Obrazy na stronie

world; for, although it be now known that the waters of this lake, instead of proving destructive of animal life. swarm with myriads of fishes (Chateaubriand, vol. 1, p. 411, Lond, 1811); that, instead of falling victims to its exhalations, certain birds make it their peculiar resort (Maundrell, p. 84, Oxf., 1721); that shells abound upon its shores; that the pretended fruit containing ashes is as natural and admirable a production of nature as the rest of the vegetable kingdom, being the fruit of the Solanum Melangena, the inside of which, when the fruit is attacked by an insect (Tenthredo), turns to dust, while the skin remains entire and of a beautiful colour; notwithstanding all these and other facts are well established, yet even the latest authors by whom it is mentioned continue to fill their descriptions with imaginary horrors.—Reland, in his account of the Lacus Asphaltites (Palaest., vol. 1, p. 238), after inserting copious extracts from Galen concerning the properties and quality of the water, and its natural history, proceeds to account for the strange fables that have prevailed with regard to its deadly influence, by showing that certain of the ancients confounded this lake with another, bearing the same appellation of Asphaltites, near Babylon; and that they attributed to it qualities which properly belonged to the Babylonian waters. An account of the properties of the Babylonian lake occurs in the writings of Vitruvius (8, 3), of Pliny (35, 15), of Athenaeus (2,5), and of Xiphilinus (p. 252). From their various testimony it is evident, that all the phenomena supposed to belong to the Lake Asphaltites near Babylon, were, from the similarity of their names, ultimately considered as the natural characteristics of the Judaean lake, the two Asphaltites being confounded.” (Clarke's Travels, vol. 4, p. 399, }. ed.) Marrótis, a lake of Egypt, in the immediate vicinity of Alexandrea. Its earlier name was Marča (# Mapeia Žiuvm); the later Greeks gave it the appellation of Mareotis (Mapestic). The first writer that makes mention of it is Scylax (p. 44). “Pharos,” says he, “is an uninhabited island, with a good harbour, but destitute of water. This last is obtained from the neighbouring lake Maria (Šk Tic Mapiac Žiuvmc iópetovtal.”) The same writer informs us, that in very early times canals were cut connecting this lake with the Nile, and thus furnishing it with a constant supply of fresh water. The Lake Mareotis first rose into importance after the founding of Alexandrea. From this period it is mentioned by all the geographical writers, but the most particular description is given by Strabo (799). “The Lake Marea,” says Strabo, “is more than 150 stadia in breadth, and not quite 300 in length. It extends on the west as far as the fortress called Chersonesus, which is 70 stadia from Alexandrea. It contains eight islands, and all the country around is well inhabited.” In another part (p. 793) he informs us, that many canals connected this lake with the Nile, and that thus, in the summer season, when the lake would otherwise have been low, the inundation of the Nile afforded it an abundant supply of water, and rendered the neighbouring country, and Alexandrea in particular, extremely healthy; since, otherwise, had the waters of the lake been diminished by the summer heats, the sun would have acted on the mud left uncovered along the banks, and would have produced pestilence. Of these canals he remarks, on another occasion (p. 803), that many of them struck the Nile between Gynaecopolis and Momemphis. Along the canals connecting the river with the lake was the merchandise transported to Alexandrea, to be conveyed thence into the Mediterranean Sea.—The country around the lake was remarkable for its fertility. The principal product was wine. It was a light, sweetish white wine, with a delicate perfume, of easy digestion, and not apt to affect the head; though the allusion in Horace (0d., 1, 37, 14) to its

influence on the mind of Cleopatra, unless it be mere poetic exaggeration, would seem to imply that it had not always preserved its innocuous quality. It has been suggested by some critics, that the Mareotic wine did not come from the vicinity of the Lake Mareotis, but from a canton of this name in Epirus. This opinion rests for support on a passage in Herodotus (2,77), where it is stated that there were no wines in Egypt, and that the people drank a kind of beer in its stead (oivo, 6'Éx kpubétov retoumuévo, 6taxpsovrat ot yūp of etal Év to Yápm dure?ot). Malte-Brun successfully combats this assertion, and shows, by very clear proofs, that, under the Greeks and Romans, Egypt produced various kinds of wine. As regards the culture of the vine previous to the dominion of these foreign powers, it appears very manifest, from the paintings in the tombs throughout the Thebaid, and other parts of the country, that it was far from being unknown. Some of these paintings represent the whole process of the vintage. In the Sacred writings also (Numb. 20, 5) there is a very plain allusion to the vines of Egypt. We must either, therefore, consider the remark of Herodotus incorrect, or refer it to a part of the country merely. Perhaps, as the vines were planted on the edge of the desert, above the level of the inundation, and not in Egypt properly so called, the veracity of the historian may in this way be saved. Unless this latter mode of explaning the difficulty be adopted, he will be found to contradict himself, since it is stated in the 168th chapter of the same book, that the caste of warriors in Egypt received individually four measures of wine, oivov Téagapac àpvaripas. (Compare Bulletin des Sciences Historiques, &c., vol. 4, p. 77, seqq.)—The modern name of Lake Marcotis is Mairout. For many ages after the Greek and Roman dominion in Egypt, it was dried up; for, though the bed is lower than the surface of the ocean, there is not sufficient rain to keep up any lake in the country in opposition to the force of perpetual evaporation. But in 1801, the English, in order to circumscribe more effectually the communications which the French army in the city of Alexandrea maintained with the surrounding country, cut across the walls of the old canal which had formed a dike, separating this low ground from Lake Maadie, or the Lake of Aboukir, on the east. In consequence of this easy operation, the water had a sudden fall of six feet, and the Lake Mareotis which had so long disappeared, and the site of which had been occupied partly by salt marshes, partly by cultivated lands, and even villages, resumed its ancient extent. The inhabitants of the villages were obliged to fly, and bewail from a distance the annihilation of their gardens and dwellings. . This modern inundation of the sea is indeed much more extensive than the ancient Lake Mareotis, occupying probably four times its extent. (Malte-Brun, Geogr., vol. 4, p. 32, Am. ed.) Margi RNA, a country of Asia, lying along the river Margus, from which it derived its name. According to Ptolemy, it was bounded on the west by Parthiene, on the north by the Oxus, on the east by Bactriana, and on the south by Asia and the Sariphian mountains. It now answers to the northern part of Chorasan. (Compare Plin, 6, 16—Strabo, 515.) Strabo speaks in strong terms of the fertility of Margiana, and states that it took two men to clasp the iower part of the stem of the vines with their arms. (Strab., 73.) MARGItEs, the title of one of the minor poems ascribed to Homer. (Vid. Homerus, p. 642, col. 1.) Margus, I. a river in Moesia Superior, rising from Mount Orbelus, and falling into the Danube to the west of Viminacium. It is now the Morawa—II. A river of Margiana, falling into the Oxus northwest of Nisca. It is now the Mariab. (Plon, 6, 16.) MARiina, I. a city of the Calingii, in the southeastem part of Arabia Felix, 13 miles northeast of

Muza; now Mareb.-II. A city of the Sabaei, in Arabia Felix. (Plin., 6, 28.) MARIA LEx, I. by C. Marius, when tribune, A.U.C. 634. It ordained that the passages, called pontes, by which the people passed to give their votes at the comilia, should be narrower, in order that there might be no crowding there, and that no persons might take their stand there to impede or disturb the voters. (Cic., Leg., 3, 17.)—II. Maria Porcia, so called be. cause proposed by two tribunes, Marius and Porcius. It was passed A.U.C.691, and ordained that those commanders should be punished who, in order to obtain a triumph, wrote to the senate a false account of the number of the enemy slain in battle, or of the citizens that were missing; and that, when commanders returned to the city, they should swear before the city quaestors to the truth of the account which they had sent. (Val. Mar, 2, 8, 1.) MARIANA Fossa, a canal cut by Marius from the river Rhone, through the Campus Lapideus, into the Lake Mastramela. It was probably near the modern Martigues. (Mela, 2, 5–Plin., 3, 4.) MARTANDYN1, a people of Bithynia, to the east of the river Sangarius. They were of uncertain origin; but, since they differed neither in language nor in customs materially from the Bithynians, they might justly be considered as part of the same great Thracian stock. (Strab., 542.) That they were barbarous is allowed by all; and Theopompus, whose authority is referred to by Strabo, reported, that when the Megarians founded Heraclea in their territory, they easily subjected the Mariandyni, and reduced them to a state of abject slavery, similar to that of the Mnotae in Crete, and the Penesta in Thessaly. (Strab., l. c.—Posidon., ap. Athen., 6, p. 263–Athen., 14, p. 620.) . MARica, I. a nymph of the river Liris, who had a grove near Minturna, into which, if anything was brought, it was not lawful to take it out again. (Plut., Wit. Marii, 39.) According to some authorities, she was the same with Circe. (Lactant., de Fals. Rel., 1, 21.) Virgil, however, makes her the wife of Faunus, and mother of Latinus. (AEm., 7, 47.-Serv., ad loc.) MARINUs, a native of Tyre, who flourished in the second century of the Christian era, a short time before Ptolemy. An account of his work on Mathematical Geography will be given under the article Ptolem32us. MA Risus, a river of Dacia which falls into the Tibiscus; now the Marosch. (Strabo.—Jornand., de Reb. Get., p. 102) o MARius, Caius, a celebrated Roman, was born of humble parents, at or in the neighbourhood of Arpinum, about B.C. 157. He served at the siege of Numantia, B.C. 134, under Scipio Africanus, together with Jugurtha, where he highly distinguished himself. He received great marks of honour from Scipio, who used frequently to invite him to his table ; and when, one evening at supper, Scipio was asked where they should find so great a general when he was gone, he is said to have replied, placing his hand upon the shoulder of Marius, “Here, perhaps.” In B.C. 119 he was elected tribune of the commons, through the influence of Caecilius Metellus, according to Plutarch, but more probably in consequence of the same he had acquired in the Numantine war. In this office he showed himself, as he did throughout the whole course of his life, a most determined enemy of the patrician order, and one who was not easily to be put down by the threats and opposition of his enemies. Having proposed a law to prevent illegal voting at elections, the senate passed a decree that the law should not be put to the vote in the popular assembly, and summoned Marius before them to answer for his conduct. Marius not only appeared, but threatened to commit the consuls to prison if they did not repeal the de

cree; and when Metellus continued to support it, he commanded him to be led away to prison. Marius obtained the praetorship with great difficulty, in consequence of the violent opposition of the patrician order, who accused him of having obtained the office by means of bribery. At the expiration of his praetorship the province of Spain was assigned to him, which he cleared of robbers. On his return to Rome he was anxious to obtain the consulship; but he did not venture to become a candidate for many years after. He continued, however, to rise in public opinion, and appears about this time to have married Julia, one of the Julian family, who was aunt to the celebrated Julius Caesar. In B.C. 109 he accompanied Metellus into Africa, in the capacity of legatus; and by his prudence and courage in the war with Jugurtha, he added greatly to his military reputation. His friends took advantage of his increasing popularity at Rome to persuade the people that the war with Jugurtha would never be concluded until the command was given to Marius. This led to an open rupture between him and Metellus; and it was with the greatest difficulty that the latter allowed his lieutenant Marius leave of absence to go to Rome in order to stand for the consulship. Marius was, however, successful; he obtained the consulship B.C. 107, and the command of the Jugurthine war. On his arrival in Africa he prosecuted the war with the greatest vigour; and in the following year (B.C. 106) obtained possession of the person of Jugurtha, who was treacherously given up by Bocchus to his quaestor Sylla. Marius remained in Africa during the next year (B.C. 105), in which the consul Manlius and the proconsul Caepio were defeated by the Teutones

and Cimbri, with the prodigious loss, according to

Livy (Epit., 67), of 80,000 soldiers, besides 40,000 camp followers. The news of their defeat caused the greatest consternation at Rome, especially as the Teutones and Cimbri threatened the immediate invasion of Italy; and Marius was accordingly elected consul in his absence, without any opposition even from the patrician party, as the only man in the state who was able to save it from impending ruin. He entered upon his second consulship B.C. 104, and enjoyed a triumph for his victories over Jugurtha; but, in consequence of the threatened invasion of Italy having been deferred by an irruption of the Cimbri into Spain, he was again chosen consul in the two sollowing years (B.C. 103, 102). In the fourth consulship of Marius (B.C. 102), the Cimbri, having been defeated by the Celtiberi in Spain, returned to Gaul, and resolved to invade Italy in two divisions ; the one consisting of the Teutones and Ambrones (a Gallic people), through Gallia Narbonensis; and the other, comprising the Cimbri, by way of Noricum. Marius defeated the Teutones and Ambrones near Aquae Sextiae (now Air) in Gaul; but Catulus, who was stationed at the foot of the Alps to oppose the passage of the Cimbri, retreated first to the other side of the Athesis (now the Adige), and afterward quitted this position also, without waiting for the enemy's attack. In the following year (B.C. 101), Marius, who was again elected consul for the fifth time, joined his forces with those of Catulus, and entirely defeated the Cimbri in the plain of Vercellae (now Vercelli), situate to the north of the Po, near the Sessites. In these two battles the Teutones and Ambrones are said to have lost the incredible number of 290,000 men (200,000 slain, and 90,000 taken prisoners); and the Cimbri 200,000 men (140,000 slain, and 60,000 taken prisoners). (Lir., Epit., 68.) Marius again became candidate for the consulship for the following year; but, now that the fear of the Gallic invasion was removed, he was opposed by the whole strength of the patrician party. ' He nevertheless obtained the consulship, in great part owing to the *; of Saturninus, the tribune, who is described as a man that scrupled at the commission of no crime to accomplish his object. The events of the sixth consulship of Marius, which are some of the most important in this period of Roman history, are imperfectly narrated by historians. It appears that an agrarian law, proposed by Saturninus, and supported by Marius and one of the praetors named Glaucia, was carried, notwithstanding the most violent opposition of the patrician party; and that Metellus Numidicus was driven into exile, in consequence of refusing to take the oath of conforming to the law. When the election of consuls for the ensuing year came on, Memmius, who opposed Glaucia as a candidate for the office, was murdered by order of Saturninus; and the senate, perceiving the city to be in a state of anarchy, passed the usual decree, “that the consuls should take care that the republic received no injury,” by which almost absolute power was vested in those magistrates. Marius, unable or unwilling to protect his old friends, besieged Saturninus and Glaucia, who had seized upon the Capitol. They surrendered to Marius on the promise that their lives should be spared, but they were all immediately put to death. It appears probable that Marius, after the blow which had been given to the popular party by the surrender of Saturninus and Glaucia, would not have been able to save their lives, even if he had made the attempt. At the expiration of his consulship, Marius left Rome, to avoid witnessing the triumph of the patrician party in the return of his old enemy Metellus, whose sentence of banishment was repealed after the death of Saturninus. According to Plutarch, he went to Cappadocia and Galatia, under the pretence of offering a sacrifice which he had vowed to Cybele, but with the real object of exciting Mithradates to war, in order that he might be again employed in military affairs, since he did not obtain much distinction in peace. In B.C. 90 the Marsian or Social war broke out, in which both Marius and Sylla were employed as legati to the two consuls. Marius gained several victories over the enemy, but he no longer possessed that activity and energy which had distinguished him in his earlier years; and disgusted, it is said, with the increasing reputation of Sylla, he resigned his command before the conclusion of the war. The Marsian war had scarcely been brought to an end, before the civil war broke out between Marius and Sylla. The command of the Mithradatic war had been assigned to the latter, who was now consul (B.C. 88); but Marius used every effort to wrest it from him, and is said by Plutarch to have gone every day to the Campus Martius, and to have performed his exercises with the young men, although he was now in his 70th year, and very corpulent, in order to show that he was not incapacitated by age. He was warmly supported by P. Sulpicius, the tribune, who possessed great property and influence; and a law was eventually passed, that the command should be taken from Sylla and given to Marius. Sylla was with the army at the time, besieging Nola; but, as soon as he heard of the law which had been passed, he marched to Rome, and Marius and his adherents were obliged to flee from the city. After wandering through many parts of Italy, Marius escaped with the greatest difficulty to Africa; but he had no sooner landed at Carthage than Sextilius, the governor of the province, sent word to him, that, unless he quitted Africa, he should treat him as a public enemy. “Go and tell him,” replied the wanderer, “that you have seen the exile Marius sitting on the ruins of Carthage.” But, in the following year (B.C. 87), during the absence of Sylla, who had gone to Greece to oppose Archelaus, Marius returned to Italy in order to join the consul Cinna, who, in his attempt to abrogate the laws of Sylla, had been driven from !" or a h-- his collan run Octavius, sonnorted by the

patrician party. Shortly afterward, Marius and Cinna entered the city at the head of a large army, and a general massacre of the opposite party ensued.— Marius always appears to have been of a fierce and unrelenting temper; and the sufferings he had lately undergone, which at his time of life must have greatly impaired his health, tended to exasperate him more than ever against the party which had opposed and thwarted him during the whole of his life. All the leaders of the patrician party who were unable to escape from Rome, were put to death. Lutatius Catulus, who had been the colleague of Marius in the war with the Cimbri, destroyed himself to avoid assassination; and among the numerous illustrious patri cians that fell were C. and L. Julius Caesar, and the celebrated orator M. Antonius, who is so frequently praised by Cicero, and is one of the principal speakers in the dialogue “De Oratore.” Marius and Cinna declared themselves consuls for the ensuing year (B.C. 86), without even holding the comitia; but Marius died of a fever in the beginning of the year, on the 17th day of his consulship according to Plutarch (Wit. Mar., c. 46), or the 13th according to Livy (Epit. 80)—The character of Marius is chiefly known to us from his life by Plutarch, who appears to have taken his account from the “Memoirs of Sylla,” the inveterate enemy of Marius. It cannot be denied, that, after his return from exile, Marius was guilty of the greatest cruelties; but even these were surpassed by the atrocities of Sylla; and we should not be doing justice to Marius if we ascribed to him during the whole of his life the character which he displayed in his seventh consulship. “I have seen,” says Plutarch, “the statue of Marius at Ravenna, in Gaul, which expresses in a remarkable manner his sternness and severity. Since he was naturally robust and warlike, and more acquainted with the arts of war than those of peace, he was fierce and haughty when in authority. i. is said that he never learned Greek, and that he would not make use of that language on any serious occasion ; as if it were ridiculous to learn the language of a people who were subject to others. If he could have been persuaded to pay his court to the Grecian Muses and Graces, he would not, after bearing so many honourable offices, and performing so many glorious exploits, have crowned the whole by a most savage and infamous old age, in consequence of his yielding to anger, ill-timed ambition, and insatiable avarice.” (Plut., Wit. Mar— Sall., Bell. Jug.—Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 14, p. 420, seq.)—II. Son of the preceding, resembled his father in private character, and was equally fierce and windictive. He seized upon the consulship at the age of 27, and put to death numbers of his political oppoments. Défeated subsequently by Sylla, he fled to Praeneste, where he slew himself. (Plut., Wit. Mar.) —III. Mercator, an ecclesiastical writer, the antagonist of Celestius and Nestorius, who flourished be: tween 425 and 450 A.D. His country is not exactly known : some believe him to have been a native of Apulia; others, of some other province of Lower Italy'; and others, again, of Africa. It appears that he was not a priest. He has left behind him a number of works, or, rather, translations from the Greek, consisting of pieces relative to the heresies of Pelagius and Nestorius, of extracts from the works of the latter, refutations of his doctrine, errors of Theodorus and Mopsuestus, acts of synods held against heretics, &c. Marius Mercator was the disciple and friend of St. Augustine. His works were edited by Garner, Paris, 1673, 2 vols. fol., and by Baluze, Paris, 1684. –IV. Marcus Aurelius Marius Augustus, was or:

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army elected Marius emperor. It is generally supposed that the Empress Victorina contributed to his elevation, with the hope of preserving her own authority; but this is denied by some modern writers, who maintain that she took part in the conspiracy which deprived Marius of his crown and life. (De Boze, Dissertation sur un médaillon de Tetricus.Mem de l'Acad des Inscr., vol. 26.) He reigned only three days, and was slain by a soldier to whom he had refused some favour, and who, in stabbing him, exclaimed, “Take it—it was thou thyself that forged it.” Marius was remarkable for personal strength, of which historians give some accounts that are evidently fabulous. (Treb. Pollio, Trigint. Tyrann.— Vit. Marii.) Mar MARíca, a country of Africa, to the east of Cyrenaica, lying along the Mediterranean shore. It forms at present a part of the district of Barca. The inhabitants were a roving race, and remarkable for their skill in taming serpents. (Sil. Ital., 3, 300.) The ancient Marmarica was a region much less highly favoured by nature than Cyrenaica. According to Della Cella (p. 182, seqq), the general features of the country, however, are similar to those of the region last mentioned. “We wound our way,” says this traveller, “among wild and rugged mountains, frequently enlivened by groups of evergreens; among which the cypress, arbutus, Phoenician juniper, gigantic myrtle, carob, and laurel, were most abundant; and as they form no long and uniform woods, but are scattered about in a variety of forms and groups among the rocks, they are very picturesque ornaments of the scenery. The ground is throughout broken and irregular, and does not slope down into pastures, as in Cyrenaica; but the privation of that agreeable feature has its compensation, for the want of grasslands secures this district from the incursions of the vagabond hordes in its neighbourhood. The woody and elevated nature of this country affords frequent and copious springs of clear and most delicious water.—This tract of border country is, as in former times, the resort of all the thieves, miscreants, and malcontents of the two governments of Tripoli and Egypt. Pitching their tents in the neighbourhood of the Bay of Bomba, they make incursions into the adjacent districts, and pillage all who have the misfortune to fall in their way. They are ever on the watch for the caravans and pilgrims who traverse this country on their way to Mecca : , and this is the only route used by the people of Morocco, above all others the most fervently devoted to their prophet.”— M. Pacho speaks of the general aspect of Marmarica in still less favourable terms. The soil, he says, is rocky, of a yellowish-gray colour, and depends for its fertility solely on the copious rains. The country presents none of those verdant groves of laurel and myrtle which crown the mountains and overshadow the valleys of the Pentapolis. The singing-birds, vainly seeking foliage and shelter, flee from this naked region; only birds of prey, the eagle, the hawk, and the vulture, appear in numerous flights, their sinister screams rendering the solitude more frightful. The jackal, the hyena, the jerboa, the hare, and the gazelle, are the wild animals which chiefly abound; and the existence of man is indicated merely by the bleating of distant flocks, and the dark tent of the Arab. Yet this country also exhibits traces of having once been occupied by a civilized and even numerous population, and there are marks of the extraordinary exertions which were made to supply the deficiency of water. Canals of irrigation cross the plain in every direction, and even wind up the sides of the hills. The ancient cisterns are numerous; they are frequently divided into several chambers, adorned with pillars, and coated with a cement harder than stone. But the monuments of Marmarica possess none of

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marble for which Carystus was famed. A temple was erected here to Apollo Marmarus. Marmarium was exactly opposite to Halae Araphenides in Attica. (Strabo,446–Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 142.) Maro. Vid. Virgilius. MARon, I. a priest of Apollo in Thrace, near Maronea. (Hom., Od., 9, 197.)—II. A follower of Osiris, well acquainted with the art of rearing the vine. (Diod. Sic., 1, 18.) Athenaeus (1, 25) makes him a follower of Bacchus. He was fabled to have been the founder of Maronea in Thrace. (Consult Wesseling's note, ad Diod, l.c.) MARoNEA, a town of Thrace, southeast of the Bistonis Palus, on the coast. It was a place of some note, and is mentioned by Herodotus (7, 109), Scylax (p. 27), Strabo (Epit., 7, p. 331), and several other writers. Diodorus Siculus (1, 18) reports that it was founded by Maron, a follower of Osiris (rid. Maron), but Scymnus affirms (v. 675) that it was a colony of Chios. Pliny states that the more ancient name was Ortagurea (4, 1 l). The same writer extols the excellence of its wine (14, 4), whence a comic writer, quoted by Athenaeus (8,44), styled it a tavern. Maronea, taken in the first Macedonian war by Philip, king of Macedon (Liv., 31, 16), and his retaining possession of it, was subsequently made a cause of complaint against him at Rome (39, 24). According to Mela, it was situated near a small river named Schoenus. Its ruins are still called Marogna. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 313.) MARPessa, daughter of Evenus, was beloved by Apollo, whose suit was favoured by her father. Idas, another applicant for her hand, having obtained a winged chariot from Neptune, carried off the apparently not reluctant maid. Her father pursued the fugitives, but, coming to the river Lycormas, and finding his progress stopped by it, he slew his horses and cast himself into the stream, which from him derived its name Evenus. Meantime Apollo met and took the fair prize from Idas. The matter being referred to Jupiter, he allowed the maiden to choose for herself; whereupon, fearing that when she grew old Apollo would desert her, she wisely chose to match with her equal, and gave her hand to her mortal lover. (Apollod., 1, 1, 7.—Schol, ad Îl., 9, 557–Keightley's Mythology, p. 119, seq.) MARPFsus, I. a town of Troas, to the north of the Scamander, and to the west of Troja Vetus. (Tibull, 2, 5, 67)—II. or Marpessa (Mápstmoora), a mountain in the island of Paros, containing the quarries whence the famous Parian marble was obtained. Hence the expresssion of Virgil, Marpesia cautes (AEm., 6,471– Compare Plin., 36, 4–Jornand, de Reb. Get., p. 88). This mountain was situate to the west of the harbour of Marmora. Dr. Clarke gives Capresso as the modern name. (Travels, vol. 6, p. 134, Lond. ed.) MARRucini, a people of Italy, occupying a narrow slip of territory on the right bank of the river Aternus, between the Westini to the north and the Frentani to the south, and between the Peligni and the sea towards the east and west. Cato derived their origin from the Marsi (ap. Priscian., c. 8). Like that people, the were accounted a hardy and warlike race, and wit them they made common cause against the tyranny of Rome. An idea may be formed of the population and

force of the several petty nations in o,one: of * --

Italy, from a statement of Polybius (2,24), where that historian, in enumerating the different contingents which the allies of the Romans were able to furnish about the time of the second Punic war, estimates that of the Marsi, Marrucini, Vestini, and Frentani, at 20,000 foot and 4000 horse. The only city of note which we find ascribed to the Marrucini, is Teate, now Chieti, on the right bank of the Aternus. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 339.) MARRovium, I. a town of the Sabines, answering to the modern Morro Vecchio.—II. The capital of the Marsi, situate on the eastern shore of the Lacus Fucinus, and corresponding to the modern San Benedetto. (Strabo, 241.-Plin., 3, 12.-Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 328.) MARs (in Greek "Apnç), the god of war, about whose parentage different accounts are given. Homer (Il., 5, 892, seqq.) and Hesiod (Theog., 922) make bim to have been the offspring of Jupiter and Juno. Others say that he was the son of Enyo or Bellona. (Schol. ad Il., l.c.) Ovid, however, gives a different version of the fable. According to this poet, Juno wished to become a mother by herself, just as Jupiter had become a father in the case of Minerva. On applying to Flora for aid in the accomplishment of her design, the latter directed her to pluck a certain flower which grew near the city of Olenus, the touch of which would make her instantly a mother, Juno obeyed, and straightway conceived the god Mars. (Ovid, Fast., 5, 227, seqq.)—The delight of Mars was in war and strife; yet his wild fury was always forced to yield to the skill and prudence of Minerva, guided by whom Diomede, in the Iliad, wounds and drives him from the battle (Il., 5, 855); and in the conflict of the gods (Il., 21, 391), this goddess strikes him to the earth with a stone. To give an idea of his huge size and strength, the poet says, in the former case, that he roared as loud as nine or ten thousand men; and in the latter, that he covered seven plethra of ground. Terror and Fear (Aetuác and Pó60s), the sons of Mars, and Strife ('Epig), his sister, accompany him to the field when he seeks the battle. (Il., 4, 440.) Another of his companions is Enyo ("Evvo), the daughter of Phorcys and Ceto, according to Hesiod (Theog., 273), a war-goddess answering to the Bellona of the Romans. The name Enyalius, which is frequently given to him if the Iliad, corresponds with hers.The figurative language, which expresses origin and resemblance by terms of paternity, gave a mortal progeny to Mars. As a person who came by sea was figuratively called a son of Neptune, so a valiant warrior was termed a son, or, as it is sometimes expressed by Homer, a branch or shoot of Mars (Ösog 'Apnos). But the only tale of his amours related at any length by the poets, is that in the case of Venus. (Hom., Od., 8, 266, seqq.—Ovid, A. A., 2, 561.) This tale is an evident interpolation in the Odyssey, where it occurs. Its date is uncertain ; though the language, the ideas, and the state of society which it supposes, might almost lead us to assign its origin to a comparatively late period. It is generally supposed to be a physical myth, or, rather, a combination of two such myths; for beauty might naturally have been made the spouse of the god, from whose workshop proceeded so many elegant productions of art; and, as we are about to show, another physical view might have led to the union of Mars and Venus. Hesiod, for example, says (Theog., 937) that Harmonia (Order) was the daughter of Mars and Venus. This has evidently all the appearance of a physical myth, for from Love and Strife (i. e., attraction and repulsion), arises the order or harmony of the universe. (Plut., de Is. et Os., 48.— Aristot., Pol., 2, 6–Welcker, Kret. Kol., 40.) Terror and Fear are also said by Hesiod (Theog., 934) to have been the offspring of Mars and Venus, of whose union with Vulcan (to whom he gives a different

spouse) he seems to have known nothing. In the Iliad we may observe that Mars and Venus are spoken of as brother and sister, much in the same manner as Apollo and Diana. (Il., 5, 359, seq.-lb., 21, 416, seq.)— The best known of the children of this god by mortal women were Ascalaphus and Ialmenus, OEnomaus, king of Pisa, Diomedes of Thrace, Cycnus, Phlegyas, Dryas, Parthenopaeus, and Tereus. He was also said to be the sire of Meleager and other hero-princes of AEtolia. The temples and images of Mars were not numerous. He was represented as a warrior, of a sewere and menacing air, dressed in the heroic style, with a cuirass on, and a round Argive shield on his arm. His arms are sometimes borne by his attendants. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 104, seqq.) MARs.Aci, a people of Gallia Belgica, of German origin, and belonging to the great tribe of the Istavones. According to Wilhelm (Germanien und seine Beurohner, Weimar, 1823), they occupied the islands between the mouths of the Maese and Scheld. Wersebe, however (uber die Völker des Alten Teutschlands, Hannover, 1826), makes their territory correspond to the modern province of Utrecht. They are mentioned by Tacitus (Hist., 4, 56) and Pliny (4, 29). Marsi, I. a people in the northwestern part of Germany, belonging to the great tribe of the Istavones. They appear to have been originally settled on both banks of the Lippe, whence they spread south to the Tenchtheri. Weakened by the Roman arms, they retired into the interior of Germany, and from this period disappeared from history. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 3, p. 168.)—II. A nation of Italy, whose territory lay to the northeast of Latium, and southeast of the country of the Sabines. Though inconsiderable as a people they are yet entitled to honourable notice in the page of history, for their hardihood and warlike spirit. Their origin, like that of many other Italian tribes, is enveloped in obscurity and fiction. A certain Phrygian, named Marsyas, is said to have been the founder of their race (Solin., 8); by others Marsus, the son of Circe (Plin., 7, 2), and hence they are represented as enchanters, whose potent spells deprived the viper of its venom, or cured the hurt which it might have caused. (Virg., AEm., 7, 750.—Sil. Ital., 8, 497.)— We do not find the Marsi engaged in war with Rome before A.U.C. 445, when they were defeated and forced to sue for peace. (Livy, 9, 41.) Six years after they again assumed a hostile character, but with as little success; they were beaten in the field, and lost several of their fortresses. (Liv., 10, 3.) From that time we find them the firm and stanch allies of Rome, and contributing by their valour to her triumphs, till her haughty and domineering spirit compelled them and most of the other neighbouring people to seek, by force of arms, for that redress of their wrongs, and that concession of privileges and immunities, to which they were justly entitled, but which was not to be granted to their entreaties. In the war which ensued, and which, from that circumstance, is called the Marsic as well as Social War, the Marsi were the first to take the field under their leader Silus Pompadius, A.U.C. t;61. Though often defeated, the perseverance of the allies was at last crowned with success, by the grant of those immunities which they may be said to have extorted from the Roman senate, A.U.C. 665. (Straho, 241.-Vell. Paterc., 2, 16.—Appian, Bell. Cir., 1, 39.—Lir., Epit., 72.) The valour of the Marsi is sufficiently indicated by the proverbial saying which Appian records (Bell. Cir., 1,46), “that there was no triumph to be obtained either over the Marsi or without their aid : otte karū Mápagov, ofte sivew Mápawv, Yevéabat opiaubov.” (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 325, seqq.) Marsyas, I. a satyr of Phrygia, son of Prympus, who, having found the pipe which Minerva, for fear of injuring her beauty, of thrown away, contended with

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