by the Rhegians to assist them against Zancle, a hostile Grecian town on the opposite coast of Sicily, and in case of victory the town was offered them as a settlement. Zancle was besieged, and the Messenians having mastered the walls, the inhabitants were at their mercy. In the common course of Grecian warfare, they would all have been either slaughtered or sold for slaves, and such was the wish of the Rhegian prince. But Aristomenes had taught his followers a nobler lesson. They refused to inflict on, other Greeks what they had suffered from the Lacedæmonians, and made a convention with the Zancleans, by which each nation was to live on equal terms in the city. The name of the town was changed to Messana. (Wid. Messana.)—Aristotnenes vainly sought the means of farther hostilities against Sparta, but his remaining days were passed in tranquility *ith Damagetus, prince of Ialysus in Rhodes, who had married his daughter. His actions dwelt in the memories of his countrymen, and cheered them in their wanderings and sufferings: and from their legendary songs, together with those of the Lacedæmonians, and with the poems of Tyrtaeus, the story of the two Messenian wars has been chiefly gathered by the learned and careful antiquary Pausanias, from whose work it is here taken The character of Aristomenes, as thus represented, combines all the elements of goodness and greatness, in a degree almost


unparalleled among Grecian heroes. Inexhaustible in resources, unconquerable in spirit, and resolutely persevering through every extremity of hopeless disaster, an ardent patriot and a formidable warrior, he yet was formed to find his happiness in peace; and after pass. ing his youth under oppression, and his manhood in war against a cruel enemy, wherein he is said to have slain more than 300 men with his own hand, he yet retained a singular gentleness of nature, insomuch that he is related to have wept at the fate of the traitor Aristocrates. The original injustice and subsequent tyranny of the Lacedaemonians, with the crowning out. rage in the condemnation as rebels of himself and his companions, might have driven a meaner spirit to acts of like barbarity: but, deep as was his hatred to Sparta, he conducted the struggle with uniform obedience to the laws of war, and sometimes, as in the case of the virgins taken at Caryae, with more than usual generosity and strictness of morals— The Messenians who remained in their country were treated with the greatest severity by the Spartans, and reduced to the condition of Helots or slaves. This cruel oppression induced them once more to take up arms, in the 79th Olympiad, and to sortify Mount Ithome, where they defended themselves for ten years: the Lacedæmonians being at this time so greatly reduced in numbers by an earthquake, which destroyed several of their towns, that they were compelled to have recourse to their allies for assistance. (Thucyd., 1, 101.—Pausan., 4, 24.) At length the Messenians, worn out by this protracted siege, agreed to surrender the place on condition that they should be allowed to retire from the Peloponnesus. The Athenians were at this time on no friendly terms with the Spartans, and gladly received the resugees of Ithome, allowing them to settle at Naupactus, which they had taken from the Locri Ozola. (Thucyd., 1, 103.—Pausan., l.c.) Grateful for the protection thus afforded them, the Messenians displayed great zeal in the cause of Athens during the Peloponnesian war. Thucydides has recorded several instances in which they rendered important services to that power, not only at Naupactus, but in AEtolia and Amphilochia, at Pylos, and in the island of Sphacteria, as well as in the Sicilian expedition. When, however, the disaster of AEgospotamos placed Athens at the mercy of her rival, the Spartans obtained possession of Naupacts, and compelled the Messenians to quit a town which had so long afforded them refuge. Many of these, on this occasion, crossed over into Sicily, to join their countrymen who were established there, and other" sailed to Africa, where they procured settlemen" among the Evesperitae, a Libyan people. (Pausa". 4, 26.) After the battle of Leuctra, however, which humbled the pride of Sparta, and paved the way"; the ascendancy of Thebes, Epaminondas, who directed the counsels of the latter republic, with masterly policy determined to restore the Messenian nation. by collecting the remnânts of this brave and warliko Po ple. He accordingly despatched agents to Sicily, It. aly, and Africa, whither the Messenians had emig" ted, to recall them to their ancient homes, there." enjoy the blessings of peace and liberty, under the powerful protection of Thebes, Argos, and Asoo Gladly did they obey the summons of the o general, and hastened to return to that county: o recollection of which they had ever fondly cherished. Epaminondas, meanwhile, had made every o for the erection of a city under Ithome, which ". : be the metropolis of Messenia; and such was the . and activity displayed by the Thebans and ho o in this great undertaking, that the city, which t o named Messene, was completed in eighty." do: (Diod, Sic, 15, 66.) The entrance of the M. which took place in the fourth year of the 1024 *: piad, was attended with great pomp, and the cele

tion of solemn sacrifices, and devout invocations to their gods and heroes. The lapse of 287 years from the capture of Ira, and the termination of the second war, had, as Pausanias affirmed, made no change in their religion, their national customs, or their language, which, according to that historian, they spoke even more correctly than the rest of the Peloponnesians. Pausan., 4, 27.) Other towns being soon after reouilt, the Messenians were presently in a condition to make head against Sparta, even after the death of Epaminondas and the decline of Thebes. That great general strenuously exhorted them, as the surest means of preserving their country, to enter into the closest alliance with the Arcadians, which salutary counsel they carefully adhered to. (Polyb., 4, 32, 10.) They likewise conciliated the favour of Philip of Macedon, whose power rendered him formidable to all the states of Greece, and his influence now procured for them the restoration of some towns which the Lacedæmonians still retained in their possession. (Polyb., 9, 28, 7.Pausan., 4, 28.-Strabo, 361.) During the wars and revolutions which agitated Greece upon the death of Alexander, they still preserved their independence, and having, not long after that event, joined the Achaean confederacy, they were present at the battle of Sellasia and the capture of Sparta by Antigonus Doson. (Pausan, 4, 29.) In the reign of Philip, son of Demetrius, an unsuccessful attack was made on their city by Demetrius of Pharos, then in the Macedonian service. The inhabitants, though taken by surprise, defended themselves on this occasion with such intrepidity, that nearly the whole of the enemy's detachment was cut to pieces, and their general, Demetrius, slain. (Strabo, 361.—Polyb., 3, 19, 2–Pausan., 4, 29.) Nabis, tyrant of Lacedæmon, made another attack on this city by night some years afterward, and had already penetrated within the walls, when succours arriving from Megalopolis under the command of Philopoemen, he was forced to evacuate the place. Subsequently to this event, dissensions appear to have arisen, which ultimately led to a rupture between the Achaeans and Messenians. Pausanias was not able to ascertain the immediate provocation which induced the Achaeans to declare war against the Messenians. But Polybius does not scruple to blame his countrymen, and more especially Philopoemen, for their conduct to a people with whom they were united by federal ties. (Polyb., 33, 10, 5.) Hostilities commenced unfavourably for the Achaeans, as their advanced guard fell into an ambuscade of the enemy, and was defeated with great loss, Philopoemen himself remaining in the hands of the victors. So exasperated were the Messenians at the conduct of this celebrated general, that he was thrown into a dungeon, and soon after put to death by poison. His destroyers, however, did not escape the vengeance of the Achaeans; for Lycorias, who succeeded to the command, having defeated the Messenians, captured their city, and caused all those who had been concerned in the death of Philopoemen to be immediately executed. Peace was then restored, and Messenia once more joined the Achaean confederacy, and remained attached to that republic till the period of its dissolution. (Liv., 39, 49.-Polyb., 24, 9.—Pausan., 4, 29.-Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 122, seqq.) Met Keus, a tyrant of Privernum. He was father of Camilla, whom he consecrated to the service of Diana, when he had been banished from his kingdom by his subjects. (Virg., AEn., 11,540.) Metapontum, a city of Lucania in Italy, on the coast of the Sinus Tarentinus, and a short distance to the south of the river Bradanus. It was one of the most distinguished of the Greek colonies. The original name of the place appears to have been Metabum, which it is said was derived from Metabus, a hero to whom divine honours were paid. Some reports ascribed its foundation to a party of Pylians on their re

turn from Troy; and, as a proof of this fact, it was remarked that the Metapontini, in more ancient times, made an annual sacrifice to the Neleidae. The prosperity of this ancient colony, the result of its attention to agriculture, was evinced by the offering of a harvest of gold to the oracle of Delphi. The Greek words are 3épos Xpwootiv, which commentators suppose to mean some golden sheaves. (Strabo, 264.) It may be remarked, also, that the scholiasts on Homer idertify Metapontum with the city which that poet calls Alyba in the Odyssey (24, 303). Other traditions are recorded, relative to the foundation of Metapontum, by Strabo, which confirm, at least, its great antiquity. But his account of the destruction of the first town by the Samnites is obscure, and not to be clearly understood. It appears, however, that Metabum, if such was its name, was in a deserted state, when a number of Achaeans, invited for that purpose by the Sybarites, landed on the coast and took possession of the place, which thenceforth was called Metapontum. (Strab., 265. —Compare Steph. Byz., s. v. MeTaróvrtov.– Eustath. ad Dionys. Perieg., v. 368.) The Achaeans, soon after their arrival, seemed to have been engaged in a war with the Tarentini, and this led to a treaty, by which the Bradanus was recognised as forming the separation of the two territories.—Pythagoras was held in particular estimation by the Metapontini, in whose city he is reported to have lived for many years. After his death, the house which he had inhabited was converted into a temple of Ceres. (Iambl., Wit. Pythag., 1, 30.-Cic., de Fin., 5, 2. — Liv., 1, 18.) We find this town incidentally mentioned by Herodotus (4, 15) with reference to Aristeas of Proconnesus, who was said to have been seen here 340 years after disappearing from Cyzicus. Its inhabitants, after consulting the oracle upon this supernatural event, erected a statue to the poet in the Forum, and surrounded it with laurel. This city still retained, its independence when Alexander of Epirus passed over into Italy. Livy, who notices that fact, states that the remains of this unfortunate prince were conveyed hither previous to their being carried over into Greece (8,24). It fell, however, ultimately into the hands of the Romans, together with the other colonies of Magna Gracia, on the retreat of Pyrrhus, and with them revolted in favour of Hannibal, after his victory at Canna. (Liv., 22, 15.) It does not appear on what occasion the Romans recovered possession of Metapontum, but it must have been shortly after, as they sent a force thence to the succour of the citadel of Tarentum, which was the means of preserving that fortress. (Livy, 25, 11. —Polybius, 8, 36.) It would seem, however, to have been again in the hands of the Carthaginians. (Polyb., 8, 36.) In the time of Pausanias, this city was a heap of ruins (6, 19). Considerable vestiges, situated near the station called Torre di Mare, on the coast, indicate its ancient position. (Swinburne's Travels, p. 273. Romanelli, vol. 1, p. 275. — Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 347, seqq.) * Metau RUM, a town in the territory of the Bruttii, in Italy, not far from Medura, and below Vibo Valentia. Its site is generally supposed to accord with that of the modern Gioja. According to Stephanus, this ancient place was a colony of the Locri; and the same writer farther states, that, according to some accounts, it gave birth to the poet Stesichorus, though that honour was also claimed by Himera in Sicily. Solinus, on the other hand (c. 8), asserts, that Metaurum was founded by the Zanclaians. (Compare Mela, 2, 4.Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 423.) -Meraurus, I. a river in the territory of the Bruttii, running into the Tyrrhene or Lower sea. The town of Metaurum is supposed to have stood at or near its mouth. It is now called the Marro, and sometimes the Petrace. (Clurer, It. Ant., vol. 2, p. 1992.) It appears to have been noted for the * of the bo speaks of a port of the same name, which may have


shunny fish caught at its mouth. (Athen., 7, 63.) Stra- the preceding, belonged to the same political party as

been the town of Metaurum. (Strab., 256.-Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 423.)—II. A river of Umbria, in It was rendercd sent, in B.C. 78, against Sertorius in Spain, where he

Italy, flowing into the Adriatic.

memorable by the defeat of Hasdrubal, the brother of

Hannibal. The Roman forces were commanded by the consuls Livius Salinator and Claudius Nero, A.U.C 545. It is now the Metro. The battle must have taken place near the modern Fossombrone, and on the left bank of the Metaurus. Though Livy has given no precise description of the spot, it may be collected that it was in that part of the course of the river where it begins to be enclosed between high and steep rocks (27, 47). Tradition has preserved a record of the event in the name of a hill between Fossombrone and the pass of Furba, called Monte d'Asdrubale. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 261.) . . Metelli, a distinguished family of the Caecilian gems in Rome. Those most worthy of notice are: I. Q. Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus, was sent, when praetor (B C. 148), into Macedonia, against Andriscus, who pretended to be a son of Perseus, the last king of Macedonia, and who had excited a revolt against the Romans. In this war Andriscus was defeated and taken prisoner by Metellus, who obtained, in consequence, a triumph, and the surname of Macedonicus. (Liry, Epit., 50–Pausanias, 7, 13, 1–Eutrop., 4, 13.) In his consulship, B.C. 143, Metellus was sent into Spain to oppose Viriathus, who had obtained possession of the whole of Lusitania, and had defeated successively the praetors Vetilius and Plautius. Metellus remained in Spain two years, and obtained several victories; but was superseded in the command, before the conclusion of the war, by Pompey. (Liv., Epit., 52, 53.-Val. Mar., 3, 2, 21.—Id., 7, 4, 5.Id, 9, 3, 7.-Appian, Iber, 76.) During the censorship of Metellus and Pompey, B.C. 131, it was decreed that all citizens should be obliged to marry. The oration which Metellus delivered on this subject was extant in the time of Livy, and is referred to by Suetonius. (Lip., Epit., 59. —Suet, Wit. Aug., 89.) We are told by Livy and Pliny, that, when Metellus was returning one day from the Campus Martius, he was seized by command of C. Attinius Labeo, a tribune of the commons, whom he had in his censorship expelled from the senate, and was dragged to the Tarpeian rock; and that it was with the greatest difficulty that his friends were enabled to preserve his life by obtaining another tribune to put his veto upon the order of Attinius. (Liv., Epit., 59.—Plin., 7, 45.) Pliny refers to Metellus as an extraordinary example of human happiness: “For, besides the possession of the highest dignities,” says the Roman writer, “ and having obtained a surname from the conquest of Macedonia, he was carried to the funeral pile by four sons, of whom one had been praetor, three had been consuls, two had enjoyed a triumph, and one had been censor.” (Plin., 7, 45.)—II. Q. Caecilius Metellus Numidicus, derived his surname from his victories in Numidia, whither he was sent in his consulship, B.C. 109, in order to oppose Jugurtha. He remained in Numidia, B.C. 108, as proconsul; but, in the beginning of the following year, he was superseded in the command by Marius, who had previously been his legatus or lieutenantgeneral. On his return to Rome Metellus obtained the honours of a triumph. (Sallust, Bell. Jug.—Welleius Paterc., 2, 11.—Eutropius, 4, 27.—Lic, Epit., 65.) Metellus was censor B.C. 102. He took an active part in the civil commotions of his time, and was one of the most powerful supporters of the aristocratical party. In B.C. 100 he was obliged to go into exile, in consequence of opposing the measures of the tribune Saturnshus; but, on the execution of the latter, Metellus was recalled from exile in the following year.

(Vid Marius.)—III. Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius, son of

his father, and supported Sylla in his contest with Marius. Metellus received especial marks of favour from Sylla, and was consul with him B.C. 80. He was

appears to have remained till the conclusion of the war, in B.C. 72. From the year 76 B.C., Pompey was his colleague in command, and they triumphed together at the end of the war. (Well. Paterc., 2, 30–Eutrop, 6, 5.-Plut., Vit. Pomp.) Metellus was Pontifex Maximus; and on his death, B.C. 63, in the consulship of Cicero, he was succeeded in that dignity by Julius Caesar. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 15, p. 137.) Methodius, I. surnamed Eubulius, a father of the church, and a martyr, flourished at the beginning of the fourth century. He was at first bishop of Olympus or Patara in Lycia, but was afterward translated to the see of Tyre. This latter station, however, he occupied only a short time. His zeal for the purity of the Christian faith exposed him to the resentment of the Arians; he was exiled to Chalcidice in Syria, and there received the crown of martyrdom, A.D. 312. He was the author of a long poem against Porphyry; a treatise on the Resurrection, against Origen; another on the Pythoness; another on Free Will; a dialogue entitled “The Banquet of the Virgins,” &c. Several fragments of this author have been collected. The “Banquet of the Virgins" has reached us entire. It was first published at Rome, 1656, 8vo, with a Latin version and a Dissertation by Leo Allatius. It is a dialogue on the excellence of chastity, modelled after the Banquet of Plato. The best edition is that of Fa: bricius, appended to the second volume of the works of St. Hyppolitus, Hamb., 1718—II. A patriarch of Constantinople, born at Syracuse about the commencement of the ninth century. After various difficulties, into which he was plunged by his attachment to the worship of images, and the opposition of the Icon: clasts, he obtained the see of Constantinople, A.D. 842. His first act after his accession to the episcopal office was to assemble a council and re-establish the worship of images. He died A.D. 846. He was the author of several works, which are given by Combess in his Bibliotheca Patrum.–III. A monk and painter, born at Thessalonica, and who flourished about the middle of the 9th century. He is celebrated for ho ing converted to Christianity Bogoris, king of the Bulgarians, by means of a picture representing the so of the last judgment. (Biogr. Univ., vol. 28.P. 465.) Methose, I, a city of Macedonia, about for " dia north of Pydna, according to the epitomist of So bo (330). It was celebrated in history from the cir. cumstance of Philip's having lost an eye in hesiogo; the place. (Strab, l. c. Demosth., Olynth., 1, 9.) That it was a Greek colony we learn from Scylax (Peripl., p. 26), and also Plutarch, who reports that a party of Eretrians settled there, naming the place Methone, from Methon, an ancestor of Orpheus. He adds, that these Greek colonists were termed Aposphendone. ti by the natives. (Quaest. Gratc.) It appo from Athen us that Aristoie wrote an account of the * thonaean commonwealth (6, 27). This town . cupied by the Athenians towards the close of the i. oponnesian war, with a view of annoying Perdiccas by

- - - - fuge to his disravaging his territory and affording a relug of Amyn

contented subjects. When Philip, the son hostill tas, succeeded to the crown, the Athenian", " in order to

held Methone, landed three thousand men, "" establish Argaeus on the throne of Macedon; an were, however, defeated by the young !...". driven back to Methone. Several years o p laid siege to this place, which at the end o vacuamonths capitulated. The inhabitants having 6 und. ted the town, the walls were razed to ...: (Diod, 16, 34.) Dr. Clarke and Dr. Hollan . in supposing that the site of Methone answers



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