Obrazy na stronie

Taximus marched out of Rome with troops to oppose Maximinus, who had laid siege to Aquileia. The latter, however, experienced a brave resistance from the arrison and people of that city, which excited still more is natural cruelty, and the soldiers, becoming weary of him, mutinied and Jilled both him and his son, A.D. 238. Maximinus, the father, then 65 years old, was a ferocious soldier and nothing else, and wonderful tales are related of his voracity, and the quantity of food and drink which he swallowed daily. His son is said to have been a handsome but arrogant youth. (Jul. Capitol, Wit. Maxim. Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 15, p. 23.)—II. DAIA or Daza, an Illyrian peasant, served in the Roman armies, and was raised by Galerius, who was his relative, to the rank of military tribune, and lastly to the dignity of Caesar, A.D. 303, at the time of the abdication of Dioclesian and Maximian, when he had for his share the government of Syria and Egypt. After the death of Galerius, A.D. 311, Maximinus and Licinius divided his dominions between them, and Maximinus obtained the whole of the Asiatic provinces. Both he and Licinius behaved ungratefully towards the family of Galerius, their common benefactor. Valeria, the daughter of Dioclesian and widow of Galerius, having escaped from Licinius into the dominions of Maximinus, the latter of. sered to marry her, and, on her refusal, banished her, with her mother, to the deserts of Syria. He persecuted the Christians, and made war against the Armenians. A new war having broken out between Licinius and Maximinus, the latter advanced as far as Adrianopolis, but was defeated, fled into Asia, and died of poison at Tarsus, A.D. 313. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 15, p. 24.) Maximus, I. MAGNUs, a native of Spain, who proclaimed himself emperor A.D. 383. The unpopularity of Gratian favoured his usurpation, and he was acknowledged by the troops. Gratian marched against him, but he was defeated, and soon after assassinated. Maximus refused the honours of burial to the remains of Gratian; and, when he had made himself master of Britain, Gaul, and Spain, he sent ambassadors into the East, and demanded of the Emperor Theodosius to acknowledge him as his associate on the throne. Theodosius endeavoured to amuse and delay him, but Maximus resolved to enforce his claim by arms, and, crossing the Alps, made himself master of Italy. Theodosius, however, marched against and besieged him in Aquileia, where he was betrayed by his own soldiers, and put to death, A.D. 383 –II. Petronius, a Roman senator, twice consul, and of patrician origin. He caused the Emperor Valentinian III. to be assassinated, and ascended the throne, but was stoned to death, and his body thrown into the Tiber by his own soldiers, A.D. 455, after a reign of only 77 days. (Procop., Bell. Vand.—Sidon., Apoll., 1, 23.)—III. Tyrius, a native of Tyre, distinguished for his eloquence, and who obtained some degree of celebrity also as a philosopher of the New-Platonic school. According to Suidas, he lived under Commodus; but, according to Eusebius and Syncellus, under Antoninus Pius. The accounts of these chronologers may be reconciled by supposing that Maximus flourished under Antoninus, and reached the time of Commodus. Joseph Scaliger believed that Maximus was one of the instructors of Marcus Aurelius; and that emperor, in fact, mentions a Maximus among his preceptors; but this individual was Claudius Maximus, as we learn from a passage in Capitolinus. (Wit. Anton., Phil., c. 3.) Although he was frequently at Rome, Maximus Tyrius probably spent the greater part of his time in Greece. We have from him, under the title of Discourses (or Dissertations), A6).ot (or Atažéfetc), forty-one treatises or essays on various subjects of a philosophical, moral, and literary nature. That he possessed the most captivating powers of elo

quence, sufficiently appears from these elegant productions; but they are of little merit on the score of ideas. They are, for the most part, written upon Platonic principles, but sometimes lean towards scepticism. The following may serve as a specimen of the topics discussed by this writer. Of God, according to Plato's idea.—If we must return Injury for Injury.—How we may distinguish a Friend from a Flatterer.—That an Active is better than a Contemplative Life. (The contrary position is maintained in another discourse.)— That the Farmer is more useful to a State than the Soldier.—Whether the Liberal Arts contribute to Virtue. —Of the End of Philosophy.—That there is no greater Good than a good Man.-Of the Demon of Socrates. —Of the beneficial Effects of adverse Fortune.— Whether the Maladies of the Body or the Mind be more serere.—The best edition of Maximus Tyrius is that of Davis, Lond., 1740, 4to, enriched with some excellent observations by Markland. It had been preceded by a smaller edition in 8vo, Cantab., 1703, also by Davis. The larger edition was reprinted at Leipsic in 1774, in 2 vols. 8vo, under the editorial care of Reiske. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 4, p. 286, seqq.) —IV. A native of Ephesus, and philosopher of the New-Platonic school. According to Eunapius (p. 86, seqq.), he was, through the recommendation of his master AEdesius, appointed by Constantius preceptor to Julian. According to the Christian historians, however, he introduced himself to Julian, during his Asiatic expedition, at Nicomedia. By accommodating his predictions to the wishes and hopes of the emperor, and by other parasitical arts, he gained entire possession of his confidence. The courtiers, as usual, followed the example of their master, and Maximus was daily loaded with new honours. He accompanied Julian in his expedition into Persia, and there, by the assistance of divination and flattery, persuaded him that he would rival Alexander in the glory of conquest. The event, however, proved as unfortunate to the philosopher as to the hero ; for, Julian being slain by a wound received in battle, after the short reign of Jovian Maximus fell under the displeasure of the emperors Valentinian and Valens, and, for the imaginary crime of magic, underwent a long course of confinement and suffering, which was not the less truly persecution because they were inflicted upon a pagan. At last Maximus was sent into his native country, and there sell a sacrifice to the cruelty of the proconsul Festus. (Ammian, Marcell., 29, 1–Socr., Hist. Eccles., 3, 1. – Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. 2, p. 70, seqq.)—V. An ecclesiastical writer, at first chief secretary to the Emperor Heraclius, and afterward abbot of a monastery at Chrysopolis, near Constantinople. The Greek church has numbered him among the consessors, from his having resisted all the attempts that were made to draw him over to the Monothelites, for which he was banished to Colchis, where he died A.D. 662. Among other works, we have from him a species of Anthology, divided into 71 chapters, and entitled kepúžaua 06020)ukū, #Tou Ex70)ai čk évadópov 31%tov rov Te Kafr husic Kai Tôn, opaflew. It differs from the Anthology of Stobaeus in containing selections also from the scriptures and sron ecclesiastical writers. The works of Maximus were edited by Combefis, Paris, 1675, 2 vols. foll-VI. An ecclesiastical writer, a bishop of Turin (Augusta Taurinorum), who died subsequently to 465 A.D. He was one of the most eloquent speakers of the Western Church. Many of his homilies remain.

MazâcA. Wid. Caesarea ad Argaeum.

MAzică, a people of Sarmatia, in the vicinity of the Palus Maeotis. (Plin. 6, 7.)

MAzices, a people of Mauritania Caesariensis, also called, by some writers, Mazyes, and Machmes. (Steph. Byz., s. v. —Ammian, Marcell., 29, 25.Suet., Ner., c. 31.)

MERTA, a people in the north of Britain, near the Wallum Severi. They are the same with the Maeatae.

MEDEA, daughter of Æétes, king of Colchis, and famed for her skill in sorcery and enchantment. When Jason came to Colchis in quest of the golden fleece, she aided him in obtaining it, and then fled with him in the Argo to Greece. (Wid. Argonautas.) Here she displayed her magic skill in the case of AEson, whom she restored from the decrepitude of age to the bloom of early youth. In order to effect this change, she is said by the poets to have drawn off all the blood from his veins, and then to have filled them with the juices of certain herbs. This sudden renovation of the parent of Jason so wrought upon the daughters of Pelias, that they entreated Medea to perform the same act for their aged father. The Colchian princess eagerly availed herself of this opportunity to avenge the wrongs which Pelias had done to Jason, and, in order to pique still more the curiosity of his daughters, she is said to have cut to pieces an old ram, and then, boiling the parts in a caldron, to have caused a young lamb to come forth from it. The daughters of Pelias thereupon slew their father, and boiled his flesh in a caldron; but Medea refused to perform the requisite ceremonies; and, in order to avoid the punishment she had a right to expect for this cruel deed, fled with Jason to Corinth.-According to another account, however, Medea did not restore Æson to youth, he having been driven by Pelias, before the return of Jason, to the act of self-destruction. (Vid. AEson.)—After residing for some time at Corinth, Medea found herself deserted by Jason, who espoused the daughter of Creon, the Corinthian king. Taking, thereupon, summary vengeance on her rival, and having destroyed her two sons whom she had by Jason (rid. Jason), Medea mounted a chariot drawn by winged serpents and fled to Athens, where she had by King Ægeus a son named Medus. Being detected, however, in an attempt to destroy Theseus (rid. Theseus), she fled from Athens with her son. Medus conquered several barbarous tribes, and also, say the poets, the country which he named Media after himself; and he finally fell in battle with the Indians. Medea, returning unknown to Colchis, found that her father Æðtes had been robbed of his throne by her brother Perses. She restored him, and deprived the usurper of life.—Neither Jason nor Medea can be well regarded as a real historical personage. (Compare remarks at the close of the article Jason.) Whether the former, whose name is nearly identical with Iasion, Iasios, Iasos, is merely a personification of the Ionian race ('lúovec), or, in reference to a myth to be noticed in the sequel, signifies the healing, atoning god or hero, may be doubted. Medea, however, seems to be plainly only another form of Juno, and to have been separated from her in a way of which many instances occur in ancient legends. She is the counselling (ujóoc) goddess; and in the history of Jason we find Juno always acting in this capacity towards him, who, as Homer says, “was cery dear to her” (Od, 12, 72); an obscure hint, perhaps, of the love of Jason and Medea. Medea, also, always acts a friendly part; and it seems highly probable that the atrocities related of her are pure fictions of the Attic dramatists. (Müller, Orchom, p. 68.) The bringing of Jason and Medea to Corinth seems also to indicate a connexion between the latter and Juno, who was worshipped there under the title of Acraea, and the graves of the children of Medea were in the temple of this goddess. It was an annual custom at Corinth, that seven youths and as many maidens, children of the most distinguished citizens, clad in black, with their hair shorn, should go to this temple, and, singing mournful hymns, offer sacrifices to appease the deity. The cause assigned for this rite was as follows. Medea reigned at Corinth; but the people, disdaining to be governed by an enchantress, conspired against her,

and resolved to put her children (seven of rach sex) to death. The children fled to the temple of Juno, but were pursued and slain at the altar. The anger of heaven was manifested by a plague, and, by the advice of an oracle, the expiatory rite just mentioned was instituted. (Parmeniscus, ap. Schol. ad Eurip., Med., 9, 275–Pausan, 2, 3, 7.) It was even said that the Corinthians, by a bribe of five talents, induced Euripides to lay the guilt of the murder of her children on Medea herself. (Schol, l.c.) There was also a tradition that Medea resided at Corinth, and that she caused a famine to cease by sacrificing to Ceres and the Lemnian nymphs, and that Jupiter made love to her, but she would not hearken to his suit, fearing the anger of Juno, who therefore rewarded her by making her children immortal; a thing she had vainly attempt: ed to do herself, by hiding them in the temple of the goddess, whose priestess she probably was in this myth. (Schol. ad Pind., Ol., 13, 74.—Pausan., 2, 3, 11.) It is also remarkable, that the only place besides Corinth in which there were legends of Mcdea was Corcyra, an island which had been colonized by the Corinthians. AEetes himself was, according to Eumelus (ap. Schol, ad Pind., l c.), the son of Helius and Antiope, and born at Ephyra or Corinth, which his sire gave to him; but he committed it to the charge of Bunus, and went to Colchis. It would thus appear, that the whole myth of Æetes and Medea is derived from the worship of the Sun and Juno at Corinth. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 310, scqq.) MEDIA, a country of Upper Asia, the boundaries of which are difficult to determine, as they differed at various times. In the time of Strabo, it was divided into Great Media and Atropatene. Great Media, which is a high table-land, is said by all ancient writers to have had a good climate and a fertile soil; an ac

count which is fully confirmed by modern travellers.

It was separated on the west and southwest from the low country, watered by the Tigris and Euphrates, by a range of mountains known to the ancients under the name of Zagros and Parachoatras. Xenophon, however, appears to include in Media all the country between the Tigris and Mount Zagrus. (Anab, 2, 4, 27.) On the east it was bounded by a desert and the Caspian Mountains (the modern Elburz range), and on the north and northwest by the Cadusii, Atropatene, and the Matieni, thus answering, for the most part, to the modern Irak Ajemi. Atropatene, on the other hand, which corresponds to the modern Azerbijan, extended as far north as the Araxes (now Aras). It was much less fertile than Great Media, and does not appear to have been included in the Media of Herodotus. It derived its name from Atropates, who successfully opposed the Macedonians, and established an independent monarchy, which continued till the time of Strabo, notwithstanding its proximity to the Armenian and Parthian dominions. The principal town of Great Media was Aghatana or Ecbatana, the summer residence of the Persian kings. (Vid. Ecbatana.) In Great Media also was the Nisaean plain, celebrated for its breed of horses, which were considered in ancient times the best in Asia. Arrian informs us, that there were 50,000 horses reared in this plain in the time of Alexander, and that there were formerly as many as 150,000. (Herod., 3, 106.-Id., 7, 40. —Arrian, Erp. Al, 7, 13.—Straho, 525.-Ammian. Marcell., 23, 6.) The mountainous country in the southwestern part of Great Media was inhabited by several warlike tribes, who maintained their independence against the Persian monarchy. Strabo mentions four tribes in particular: the Mardi, bordering on the northwest of Persis; the Uxii and Elymasi, east of Susiana; and the Cossaei, south of Great Media. The King of Persia was obliged to pass through the country of the latter whenever he visited Ecbatana, and could only obtain a free

passage by the payment of a so sum of money. The Cossaei were defeated by Alexander, but they never appear to have been completely subdued by the Macedonians.—According to . Herodotus (1, 101), the Medes were originally divided into six tribes, the Busa, Paretaceni, Struchates, Arizanti, Budii, and Magi. They were originally called Arii (Herod, 7, 62); which word appears to contain the same root as Ar-taei, the ancient name of the Persians. (Herod., 7, 61.) It is not improbable that this name was originally applied to most of the Indo-Germanic nations. Tacitus speaks of the Arii as one of the most powerful of the German tribes (Germ., 43); and India proper is called in the most ancient Sanscrit works, Arrya-varta, “holy land.” The same name was retained in the province of Ariana, and is still employed in the East as the proper name of Persia, namely, Iran. (Vid. Aria.)—Media originally formed part of the Assyrian empire, but its history as an independent kingdom is given so differently by Herodotus and Ctesias, as to render it probable that the narrative of Ctesias must refer to a different dynasty in Eastern Asia. Ctesias makes the Median monarchy last 282 years; and, as Media was conquered by Cyrus about B.C. 560, it follows that the Median monarchy would commence, according to his account, about B.C. 842. Herodotus, on the contrary, assigns to the Median monarchy a period of 128 years, which, including the 28 years during which the Scythians had possession of the country, would place the commencement of the Median monarchy B.C. 716. The founder of this monarchy was Arbaces, according to Ctesias, who reckons eight kings from him to Astyages. According to the account of Herodotus, however, there were four kings of Media: 1. Dejoces, who reigned B.C. 716–657. –2. Phraortes, B.C. 657–635, greatly extended the Median empire, subdued the Persians and many other nations, but fell in an expedition against the Assyrians of Ninus (Nineveh).—3. Cyaxares, B.C. 635–595, completely organized the military force of the empire, and extended its boundaries as far west as the Halys. In an expedition against Nineveh, he was defeated by the Scythians, who had made an irruption into Southern Asia, and was deprived of his kingdom for 28 years. After the expulsion of the Scythians, he took Nineveh, and subdued the Assyrian empire, with the exception of the Babylonian district (Batovãoving uoipme).-4. Astyages, B.C. 595-560, who was dethroned by his

grandson Cyrus, and Media reduced to a Persian,

province. The history of the rise of the Persian monarchy is related differently by Xenophon, who also makes a fifth Median king, Cyaxares II., succeed Astyages.—The Medes revolted during the reign of Darius II., the father of the younger Cyrus, about B.C. 408, but were again subdued. (Herod., 1, 130.— Men., Hist. Gr., 1, 2, 19.) They do not appear, after this time, to have made any farther attempt at recovering their independence. On the downfall of the Persian empire they formed a part of the kingdom of the Seleucidae, and were subsequently subject to the Parthians. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 15, p. 54.) Mediol. KNUM, I. a city of Cisalpine Gaul, among the Insubres, now Milan. According to Livy (5,34), it was founded by the Insubres, and called by them Mediolanum, from a place of the same name among the AEdui in Gaul., (Compare Pliny, 3, 17.—Ptol., p. 63.) This city is named for the first time in history by Polybius (2, 34), in his account of the Gallic wars. The capture of it by Cn. Scipio and Marcellus was followed by the submission of the Insubres themselves. (Oros., 4, 13.—Plut., Wit. Marcell.) It was situate on a small river, now the Olona, in a beautiful plain between the Ticinus or Tesino, and the Addua or Adda. In the vicinity of this city, to the west, D'Anville and others locate the Raudii Campi, where Marius defeated the Cimbri; but Mannert places them near Verona. In Strabo's time, Mediolanum was con

sidered a most flourishing city. (Strabo, 213.-Compare Tacit., Hist., 1, 70.-Suet, Aug., c. 20.—Plin., Ep., 4, 13.) But its splendour seems to have been greatest in the time of Ausonius, who flourished towards the end of the fourth century, and who assigns it the rank of the sixth city in the Roman empire. Procopius, who wrote a century and a half later, speaks of Mediolanum as one of the first cities of the west, and as inferior only to Rome in population and extent. (Rer. Got., 2, 8.) In it was also established the gold and silver coinage of the north of Italy. At a later period, the frequent inroads of the barbarians of the north compelled the emperors to select, as a place of arms, some city nearer the scene of action than Rome was. The choice fell on Mediolanum. Here, too, Maximian resigned the imperial diaden (Eutrop, 9, 27), and the famous St. Ambrose established the see of a bishopric. Although subsequently plundered by Attila (Jormandes, c. 42), it soon revived, and under Odoacer became the imperial residence. In its vicinity was fought the battle which put Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, in possession of Italy, and Mediolanum under this prince became second only to Rome. (Procop., Rer. Got., 2, 8.) It met with its downfall, however, when, having sided with Belisarius, and having been besieged by the Goths and Burgundians, it was taken by the latter, and 300,000 of the inhabitants, according to Procopius, were put to the sword (2, 21). It never, after this severe blow, regained its former eminence, although in the middle ages it became a flourishing and opulent place of trade. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 1, p. 167, seqq.—Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 51.)—II. A town of the Gugerni in Germania Inferior, corresponding, as is thought by Cluver and Cellarius, to the present village of Moyland.—III. A city in Moesia Superior. (Cod. Theod, l. 8, de jur. fisc.)—IV. A town of the Ordovices in Britain, near the present town of Ellesmeere. Medioxiatrici, a people of Gallia Belgica on the Mosella or Moselle. The Treviri were their neighbours on the north. Their chief town was Divodurum, afterward Mediomatrici, now Metz. They were a powerful nation previous to their reduction by the Romans, and their territory corresponded to what is now le pays Messin. (Caes., B. G., 4, 10.—Plin., 4, 17. —Tacit., Ann., 1, 63.−ld., Hist., 4, 70.) M Editr RRAN ÉUM MARE (or Midland Sea), the Mediterranean, a sea between the Straits of Gibraltar to the west and the Dardanelles and Syria to the east. It was anciently called “The Sea,” or “The Great Sea,” by the Jews. The Greeks, on the other hand, do not seem to have had any general name for it. Herodotus calls it “this sea” (1, 185); and Strabo, “the sea within the columns,” that is, within the Straits of Gibraltar (Strab., 491). Mela calls the whole sea “mare nostrum,” “our sea,” and observes that different parts had their several names. Pliny appears to have no general appellation for it. The term Mediterranean is not applied to this sea by any classical Latin writer, but, instead of Mediterrancun, they use internum, or else, with Mela, call it nostrum. We will return to this subject at the close of the article.—The Mediterranean is comprised between the parallels of 30° 15' and 45° 50', and the meridians of 5° 30' W. and 36° 10' E. The distance from Gibraltar to the farthest shore of Syria is 2000 miles, and the narrowest part from Sicily to Africa is 79 miles across. Including the islands, it occupies an area of 734,000 square miles. On the shores of this sea have been transacted the most important events in the history of mankind, and its character seems to mark it as the theatre best adapted to the complete aud rapid civilization of the race. From the great diversity of soil and productions, under a varied and favourable climate, the colonists, from whatever points they first proceeded, would soon acquire those different habits under which their

several energies and capabilities would be developed. The comparative shortness of the distances of the several places, rendering navigation easy and pleasant in small and impersect vessels, would, by facilitating intercourse from an early period, tend to diffuse and promote civilization; while commerce, by bringing together men of different habits, manners, and languages, and thus circulating practical information, would supply the materials for the perfection of the arts and sciences.—The navigation of the Mediterranean must no doubt be of very early date. The story of Minos destroying pirates (Thucyd., 1, 4) takes for granted the fact, that there must have been merchant vessels carrying something worth plundering from the earliest recorded period. If, with Strabo, we allow the accuracy of Homer's descriptions, it by no means follows that the Greeks knew everything that could have been known to every other nation at that time; and the stories told of the jealousy with which the Phoenicians and Carthaginians guarded their discoveries, prove at least that geographical knowledge was not common property: and with regard to these very nations, the knowledge which the Greeks could have had of them, among other barbarians, must have been inferior to that which we possess in the minute accuracy of the Scriptures alone. The story of Utica having been established 130 years before Carthage, proves a regular communication between this place and Syria, a distance of upward of 1200 miles; and we may conclude that occasional voyages of that enterprising people had already extended the bounds of knowledge far beyond these limits. If the precise time of the discovery of places, lying, as it were, in the thoroughfare of this sea, is so uncertain, the history of the places in the deep bays of the northern shores must be still more obscure : we shall therefore give at once a slight sketch of the geography of this sea from Strabo, who wrote in the first century of our era.-The stadium adopted by Strabo was that of Eratosthenes, 700 stadia making 1° of latitude or longitude on the equator, or 60 nautical miles; hence a stadium is 0.0857 of a nautical mile, the mile being about 6082 feet. The Mediterranean was divided into three basins: the first comprised the sea between the Columns of Hercules and Sicily; the second, between Sicily and Rhodes; the third, between Rhodes and the shores of Syria. Strabo supposed that the parallel of latitude of 364° passed through the Sacred Promontory (Cape St. Vincent) between the Pillars of Hercules, dividing this part of the Mediterranean in the middle of its breadth, which was believed by navigators to be 5000 stadia, or 4283 nautical miles, from the Gulf of Lyons to the shores of Africa, but which measures only 330. The sea here, however, lies altogether to the north of this parallel; and hence, as the configuration of the European shores seems to have been tolerably good, the coast of Africa must have been proportionably distorted. This parallel was carried through the straits of Sicily, Rhodes, and the Gulf of Issus, now the Gulf of Scanderoon. In consequence of the above supposition, he placed Massilia (Marseille) to the southward instead of the northward of Byzantium. He supposed Sardinia and Corsica to lie northwest and southeast instead of north and south, and made the distance of Sardinia from the coast of Africa 2400 stadia, or 206 miles instead of 100, which is the true distance. From the Columns of Hercules to the Straits of Sicily he considers to be 12,000 stadia, or 1028 miles : it is only about 800. From Pachynum (Cape Passaro) to the western extremity of Crete he reckoned 4500 stadia, or 386 miles; it measures 400; and he supposed the length of Crete 2000 stadia, or 171 miles, the true length being 140. He supposed that a line drawn through Byzantium, the middle of the Propontis, the Hellespont, and along the capes of the coast of Asia Minor, would coincide with the meridian ; this error 5 K

placed Byzantium too far to the north, and not far enough to the east. From Alexandrea to the east end of Crete he considered 3000 stadia, or 257 miles: it measures about 290. From Alexandrea to Rhodes he made 3600 stadia, or 308 miles: it measures 320–Many of the latitudes given by Strabo are very near, that is, within 10"; those of Massilia and Byzantium excepted, the former being 3° 43' too little, and the latter 2° 16' too much. *. longitudes, which were all at that time referred to the Sacred Promontory as the first meridian, and the extreme western point, as was believed, of the known world, are without exception too small; that of Carthage, the nearest to the truth, being 1°9', and Alexandrea, the most erroneous, 6° 40' too small. (Encycl. Useful Knowl., vol. 15, p. 59, seqq.)—The Mediterranean Sea afforded a very frequent topic of consideration to the ancient writers. Democritus, Diogenes, and others, maintained that its waters kept constantly decreasing, and would eventually all disappear. Aristotle (Meteor, 2, 3) held to the opinion, that the Mediterranean had at one time covered a large part of Africa and Egypt, and had extended inland as far as the temple of Jupiter Ammon. This doctrine was maintained also by Xanthus the Lydian, Strabo, and Eratosthenes. The ancients appear to have been led to this conclusion by observing in various parts of Africa and Egypt manifest traces and indications of the sea. They found here shells, pebbles evidently rounded or worn smooth by the action of water, incrustations of salt, and many salt lakes. Some of these appearances were particularly frequent on the route through the desert to the temple of Ammon. (Herod., 2, 12. Plut., de Is... et Os. Strab., 809.-Mela, 1, 6. — Solin., 26. — Seidel., ad Eratosth., fragm., p. 28.) The ancient writers maintained, that the temple and oracle of Ammon never could have become so famous if the only approach to them had always been over vast and dangerous deserts. They insisted that the Oases had all originally been islands in the earlier and more widely extended Mediterranean. In this remote period, according to them, there existed as yet no communication between the Pontus Euxinus and Mediterranean Sea (vid. Lectonia), nor between the latter and the Atlantic. The isthmus connecting Arabia with Egypt was under water, and Eratosthenes believed that Menelaus had sailed over this narrow passage, which is now the Isthmus of Suez. When the waters of the Euxine forced a passage into the Mediterranean (rid. Cyaneae), the great influx of water opened another outlet for itself through what were called by the ancients the Pillars of Hercules, Spain and Africa having been previously joined. In this tremendous convulsion the ancient land of Lectonia is thought to have been inundated, and to have sunk in the sea, leaving merely the islands of the Archipelago, its mountain-tops, to attest its former existence. According to Diodorus Siculus (5, 47), the inhabitants of Samothrace had a tradition that a great part of their island, as well as of Asia, was ravaged and laid under water by this inundation, and that, in fishing near their island, fragments of temples and other buildings were frequently rescued from the waves. (Compare Diod. Sic., 5, 82. — Strab., 85Plat., de Leg., 3, p. 677, Opp., ed. Bip., vol. 8, p. 106.—Plin., 2, 80-Philon., de Mund, non corrupt., p. 959. — Lyell's Principles of Geology, vol. 1, p. 25, seqq.)—Before bringing the present article to a close, it may not be amiss to enter more fully into one part of the subject, on which we merely touched at the commencement, the different appellations, namely, which have been given to this sea. Herodotus, as we have already remarked, calls it “this sea,” to vée Tov &ážaaaay (4,39.—Compare Aristot., Meteor, 2, 2. Appian, Schweigh. ad Praf, c. 1.-Wesseling. ad Diod. Sic., 4, 18). Polybius, # too (3 39–Compare Aristot., de Mundo, c. 3–Gellius, N. A., 10, 7.) Diodorus Siculus, # kaff judic J4Zaqaa (4, 18. —Compare Polyb., 3, 37.—Strab., 83. — Appian, Bell. Mithradat., c. 93. — Marimus Tyrius, 14, 2). Maximus Tyrius, # deipo 34%aaga (41, 1). Strabo, # vrög Júžagga. (Compare Marc. Heracl, Peripl., p. 65. — Agathem., 2, 4.) Aristotle, j Švros 'Hpak%tian arm2&v Jážagoa (Meteor, 2, 1–Compare Dion. Hal., 1,3—Plut., Vit. Pomp., c. 25). The Latin writers in general, as we have already said, give it the appellation of Nostrum Mare (Sallust., Jug., c. 17.-Mela, 1, 1, 5.-Liv., 26, 4.—Caes., B. G., 5, 1. Arien., Or. Marit., v. 56.—Compare Duker, ad Flor., 3, 6, 9.-Cort. ad Sallust., B. Jug., c. 18). Pliny styles it Mare internum (3, procm., c. 5). Florus, Mare intestinum (4, 2). Later writers, not classical, have Mare Mediterraneum. (Solin., c. 22.) Isidorus gives the following explanation of this name: “Quia per mediam terram usque ad Orientem perfunditur, Europam et Africam Asiamque disterminans.” (Orig., 13, 13. —Compare Priscian., Perieg., 52.) Orosius says, “Mare nostrum quod Magnum generaliter dicimus;” and Isidorus remarks, “quia cetera maria in comparatione ejus minora sunt.” (Oros., 1, 2.—Isid., Orig., 13, 16.—Compare Hardouin, ad Plin, 9, 18. —Burmann, ad Val. Flacc., Arg., 1, 50.) According to Polybius (3, 42), that part of the Mediterranean which lay between the Pillars of Hercules and the Rhone was called Xapóóvtov Tré%ayoc, while Aristotle calls the part between the Pillars and Sardinia XapÖovukóc (Meteor., 2, 1.-Id, de Mund, 3.-Eratosth., ap. Plin., 3, 10). Strabo gives the part between the Pillars and the Pyrenees the name of 'I6mptov rážayog (122. —Compare Agathem., 1, 3. – Dionys. Perieg., v. 69. — Niceph. Blem., ed. Spohn., p. 3). Pliny remarks, “Hispanum mare, quatenus Hispanias alluit; ab allis Ibericum aut Balearicum” (3, 2. — Id, ibid, 4, 34.—Compare Solin., c. 23.—Ampel, c. 7.-Ptol., 2, 6). According to Zonaras (Annal., 8, p. 406), the sea to the east of the Pyrenees was called the Sea of the Bebrycians. (Compare Markland., ad Maz. Tyr., 32, 3–Ukert's Geogr., vol. 2, p. 247, seqq., in notis.) Medit Rin A, the goddess of healing, whose festival, called Meditrinalia, was celebrated at Rome and throughout Latium on the 5th day before the Ides of October. (Compare the Ancient Calendar given by Gruter, p. 133.) On this occasion new and old wine were poured out in libation, and tasted, “medicamenti causa.” Compare the explanatory remarks of Festus : “Meditrinalia dicta hac de causa. Mos crat Latinis populis, quo die quis primum gustaret mustum, dicere ominis gratia, ‘ vetus novum vinum bibo: veteri novo morbo medeor.” A quibus verbis Meditrina deat momen captum, ejusque sacra Meditrinalia dicta sunt.” (Festus, s. v.–Consult Dacier, ad loc.) Medokci, a people of Venetia, in Cisalpine Gaul, noticed only by Strabo (216). From the affinity which their name bears to that of the Meduacus or Brenta, it seems reasonable to place them near the source of that river, and in the district of Bassano. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 125.) o, or MEDUKcus, I. Major, a river of Venetia, now the Brenta.-II. Minor, a river of Venetia, now the Bachiglione.—Both these rivers rise in the territory of the Euganei, and fall into the Adriatic below Venice. Patavium was situate between these two streams, but nearer the Medoacus Minor. (Plin., 3, 16.-Liv., 10, 2.) Medobrig A, a city of Ilusitania, southwest of Norba Caesarea; now Marvao, on the confines of Portugal. (Caes., Bell. Afric., c. 48.) Medon, son of Codrus, the 17th and last king of Athens, was the first of the perpetual archons. He held the office for life, and transmitted it to his posterity; but still it would appear that, within the house of the Medontidae, the succession was determined by

the choice of the nobles. It is added, that the archon at this period, though holding the office for life, was nevertheless deemed a responsible magistrate, which implies that those who elected had the power of deposing him ; and, consequently, though the range of his functions may not have been narrower than that of the king's, he was more subject to control in the exercise of them. This indirect kind of sway, however, did not satisfy the more ambitious spirits; and we find them steadily, though gradually, advancing towards the accomplishment of their final object—a complete and equal participation of the sovereignty. After twelve perpetual archonships, ending with that of Alcmaeon, the duration of the office was limited to ten years; and through the guilt or calamity of Hippomanes, the fourth decennial archon, the house of Medon was deprived of its privilege, and the supreme magis. tracy was thrown open to the whole body of the nobles. This change was speedily followed by one much more important: the archonship was reduced to a single year; and, at the same time, its branches were severed, and were distributed among nine new magistrates. (Vid. Archontes.—Thirlwall's History of Greece, vol. 2, p. 16.-Compare Clinton, Fast. Hell., vol. 1, p. ix., seqq.) Medu Acus. Vid. Medoacus. MEDURNA, a river of Gallia Belgica, flowing into the Ligeris or Loire. Now the Mayenne. (Lucan, 1, 438.-Theod. Aurel., 4, carm. 6.) Medus, I. a river of Persis, falling into the Rogomanes; now the Abi-Kuren. (Strabo, 729.)—By the Medum flumen in Horace (Od., 2, 9, 21) is meant the Euphrates.—II. A son of AEgeus and Medea, who was sabled to have given name to Media, in Upper Asia. (Wid. Medea.) Medusa, one of the three Gorgons, daughter of Phorcys and Ceto, and the only one of the number that was not immortal. (Apollod., 2, 4, 2.) According to one legend, Medusa was remarkable for personal beauty, and captivated by her charms the monarch of the sea. Minerva, however, incensed at their having converted her sanctuary into a place of meeting, ão the beautiful locks of Medusa into serpents, and made her in other respects hideous to the view. Some accounts make this punishment to have befallen her because she presumed to vie in personal attractions with Minerva, and to consider her tresses as far superior to the locks of the former. (Serp., ad Virg., AEn., 6, 289.) Apollodorus, however, gives the Gorgons snaky tresses srom their birth. (Wid. Gorgones.)—Medusa had, in common with her sisters, the power of converting every object into stone on which she fixed her eyes. Perseus slew her (rid. Perseus), and cut off her head; and the blood that flowed from it produced, say the poets, the serpents of Africa, since Perseus, on his return, winged his way over that country with the Gorgon's head. The conqueror gave the head to the goddess Minerva, who

placed it in the centre of her agis or shield. (Wid.
MEGAERA, one of the Furies. (Wid. Furiae.)
Meg Alesia, games in honour of Cybele. (Wid.

Ludi Megalenses.) MEGALíA or MEGAris, a small island in the Bay of Naples, near Neapolis, on which the Castle del Oro now stands. (Plin., 3, 6–Colum., R. R., 10 ) MEGALopéills, the most recent of all the Arcadian cities, and also the most extensive, situate in the southern part of Arcadia, in a wide and fertile plain watered by the Helissus, which flowed from the central parts of Arcadia, and nearly divided the town into two equal parts. Pausanias informs us, that the Arcadians, having, by the advice of Epaminondas, resolved on laying the foundations of a city, which was to be the capital of their nation, deputed ten commissioners, selected from the principal states, to make the

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