Obrazy na stronie

Apollo for the palm in musical skill. The Muses were the umpires, and it was agreed that the victor might do what he pleased with the vanquished. Marsyas lost, and Apollo flayed him alive for his temerity. The tears of the nymphs and rural deities for the fate of their companion gave origin, it was fabled, to the stream which bore his name; and his skin was said to have been hung up in the cave whence the waters of the river flowed. (Apollod., 1, 4, 2. Pausan., 2, 7, 9.Plut., de Fluo., 10.—Hygin., fab., 165. —Ovid, Met., 6, 382, seqq.—Xen., Anab., 1, 2, 8.)—It seems, according to the ancient mythological writers, that, in the contest above alluded to, Apollo played at first a simple air on his instrument; but Marsyas, taking up his pipe, struck the audience so much with the novelty of its tone and the art of his performance, that he seemed to be heard with more pleasure than his rival. Having agreed upon a second trial of skill, it is said that the performance of Apollo, by his accompanying the lyre with his voice, was allowed greatly to excel that of Marsyas upon the pipe alone. Marsyas with indignation protested against the decision of his judges, urging that he had not been fairly vanquished according to the rules stipulated, because the dispute was concerning the excellence of their respective instruments, not their voices; and that it was unjust to employ two arts against one. Apollo denied that he had taken any unfair advantage, since Marsyas had used both his mouth and fingers in playing on his instrument, so that if he was denied the use of his voice, he would be still more disqualified for the contention. On a third trial Marsyas was again vanquished, and met with the fate already mentioned. (Diod. Sic., 3, 58.) —The whole sable, however, admits of a very rational explanation. The pipe as cast away by Minerva, and Marsyas as punished by Apollo, are intended merely to denote the preference given, at some particular pe. riod, by some particular Grecian race, with whom the myth originated, to the music of the lyre over that of the pipe, or, in other words, to the Citharoedic over the Auletic art. The double pipe was a Phrygian or Asiatic invention, and ascribed to a certain Marsyas. (Diod, Sic., 3, 58.) The music of this instrument was generally used in celebrating the wild and enthusiastic rites of Cybele. Hence we may explain the remark of Diodorus, that Marsyas was a companion and follower of Cybele (Škovcioc at Tapakožovskiv kai avutzavāoffat, 3, 58). Subsequently, the wildness of the Bacchanalian celebrations became intermingled with the phrensied delirium that characterized the procession and the rites of Cybele. The double pipe came now to be employed in the orgies of Bacchus. The worship of this god spread over Greece, and with it was disseminated the knowledge of this instrument. To the new species of music thus introduced was opposed the old and national melody of the lyre; or, in the language of mythology, Apollo, the inventor and im

rover of the lyre, engaged in a stubborn conflict with

Marsyas, the representative of the double pipe. Apollo conquers; that is, the pipe was long regarded by the Greeks as a barbarian instrument, and banished from the hymns and festivals of the gods: it could only find admittance into the festivals of the vintage, in the Bacchanalian orgies, and in the chorus of the drama. (Wieland, Attisches Museum, vol. 1, p 311, seqq.)— A statue of Marsyas, representing him in the act of being flayed, stood in the Roman forum, in front of the rostra. The story of Marsyas, understood in its literal sense, presents a remarkable instance of well-inerited punishment inflicted on reckless presumption; and as this feeling is nearly allied to, if not actually identified with, that arrogant and ungovernable spirit which formed the besetting sin of the ancient democracics, we need not wonder that, in many of the cities of antiquity, it was customary to erect a group of Apollo and Marsyas, in the vicinity of their courts of

5 I

justice, both to indicate the punishment which such conduct merited, and to denote the omnipotence of the law. Servius (ad Virg., AEn., 4, 58) alludes to the custom of which we have just made mention. His explanation, however, shows that he only half understood the nature of the allegory: “Marsyas per civitates in ford positus libertatis indicium est.”—II. A river of Phrygia, rising, according to Xenophon, in a cavern under the Acropolis of Celaenae, and falling into the Maeander. (Anab., 1, 2, 8.) Here, as the same writer informs us, Apollo contended with Marsyas, and hung up the skin of his vanquished antagonist in the cavern whence the river flowed. The following remarks of Mr. Leake appear worthy of insertion. “According to Xenophon, the Maeander rose in the palace of Cyrus, flowing thence through his park and the city of Celaenae: and the sources of the Marsyas were at the palace of the King of Persia, in a lofty situation under the Acropolis of Celaenae. From Arrian (1, 29) and Quintius Curtius (3, 1) we learn, that the citadel was upon a high and precipitous hill, and that the Marsyas sell from its fountains over the rocks with a great noise: from Herodotus (7,26) it appears, that the same river was from this circumstance called Catarrhactes; and from Strabo (578), that a lake on the mountain above Celaenae was the reputed source both of the Miarsyas, which rose in the ancient city, and of the Maeander. Comparing these authorities with Livy (38, 38), who probably copied his account from Polybius; with Pliny (5, 29); with Maximus Tyrius (8, 8); and with the existing coins of Apamea, it may be inferred, that a lake or pool on the summit of a mountain which rose above Celaenae, and which was called Celaenae or Signia, was the reputed source of the Marsyas and Mazander; but that, in fact, the two rivers issued from different parts of the mountain below the lake; that the lake was named Aulocrene, as producing reeds well adapted for flutes, and that it gave the name of Aulocrenis to a valley extending for ten miles from the lake to the eastward; that the source of the Marsyas was in a cavern on the side of a mountain in the ancient agora of Celaenae, and that the Marsyas and Maeander, both of which flowed through Celaenae, united a little below the ancient site.” (Leake's Journal, p. 158, seqq.)—III. A river of Caria, mentioned by Herodotus (5, 118) as flowing from the country of Idrias into the Maeander. Idrias was one of the earlier names of the city which, under the Macedonians, assumed the name of Stratonicea. The Marsyas of Herodotus is supposed, therefore, to be the same with the modern Tshina. (Barbié du Bocage.— Voyage de Chandler, vol. 2, p. 252–Leake's Journal, p. 234.)-IV. A native of Pella, brother of Antigonus. He wrote, in ten books, a History of the Kings of Macedon, from the origin of the monarchy to the sounding of Alexandrea; and also a work on the Education of Alezander, with which prince he had been brought up. The loss of both these works, but particularly the latter, is much to be regretted. Marsyas is also named among the grammarians, and Suidas calls him Ypauparodičáakooc, “a master of a school.” (Scholl, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 3, p. 207.) Marria or MARcia Aqua, a name given to the water conveyed to the city by one of the Roman aqueducts. This water was considered the most wholesome of any brought to Rome. The history of the Marcian aqueduct is as follows : Previous to its erection, the Romans obtained their supply of water from the Aqua Appia and Anio Vetus. At the end, how ever, of 127 years after the erection of the two lastmentioned aqueducts, their channels had become decayed, and much of their water was abstracted by the fraud of private individuals. The praetor Quintus Mar cius Rex was thereupon appointed by the senate to repair the injuries sustained by the old aqueducts; in addition to which, he also comino,di new one,

which was ever aster called from him the Aqua Marcia. Pliny, however, states that the Aqua Marcia was first conveyed to Rome by Ancus Marcius; and that Quintus Marcius Rex merely re-established the conduits. The sal:e writer informs us that the earlier name of the water was Saufeia. (Plin., 31, 24.)—The Marcian water was obtained from the little river Pitonius, now Guorenco. This stream entered the Lacus Fucinus on the northeast side, and was said not to mix its waters, the coldest known, with those of the lake. According to the same popular account, it afterward emerged by a subterranean duct near Tibur, and became the Aqua Marcia. (Cramer's Anc. It., vol. 1, p. 327.-Burgess, Antiq. of Rome, vol. 2, p. 328.) MARTIAlis, MARcus Valerius, a Latin epigrammatic poet, born at Bilbilis in Spain, about A.D. 40. Rader fixes his birth at A.D. 43 ; while Masson (Wit. Plin., p. 112) makes him not to have died before A.D. 101.—Very few particulars of his life are ascertained, and even these are principally collected from his own writings. He was destined originally for the bar, but showed little disposition to apply himself to such a career. In order to complete his education, Martial was sent to Rome. It was at the age of about twentytwo years, and in the sixth year of Nero's reign, that he established himself in the capital. Here he gave himself up entirely to poetry, which he made a means of subsistence, for he was compelled to live by his own exertions. Titus and Domitian both favoured him, and the latter bestowed on him the rank of an eques and the office of a tribune, granting to him at the same time all the privileges connected with the Jus trium liberorum. After having passed thirty-five years at Rome, he felt desirous of visiting his native country. Pliny the younger supplied him with the necessary means for travelling. Having reached Spain, he there, according to some critics, married a rich female named Marcella, who had possessions on the Bilbilis or Salon, and lived many years in the enjoyment of conjugal happiness. The conclusion, however, to be drawn from his writings rather favours the supposition that such an union did not take place. Martial was acquainted with most of his literary contemporaries, Juvenal, Quintilian, Pliny the younger, and others, as appears from his own writings. (Ep., 2, 90; 12, 18, &c.)—We have about 1200 epigrams from the pen of Martial: they form fourteen books, of which the last two are entitled Xenia and Apophoreta respectively, from the circumstance of their containing mottoes or devices to be affixed to presents offered to his friends, or distributed at the Saturnalia and other festivals. These fourteen books are preceded by one under the title of Spectacula, containing epigrams or small pieces on the spectacles given by Titus and Domitian. These are not all o of Martial ; but it is very possible that he may have made and published the collection.-The greater part of Martial's epigrams are of a different kind from those of Catullus. They approach more nearly to the modern idea of epigram, for they terminate with a point for which the author reserves all the edge and bitterness of his satire. Among the numerous epigrams which Martial has left behind him, there are some that are excellent ; of the collection as a whole, however, we may say, in the words of the poet himself (1, 17): “Sunt bona, sunt quadam mediocria, sunt mala plura.” Many of these epigrams have lost their point for us, who are ignorant of the circumstances to which they allude. A large portion, moreover, are disgustingly obscene. Besides the epigrams which form the collection here referred to, there are others ascribed to Martial, which Burmann has inserted in his Anthology, vol. 1, p. 237, 340, 470, 471.-The best editions of Martial are, that of Rader, Ingolst., 1602, 1611, fol., et Mogunt., 1627; that of Scriverius, Lugd. But.., 12mo, 1619; that of Smidsius, Amst., 8vo, 1701; and that of Lemaire, 2

vols., 8vo, Paris. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Rom, vol. 2, p. 349.) MARULLUs, a tribune of whom Plutarch makes mention in his life of Julius Caesar. Marullus and another of his colleagues, named Flavius, when the statues of Caesar were seen adorned with royal diadems, went and tore them off. They also found out the persons, who had saluted Caesar king, and committed them to prison. The people followed with joyful acclamations, calling the tribunes Brutuses; but Caesar, highly irritated, deposed them from office. (Plut., Wit. Caes.) MAs. Esyli, or Massaesyli, a people in the western part of Numidia, on the coast, between the river Mulucha and the promontory Masylibum or Musulubium. (Polyb., 3, 33.--Dionys. Perieg., 187.-Sallust, Jugurth., c. 92.—Liv., 28, 17.) They were under the dominion of Syphax. The promontory of Tretum, now Sebda-Kuz, or the Seven Capes, separated this nation from the Massyli, or subjects of Masinissa. Masca or MAscas, a river of Mesopotamia, falling into the Euphrates, and having at its mouth the city Corsote, which it surrounded in a circular course. Mannert, after a review of the several authorities which have a bearing on the subject, charges D'Anville with an error in placing the Masca too far to the west of Anatho, and in fixing this latter place at too great a distance from the Chaboras, since Isidorus makes the intervening space only 29 miles, whereas, on D'Anville's chart, it is 35 geographical miles. D'Anville also is alleged to err in giving the Euphrates too large a bend to the southwest of Anatho. The river Masca is termed by Ptolemy the Saocoras. Mannert thinks that the Masca was nothing more than a canal from the Euphrates. (Mannert, Anc. Geogr., vol. 5, p. 323.) MAsinissa, king of Numidia, was the son of Gula, who reigned among the Massyli in the eastern portion of that country. (Liv., 24, 48, seq.) Masinissa was educated at Carthage, and became, though still quite young, enamoured of Sophonisba, daughter of Hasdrubal, who promised him her hand. Urged on by his passion, and wishing, moreover, to signalize himself by some deed of renown, the young prince prevailed upon his father to declare against Rome and in favour of Carthage. This was at the commencement of the second Punic war, and Masinissa was only seventeen years of age, but even then gave great promise of future eminence. (Liv., 24, 49.) Having attacked Syphax, another monarch, reigning over the western part of Numidia, and then in alliance with the Romans, he gained over him two great victories, and afterward, passing the straits, united his forces with those of the Carthaginians in Spain. Hannibal was at that time carrying all before him in Italy, while Hasdrubal his brother was defending Spain. Not long after his arrival, Masinissa contributed essentially to the entire defeat of Cneus and Publius Scipio, by charging the Roman army with his Numidian horse, B.C. 212 ; but, after some other less successful campaigns, both he and his allies were compelled to yield to the superior ability of the young Scipio, afterward surnamed Africanus, and to abandon to him almost the whole of the peninsula. Having retreated towards the frontiers of Baetica, the Carthaginians were reduced to the greatest extremity, when Scipio made prisoner of Massiva, the nephew of Masinissa, and sent him back to his uncle loaded with presents. The hostility of Masinissa towards the Romans immediately changed into the warmest admiration: he had a secret conference with Scipio near Gades, which was eventually followed by his complete defection from the Carthaginian cause. It is more than probable that the Numidian prince was long before secretly disposed to this step, in consequence of the bad faith of Hasdrubal, who had offered his daughter Sophonisba in marriage to Syphax. However this might have been, Masinissa, before declaring openly against Carthage, made a secret treaty with the Romans, and advised Scipio, it is said, to carry the war into Africa. Returning to this country himself, he found his kingdom a prey to usurpers, his father and elder brother having both died during his absence. With the aid, however, of Bocchus, king of Mauretania, he obtained possession of his hereditary throne, and would have enjoyed it peaceably, if the Carthaginians, irritated at his now open avowal for the Romans, had not incited Syphax to make war upon him. Defeated and stripped of his dominions, Masinissa was compelled to take refuge near the Syrtis Minor, where he defended himself until the arrival of Scipio. The aspect of affairs immediately changed, and Masinissa, by his valour and skill, contributed greatly to the victory gained by Scipio over Hasdrubal and Syphax. Having been sent with Laelius in pursuit of the vanquished, he penetrated, after a march of fifteen days, to the very heart of his rival's kingdom, gained a battle against him, made himself master of Cirta, the capital of Syphax, and found in it Sophonisba, to whom, as we have said, he had been attached in early youth. The charms of the daughter of Hasdrubal proved too powerful for the Numidian king, and he married her at once, in the hope of rescuing her from slavery, since she belonged to the Romans by the right of conquest. This imprudent union, however, with a captive whose hatred to: wards Rome was so deep-rooted, could not but prove displeasing to Scipio, and Masinissa was severely reK. in private by the Roman commander. The

umidian, in his despair, sent a cup of poison to his bride, who drank it off with the utmost heroism. (Liv., 30, 15.) To console him for his loss, Scipio bestowed upon Masinissa the title of king and a crown of gold, and heaped upon him other honours; and these distinctions, together with the hope of soon seeing himself master of all Numidia, caused the ambitious monarch to forget the death of Sophonisba. Constantly attached to the fortunes of Scipio, Masinissa fought on his side at the battle of Zama, defeated the left wing of the enemy, and, though severely wounded, nevertheless went in pursuit of Hannibal himself, in the ‘ope of crowning his exploits by the capture of this celebrated commander. Scipio, before leaving Africa, established Masinissa in his hereditary possessions, and added to these, with the authority of the senate, all that had belonged to Syphax in Numidia. Master now of the whole country from Mauretania to Cyrene, and become the most powerful prince in Africa, Masinissa profited by the leisure which peace af. forded him, and exerted himself in introducing among his semi-barbarous subjects the blessings of civilization. Neither age, however, nor the tranquil possession of so extensive a territory, could damp his ardour for conquest. Imboldened by his relations with Rome, he violated the treaties subsisting between himself and the Carthaginians, and, although in his ninetieth year, placed himself at the head of a powerful army and marched into the territories of Carthage. He was preparing for a general action when Scipio .Emilianus arrived at his camp, having come from Spain to visit him. Masinissa received the young Roman with distinguished honours, alluded with tears to his old benefactor Africanus, and afterward caused the élite of his troops to pass in review before the son of Paulus Atomilius. The young Scipio was most struck, however, by the activity and address of the monarch himsels, whose physical powers seemed but little impaired by age, who still performed all the exercises of youth, and mounted and rode his steed with all the spirit of earlier years. On the morrow Scipio was the witness of one of the greatest conflicts that had ever taken place in Africa, which, after having been maintained for a long time on both sides with the utmost

obstinacy, was decided at last in favour of Masinissa. A second battle, equally disastrous for Carthage, soon followed, and peace was concluded on such terms as it pleased Masinissa to dictate. Not long aster this the third Punic war broke out ; but the Numidian monarch did not live to see the downfall of Carthage, having expired a short time before its capture, at the age of ninety-seven, and after a reign of sixty years. Masinissa was remarkable for his abstemious mode of life, which, joined to his habits of constant exercise, enabled him to enjoy so protracted an existence. He left fifty-four sons, only three of whom, Micipsa, Gulussa, and Mastanabal, were legitimate. Scipio, who had been requested to do so by Masinissa, divided the kingdom among these three, and assigned considerable revenues to the others. (Lir., lib. 24, 25, 28, &c. —Polyb., lib. 11, 14, 15, &c.— Biogr. Univ., vol. 27 p. 364, seqq.) MAss AGETAE, a nation of Scythia, placed by the ancient writers to the east of the river Iaxartes. The Macedonians sought for the Massageta in the northern regions of Asia, judging from the history of Cyrus's expedition against these barbarians, by which some definiteness was given to the position which they occupied. They missed, indeed, the true Massageta, but the term became a general one for the northern nations of Asia, like that of Scythians. Iarcher considers the term Massageta equivalent probably to “Eastern Getae.” (Hist, d'Herodote, vol. 8, p.323, Table Geographique.) According to Herodotus, the Massageta’ occupied a level tract of country to the east of the Caspian. (Herod., 1,201.) Halling takes the Massageta for Alans, and refers to Ammianus Marcellinus (23, 14; 31, 2) in support of his opinion. (Wien-Iahrb., 63, p. 131.) Gatterer, on the other hand, thinks that they occupied the present country of the Kirgish Tatars. (Comment. Soc. Gött., 14, p. 9.—Böhr, ad Herod., l.c.) MAss #syll. Vid. Masaesylii. Massicus, Mons, a range of hills in Campania, famous for the wines produced there. Consult remarks under the article Falernus, near the beginning (p. 515, col. 2). Massilia, by the Greeks called Massalia (MaaaaŽía), a celebrated colony of the Phocaeans, on the Mediterranean coast of Gaul, now Marseille. The period of its settlement appears to have been very remote. Scymnus of Chios (v. 210), Livy (5,34), and Eusebius, agree in placing it in the 45th Olympiad, during the reign of Tarquinius Priscus. Their common authority appears to have been Timaeus; at least Scymnus mentions him. —The circumstances connected with the founding of Massilia will be seen under the article Phocaea. The natives endeavoured to prevent the establishment of this colony, but, according to Livy (5,34), the Phocaeans were enabled to make an effectual resistance, and to fortify their position, by the aid of a body of Gauls. (Compare the account of Justin, 43, 3, 4.) Massilia soon became a powerful and flourishing city, and famed for its extensive commerce. It engaged in frequent contests with Carthage, its maritime rival, and sent out many colonies, from Emporiae in Spain as far as Monarcus in Italy. (Straho, 180.) The most prosperous period in the history of Massilia would seem to have been the interval from the fall of Carthage to the commencement of the contest between Caesar and Pompey. This city was always the firm ally of Rome. The origin of its friendship with the Romans is not clearly ascertained: Justin, or, rather, Trogus Pompeius (43, 3), dates it from the reign of Tarquinius Priscus, but this appears deserving of no credit. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 83, seqq.) It is more than probable, that the friendship in question began about the end of the first Punic war. Before this war we hear nothing of the Massilians in Rojo, and previous to the commencement of the second Punic contest we find them the allies of the Romans. (Liv., 21, 20.) The political importance of this city received a severe check in the civil war between Caesar and Pompey, in consequence of its attachment to the party of the latter. It had to sustain a severe siege, in which its fleet was destroyed, and, after surrendering, to pay a heavy exaction. (Caes., Bell. Civ., 2, 22.) The conqueror, it is true, left the city the title of freedom, but its power and former importance were gone. The downfall of its political consequence, however, was succeeded by distinguished eminence in another point of view, and already, in the days of Augustus, Massilia began to be famous as a school of the sciences, and the rival of Athens. Even in a much later age, though surrounded by barbarous tribes, she continued to enjoy her literary rank, and was also remarkable for the culture of philosophy and the healing art. Massilia remained a flourishing city until the inroads of the barbarians and the subjugation by them of nearly the whole of southern Gaul. The government of the place was a well-regulated aristocracy. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 81, seqq.) MAssyli, a people of Numidia, to the east of the Massaesyli and Cape Tretum. They were the subjects of Masinissa. (Liv., 24, 48.—Polyb., 3, 33.— Sil. Ital., 16, 170.) MATINUM, a city of Messapia or Iapygia, southeast of Callipolis. Near it was the Mons Matinus. It was here, according to Horace, that the celebrated philosopher, Archytas of Tarentum, was interred, when cast on shore after shipwreck. (Od., 1, 28.) This region was famed for its bees and honey. The modern Mutinata seems to mark the site of the ancient city. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 277.) MAtröNA, a river of Gaul, now the Marne, which formed part of the ancient boundary between Gallia Belgica and Gallia Celtica. It takes its rise at Langres, runs northwest to Chalons, then westward, passes by Meaux, becomes navigable at Vitry, and at Charenton, a little above Paris, falls into the Sequana or Seine, after a course of about 92 leagues. (Cas., B. C., 1, 1–Auson, Mosel., v. 461–Amnian. Marcell., 15, 27. Sidon., Panegyr. Marjorian., 208.) Matko NALíA, a festival celebrated at Rome on the Calends, or first of March, and on this same occasion presents used to be given by husbands to their wives. The day is said to have been kept sacred in remembrance chiefly of the reconciliation between the Romans and the Sabines. On this same day, also, a temple had been dedicated by the Roman ladies to Juno Lucina, on the Esquiline Hill, and here they presented their annual offerings. (Ovid, Fast., 3, 170, seqq.) From this last-mentioned circumstance, and particularly from a part of the passage last referred to (v. 235, seqq.), the true reason of the celebration may perhaps be inferred. Ovid speaks of offerings of flowers made on this occasion to Juno. Matti Aci, a nation in the western quarter of Germany : according to Wilhelm (Germanien und seine Beucohner, Weimar, 1823), a branch of the Catti, between the Lahn and Maine, in the country between Maycnce and Coblenz; but, according to Kruse, lying between the Maine, the Taunus, and the Rhine (Archiv. fur alte Geogr.). The Aquae Mattiacae correspond to the modern Wiesbaden. (Ammian. Marcell., 29, 20.) MAtūta, a deity among the Romans, the same as the Leucothoë of the Greeks. (Vid. Ino and Leucothoë.) MAvors, a name of Mars. (Wid. Mars.) MAuri, the inhabitants of Mauritania. Bochart derives the name from Mahur, or, as an elision of gutturals is very common in the Oriental languages, from Maur, i. e., one from the west, or an occidentalist,

Mauritania being west of Carthage and Phoenicia (Geogr. Sacr., 1, 25-Op., vol. 2, c. 496.) MAuritANía, a country of Africa, on the Mediterranean, now the empire of Fez and Morocco. It was bounded on the north by the Straits of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean, on the east by Numidia, on the south by Gaetulia, and on the west by the Atlantic. It was, properly speaking, in the time of Bocchus the betrayer of Jugurtha, bounded by the river Mulucha or Molochath, now Malva, and corresponded nearly to the present kingdom of Fez ; but, in the time of the Emperor Claudius, the western part of Numidia was added to this province under the name of Mauritania Caesariensis, the ancient kingdom of Mauritania being called Tingitana, from its principal city Tingis, or Old Tangier, on the west of the straits. . (Plin., 5, 1. – Caes., Bell. Civ., 1, 6–1d., Bell. Afric, 22. —Mela, 1, 5.-Id., 3, 10. —Wid. Mauri, and Maurusii.) MAurus TERENTIRNUs, a Latin grammarian, gen erally supposed to have been an African by birth. The time when he flourished has been made a matter of dispute. Vossius supposes him to have been the same 'Terentianus who is addressed by Martial as the prefect of Syene in Egypt. (Ep., 1, 87.) Terentianus declares himself a contemporary of Septimius Serenus, which latter poet Wernsdorff refers to the age of Vespasian. (Poet. Lat. Min, vol. 2, p. 249.) He at all events lived during or before the time of St. Augustine, since he is mentioned by the latter in terms of the highest respect. (De Civ. Dei, 6, 2– De Util. Cred., c. 17.) Terentianus, when advanced in life, wrote a poem on letters, syllables, feet, and metres (“De Literis, Syllabis, Pedibus et Metris Carmen”), in which these dry topics are handled with all the art of which they are susceptible. This poem is extremely useful for a knowledge of Latin Prosody: the author unites in it example and precept, by employing, for the explanation of the various metres, verses written in the very measures of which he treats.-The most recent editions of the poem in question are, that of Santen, completed by Van Lennep, Traj. ad Rhen., 1825, and that of Lachmann, Lips., 1836. It is given also among the Latin grammarians, ed. Putsch, p. 2383, seqq., and in the Corpus Poetarum of Maittalre. MAURusíl, a poetical name for the people of Mauritania. MAusöLUs, a prince of Caria, the brother and husband of Artemisia. His death was deeply lamented by the latter, who caused a splendid monument to be erected to his memory. (Wid. Artemisia I., Halicarnassus, and Mausoleum.) MAusoleum, I. (Mavadzefov, scil. Hymuelov, “the tomb of Mausolus”), a magnificent monumental structure, raised by Artemisia in memory of her husband Mausolus, king of Caria, in the city of Halicarnassus, B.C. 352. Of this monument, once reckoned among the wonders of the world, no remains now exist; but, from Pliny’s description (36, 5), it appears to have been nearly square in its plan, measuring 113 feet on its sides, and 93 on each of its ends or fronts, and to have been decorated with a peristyle of 36 columns (supposed by Hardouin to have been 60 feet high or more), above which the structure was carried up in a pyramidal form, and surmounted at its apex by a marble quadriga executed by Pythis, who, according to Vitruvius, was joint architect with Satyrus in the building. It was farther decorated with sculptures and reliefs by Scopas, Bryaxis, Timotheus, and Leochares. The entire height was 140 feet.—II. The Mausoleum erected at Babylon by Alexander the Great, in honour of Hephæstion, appears to have been still more magnificent, and somewhat extravagant in its decorations, as far as can be gathered from the account given of it by Diodorus Siculus (17, 115). It was adorned below by gilded rostra or beaks of 240 ships, and every successive tier or story was enriched with a profusion of sculpture, representing various animals, fighting centaurs, and other figures, all of which were gilded; and on the summit were statues of sirens, made hollow, in order that the singers who chanted the funeral dirge might be concealed within them.—III. The Mausoleum of Augustus at Rome was a structure of great magnitude and grandeur, and circular in plan. It stood in the Campus Martius, where remains of it yet exist in the two concentric circles forming the first and second stories of the building, and the vaulted chambers between, which supported the first or lowest terrace. Of these terraces there were three; consequently, four stages in the building, gradually decreasing in diameter, the uppermost of which was crowned with a colossal statue of the emperor. The terraces themselves were planted with trees. Froin traces of something of the kind that yet remain, it is conjectured that there was originally an advanced portico attached to the building, in the same manner as that of the Pantheon, though considerably smaller in proportion to the rest of the plan, as it could not have been carried up higher than the first stage of the building. According to Hirt's representation of it, in his “Baukunst bei den Allen,” it was a Corinthian hexastyle, advanced one intercolumn before the side-walls connecting it with the circular edifice behind it.—IV. The Mausoleum of Hadrian was also of great magnitude and grandeur, and, like the preceding, circular in plan. ; is now converted into the Castle of St. Angelo, in which shape it is familiar to almost every one. This is a work of most massy construction, and originally presented an unbroken circular mass of building, erected upon a larger square basement, lofty in itself, yet of moderate height in proportion to the superstructure, the latter being about twice as high as the former. This nearly solid rotunda, which was originally coated with white marble, had on its summit numerous fine statues, which were broken to pieces and the fragments hurled down by the soldiers of Belisarius upon the Goths, who attempted to take the building by storm. Neither are any remains now left of the uppermost stage of the edifice, which assumed the form of a circular peripteral temple, whose diameter was about one third of the larger circle. According to tradition, its peristyle consisted of the twenty-four beautiful marble Corinthian columns which asterward decorated the Basilica of San Paolo fuori delle Mura (partially destroyed some few years ago by fire, but now nearly restored); and its tholus or dome was surmounted by a colossal pine-apple in bronze, now placed in the gardens of the Vatican. (Encycl. Us. Knowl, vol. 15, p. 21.) Max ENrius, MARcus Aurelius VALERíos, son of Maximianus, the colleague of Dioclesian in the empire, was living in obscurity, when, after his father's abdication, and the elevation of Constantine to the rank of Caesar, he became envious of the latter, and dissatisfied with the neglect which he experienced from Galerius. Accordingly, he stirred up a revolt among the praetorian soldiers at Rome, and was proclaimed emperor A.D. 306. Galerius, who was then in the East, sent orders to Severus Caesar, who had the command of Italy, to march from Mediolanum to Rome with all his forces, and put down the insurrecticn. In the mean time, Maximianus, who lived in retirement in Campania, came to Rome, and was proclaimed emperor and colleague with his son, A.D. 307. Severus, on arriving with his troops near Rome, was deserted by most of his officers and soldiers, who had formerly served under Maximianus, and were still attached to their old general. Upon this he retired to Ravenna, which he soon after surrendered to Maximianus, on being promised his life and liberty; but

precipitate retreat.

Maximianus put him to death. The latter then proceeded to Gaul, to form an alliance with Constantius, leaving Maxentius at Rome. Galerius soon after arrived in Italy with an army ; but, not finding himself strong enough to attack Maxentius in Rome, and fearing the same fate as that of Severus, he made a Maximianus, returning to Rome, reigned for some months together with his son, but afterward quarrelled with him, and took refuge with Galerius, who acknowledged him as emperor. There were then no less than six emperors; Galerius, Maximianus, Constantine, Maxentius, Licinius, and Maximinus Daza. In the following year, A.D. 309, Maxentius was proclaimed consul at Rome, together with his son, M. Aurelius Romulus, who, in the ensuing year, was accidentally drowned in the Tiber. Maxentius possessed Italy and Africa; but Africa revolted, and the soldiers proclaimed as emperor an adventurer of the name of Alexander, who reigned at Carthage for three years. In the year 311, Maxentius sent an expedition to Africa, defeated and killed Alexander, and burned Carthage. Proud of his success, for which he enjoyed a triumph, Maxentius made great preparations to attack Constantine, with whom he had till then preserved the appearance of friendship. Constantine moved from Gaul into Italy, advanced to Rome, and defeated Maxentius, who was drowned in attempting to swim his horse across the Tiber, A.D. 312. (Encycl. Us. Knowledge, vol. 15, . 22.)

p MaxiwiRNUs I., Marcus Valerius, a native of Pannonia, born of obscure parents. He served in the Roman armies with distinction, and was named by Dioclesian his colleague in the empire, A.D. 286, The remainder of his life is given under Diocletianus, Constantinus, and Maxentius. He was put to death by Constantine, at Massilia, for having conspired against his life (A.D. 310.)—II. Galerius Valfrius, was surnamed Armentarius on account of his having been a herdsman in his youth. The events of his life are narrated under Diocletianus, Constantius, and Constantinus. According to historians, he died A.D. 311, of a loathsome disease, which was considered by his contemporaries and himself as a punishment from heaven for his persecution of the Christians. (Encycl. Us. Knowl, vol. 15, p. 23.)

Max MiNUs, I. Caius Julius WER Us, was originally a Thracian shepherd. He was of gigantic size and great bodily strength, and, having entered the Roman army under Septimius Severus, was rapidly advanced for his bravery. Alexander Severus gave him the command of a new legion raised in Pannonia, at the head of which he followed Alexander in his campaign against the Germans, when, the army being encamped on the banks of the Rhine, he conspired against his sovereign, and induced some of his companions to murder him in his tent, as well as his mother Mammapa, A.D. 235. Maximinus, being proclaimed em- . peror, named his son, also called Maximinus, Caesar and his colleague in the empire. He continued the war against the Germans, and devastated a large tract of country beyond the Rhine; after which he repaired to Illyricum to fight the Dacians and Sarmatians. But his cruelty and rapacity raised enemies against himsiy various parts of the empire. The province of Aso revolted, and proclaimed Gordianus, who was soon after acknowledged by the senate and people of Rome, A.D. 237. But Capellianus, governor of Mauritania for Maximinus, defeated Gordianus and his son, who both fell in the struggle, after a nominal reign of little more than a month. Rome was in consternation at the news, expecting the vengeance of Maximinus. The senate proclaimed as emperors Clodius Pupienus Maximus and Decimus Calius Albinus; but the people.ir sisted upon a nephew of the younger Gordianus, a boy twelve years of age, being **, go them.

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