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and Saône, while the chief part of modern Lyons is on the east side, at the very confluence of the two streams. At the extremity of the point of land formed by the two streams, and, of course, precisely corresponding with the southern extremity of the modern city, stood the famous altar erected by sixty Gallic nations in honour of Augustus. (Liv., Epit., 137.-Strabo, l.c.) At Lugdunum was established the gold and silver coinage of the province, and from this city, as a centre, the main roads diverged to all parts of Gaul. (Strab., l. •.) In the third century it declined in importance, on account of the vicinity and rapid growth of Arelate and Narbo. Lugdunum is said by Strabo to have been situate at the foot of a hill. In Celtic, dun sigmifies “a hill,” and from this comes the Latin termination dunum. The earlier name is said by Dio Cassius (l. c.) to have been lugudunum (Aovyotočovyov), Plutarch (de Fluviis, p. 1151.—Op., ed. Reiske, vol. 10, p. 732) derives the name srom Aoûyoc, the Celtic, according to him, for “a raven,” and doivog, “a hill,” and explains this etymology by the tradition of a flock of ravens having appeared to the first settlers Momorus and Atepomarus, when building on a hill in obedience to an oracle. (Compare Reimar, ad Dion. Cass., l. c.—Reiske, ad Plut., l. c.--For other etymologies of the name of this city, consult Merula, Cosmogr., p. 2, l. 3, c. 24.—Vossius, Hist. Gratc., p. 346.)—II. A city of the Batavi, in Germania Inferior, now Leyden. The modern name is said to be derived from that of Leithis, which it took in the middle ages. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 241.) LüNA, I. (the Moon). Wid. Selene.—II. A city of Etruria, in the northwestern angle of the country, situate on the coast, and remarkable for its beautiful and capacious harbour. The modern name of this harbour is Golso di Spazzia. Before the new division under Augustus, Luna had formed part of Liguria; and its harbour, situate on the north side of the Macra, certainly was in that province. Cluverius contends that this ancient city occupied the site of the modern Lerici; especially as Strabo (222) and Mela (2, 4) seem to place it on that bank of the Macra; but the ruins which now bear the name of Luni, a little below Sarzana, and the denomination of Lunigiana applied to the adjacent district. together with the authority of Ptolemy (p. 61) and Pliny (3, 5), leave no doubt as to the true position of Luna. The harbour of Luna was chiefly resorted to by the Romans as a rendezvous for the fleets which they sent to Spain. (Liv., 34, 8. —Id., 39, 21.) Strabo says it contained, in fact, several ports, and was worthy of a nation which so long ruled the sea. The town itself was deserted in the time of Lucan (1, 586). Luna was very famous for its white marbles, which now take their name from the neighbouring town of Carrara. (Strab., l.c.—Plin., 36, 5.) Pliny speaks of the wine and cheese made in the neighbourhood of Luna (14, 16); the latter were sometimes so large as to weigh one thousand pounds. (Id., 11, 42–Martial, Epigr., 13, 27.) Inscriptions give Luna the title of a Roman municipium. (Cramer's Italy, vol. 1, p. 171, seqq.) Lupa (a she-wolf), an animal held in great veneration at Rome, because Romulus and Remus were sabled to have been suckled by one. (Wid. Romulus.) Lupercal, a cave at the foot of the Palatine Hill, consecrated by Evander to the god Pan, who was surnamed Lupercus by the Latins, as protecting the flocks from wolves (lupos arcens). Such at least is the common derivation of the name. (Arnob., 4, 3– Serv., ad AEm., 8, 343. –Justin, 43, 1.) Others, however, deduced the term, according to Quintilian, from luo and capra, by a transposition of letters in the case of the latter word, because they sacrificed in the cave above mentioned a goat (caprum luchant), and purified the city with the skin of the animal cut into thongs. (Quint., 1, 5, sub fin.—Wid. Lupercalia.)

Lupercalia, a yearly festival, observed at Rome the 15th of February, in honour of the god Pan, and said to have been instituted by Evander. (Vid. Luperci.) Luperci, the priests of Pan. (Vid. Lupercal.) On the festival of this god, which was termed Lupercalia, a goat was sacrificed, and the skin of the victim was cut up into thongs. Thereupon the Luperci, in a state of nudity, except having a girdle of goat's skin around their loins, and holding these thongs in their hands, ran up and down the city, striking with the thongs all whom they met, particularly married women, who were thence supposed to be rendered prolific. (Serp., ad Virg, Æn, 8, 343.—Ovid, Fast, 2, 427–Id. ib., 5, 101.) There were three companies of Luperci; two of ancient date, called Fabiani and Quintuliani, from Fabius and Quintilius, who had been at one time at their head; and a third order called Julii, instituted in honour of Julius Caesar, at the head of which was Antony; and therefore, as the leader of this, he went, on the festival of the Lupercalia, although consul, almost naked into the Forum Julium, attended by his lictors, and having made a harangue before the people, he, according to concert, as it is believed, presented a royal diadem to Casar, who was sitting there arrayed in his triumphal robes. A murmur ran throughout the multitude, but it was instantly changed into loud applause when Caesar rejected the proffered ornament, and persisted in his refusal, although Antony threw himself at his feet, imploring him, in the name of the Roman people, to accept it. (Cic., Phil., 2, 31, 43–Dio Cass., 45, 31.—ld., 46, 5.-Sueton, Wit. Jul., 79.-Plut., Wit. Caes.) Lupercus, or Sulpicius Lupercus Servastus Junior, a poet, who appears to have lived during the latter periods of the western empire. He has left an elegy “on Cupidity,” and a sapphic ode “on Old Age.” (Wernsdorff, Poet. Lat. Min, vol. 3, p. 235.) He is supposed by some to have been also the author of a small poem “on the Advantages of a Private Life " sound in the Anthology of Burmann (vol. 1, p. 508). Lupi A or Lippia, I. a small river in Germany, falling into the Rhine, now the Lippe. It is in modern Westphalia. (Mela, 3, 3. – Well. Paterc., 2, 105.)— II. A town of Italy, southwest of Brundisium, now Lecce, the modern capital of the territory of Otranto. (Plin., 3, 11.-Mela, 2, 4.) Lupus, I. a native of Messana in Sicily, who wrote a poem on the return of Menelaus and Helen to Sparta. He is mentioned by Ovid (ez Pont., 4, 16. — Compare Mongitor., Bibl. Sicul, 1, p. 24). —II. P. Rutilius Lupus, a powerful but unprincipled Roman nobleman, lashed by Lucilius in his satires. (Pers., Sat., 1, 115.—Compare Liv., Epit, 73.−Jul, Obsequens, 115.) Lusitania, a part of ancient Hispania, on the Atlantic coast. The name must be taken in two senses. All the old writers, whom Strabo also follows, understood by the term merely the territories of the Lusitani, and these were comprehended between the Durius and the Tagus, and extended in breadth from the ocean to the most eastern limits of the modern kingdom of Portugal. (Strabo, 152.) The Lusitani in time intermingled with the Spanish tribes in their vicinity, as, for example, with the Wettones, Calliaci, &c., on which account the name of Lusitania was extended to the territories of these tribes, and, finally, under this name became also included some tracts of country south of the Tagus. This is the first sense in which the term Lusitania must be taken, comprising, namely, the territories of the Lusitani, the Calliaci, the Wettones, and some lands south of the Tagus. The Romans, after the conquest of the country, made a new arrangement of the several tribes. The territories of the Calliaci, lying north of the Durius, thcy included in Hispania Tarraconensis, but, as equivalent, they added to Lusitania all the country south of the Tagus, and west of the lower part of the Anas, as far as the sea. According to this arrangement, Lusitania was bounded on the south by a part of the Atlantic, from the mouth of the Anas to the Sacrum Promontorium or Cape St. Vincent; on the west by the Atlantic ; on the north by the Durius; and on the east by a line drawn from the latter river, a little west of the modern city of Toro, in a southeastern direction to the Anas, touching it about eight miles west of Merida, the ancient Emerita Augusta. The modern kingdom of Portugal, therefore, is in length larger than ancient I,usitania, since it comprehends two provinces beyond the Durius, Entre Douro y Minho and Tras los Montes, and since it has the Minius or Minho for its northern boundary, but from west to east it is much smaller than Lusitania. The latter embraced also Salamanca, the greater part of Estremadura, and the western extremity of Toledo. The most southern part of Lusitania was called Cuneus, or the wedge (vid. Cuneus), and is now termed Algarve, from the Arabic Algarb, or the west. Its extreme promontory was called Sacrum. (Wid. Sacrum Promontorium.— Mannert, Geogr., vol. 1, p. 327.) Lutetia, a town of Belgic Gaul, on an island in the Sequana or Seine, and the capital of the Parisii. Hence it is often called Lutetia Parisiorum. (Cas., B. G., 7, 7.) It was at first a place of little consequence, but under the emperors it became a city of importance, and the Notitia Imperii (c. 65) speaks of it as the gathering-place for the seamen on the river. In this passage, too, the name Parisii, as applied to the city itself, first appears. At Lutetia, Julian the Apostate was saluted emperor by his soldiers. He had here his usual winter-quarters. The city began to increase in importance under the first French kings, and was extended to the two banks of the river, the island being connected with them by bridges. It is now Paris, the capital of France.—The ancient name of the place is variously written. Thus we have Lotitia Parisiorum (Ann. Prudent. Trec., ann. 842), and Loticia Parisionum (Ann. 1, ann. 845), &c. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 168.) LyAEus, a surname of Bacchus, as loosing from care (Avaioc, from Avo, “to loosen” or “free.”— Vid. Liber). LycAbettus, a mountain near Athens. Plato says (in Crit.) that it was opposite the Pnyx; and Antigonus Carystius relates a fabulous story, which would lead us to imagine that it was close to the Acropolis. (Hist. Mirab., 12.) Statius alludes to its olive plantations. (Theb., 631. — Leake's Topogr., p. 70. — Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 335.) Lycaea, I. festivals in Arcadia in honour of Pan, or the Lycaean Jove. They were the same in origin as the Lupercalia of the Romans.—II. A festival at Argos in honour of Apollo Lycaeus, who delivered the Argives from wolves. ycAzus, a mountain in the southwestern angle of Arcadia, deriving great celebrity from the worship of Jupiter, who, as the Arcadians contended, was born on its summit. Here an altar had been erected to the god, and sacrifices were performed in the open air. The temenus was inaccessible to living creatures, since, if any entered within its precincts, they died within the space of a year. It was also said, that within this hallowed spot no shadows were projected from the bodies of animals. Pausanias affirms, that nearly the whole of Peloponnesus might be seen from this elevated point. (Pausan., 8, 28.—Compare Strab., 388.) Mount Lycaeus was also sacred to Pan, whose temple was surrounded by a thick grove. Contiguous to this were the stadium and hippodrome in which the Lycaean games were performed. (Pausan, l. c.—Theocr., Idyl., 1, 123–Virgil, Georg., 1, 16.) Mr. Dodwell, who gives an animated description of the view he be

held from Mount Lycaeus, states that the modern name is Tetragi. The remains of the altar of Jupiter are yet visible on the summit. (Classical Tour, vol. 2, p. 392–Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 336.) LycaMbes, the father of Neobule. He promised his daughter in marriage to the poet Archilochus, but afterward refused to fulfil his engagement when she had been courted by a man whose opulence had more influence than tae fortune of the poet. This irritated Archilochus; he wrote a bitter invective against Lycambes and his daughter, who hung themselves in despair. (Horat., Epod., 6, 13. —Ovid, ib., 62.) Such is the common account. The story, however, appears to have been invented after the days of Archilochus; and one of the scholiasts on Horace remarks, that Neobule did not destroy herself on account of any injurious verses on the part of Archilochus, but out of despair at the death of her father. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 1, p. 20.1.) LycAoN, an early king of Arcadia, son of Pelasgus. He built Lycosura, on Mount Lycaeus, and established the Lycaean festival in honour of Jove. Pausanias makes him contemporary with Cecrops (8, 2). His whole history, however, appears to be mythic, as will presently appear. According to the legend given by Apollodorus (3, 8, 1), Lycaon became, by different wives, the father of fifty sons; and, according to another account, mentioned by the same writer, the parent of one daughter, Callisto. Both Lycaon and his sons were notorious for their cruel and impious conduct, and Jupiter, in order to satisfy himself of the truth of the reports that reached him, disguised himself as a poor man and sought their hospitality. To entertain the stranger they slaughtered a boy, and, mingling his flesh with that of the victims, set it before their guest. The god, in indignation and horror at the barbarous act, overturned the table (whence the place derived its future name of Trapezus), and struck with lightning the godless father and sons, with the exception of Nyctimus, whom Earth, raising her hands and grasping the right hand of Jupiter, saved from the wrath of the avenging deity. According to another account, Jupiter destroyed the dwelling of o caon with lightning, and turned its master into a wolf The deluge of Deucalion, which shortly afterward oc. curred, is ascribed to the impiety of the sons of Lycaon. (Apollod, l.c. Orid, Met, 1, 216, seqq.— Hygin, Poet. Astron., 2, 4.—Id, Fab., 176–Tzetz, ad Lycophr, 48l.)—It has been conjectured, that Jupiter Lycaeus was in Arcadia what Apollo Lycius was elsewhere; and that the true root in both cases was AYKH (lur), “light.” The similarity of sound most probably gave occasion to the legends of wolves, of which animal there were many in Arcadia. In this case Lycaon would be only another name for Jupiter, to whom he raised an altar, and he could not therefore have been described as impious in the primitive leend. The opposition between his name and that of Romo strongly confirms this hypothesis. It may indeed be said, that Jupiter derived his appellation from the mountain; but against this it is to be observed, that there was an eminence in the territory of Cyrene or Barce, in Libya, dedicated to i."#. casus. (Herod., 4, 205. — Keightley's Mytholog 424, seq.—Schwenck, Andeutung, p. 40.) Lycaonia, a district of Asia Minor, forming the southeastern quarter of Phrygia. The origin of its name and of its inhabitants, the Lycaones, is lost in obscurity. The Greeks asserted that Lycaon of Arcadia, in obedience to the commands of an oracle, founded a city here, and gave his name to the nation and country; this, however, is mere fable. According to others, it derived its name from Žukoç, a wolf, the country abounding with these animals. Our first acquaintance with this region is in the relation of the expedition of the younger Cyrus. “T * lying

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to the northward of Konia (Iconium) and Erkle (Archalla),” observes Leake, “form the district described by Strabo as the cold and naked downs of Lycaonia, which furnished pasture to numerous sheep and wild asses, and where was no water except in very deep wells. As the limits of Lycaonia are defined by Strabo (568) and by Artemidorus, whom he quotes, to have been between Philomelium and Tyriaeum on the west, and Coropassus and Garsabora on the east (which last place was 960 stadia from Tyriaum, 120 from Coropassus, and 680 from Mazaca), we have the exact extent of the Lycaonian hills intended by the geographer. Branching from the great range of Taurus, near Philomelium, and separating the plain of Laodicea from that of Iconium, they skirted the great valley which lies to the southeastward of the latter city, as far as Archalla (Erkle), comprehending a part of the mountains of Hassan Daghi. It would seem that the depopulation of this country, which rapidly followed the decline of the Roman power and the irruption of the Eastern barbarians, had left some remains of the vast flocks of Amyntas, mentioned by Strabo, in undisturbed possession of the Lycaonian hills to a very late period: for Hadji Khalsa, who describes the want of wood and water on these hills, adds that there was a breed of wild sheep on the mountain of Fudul Baba, above Ismil, and a tomb of the saint from whom the mountain receives its name; and that sacrifices were offered at the tomb by all those who hunted the wild sheep, and who were taught to believe that they should be visited with the displeasure of heaven if they dared to kill more than two of these animals at a time. Hadji Khalsa lived in the middle of the 17th century.” (Leake's Journal, . 67, seqq.) With respect to its physical geography, ycaonia was, like Isauria, included in a vast basin, formed by Taurus and its branches. (Rennell, Geog. raphy of Western Asia, vol. 2, p. 99.) Towards the east, the Lycaonians bordered on Cappadocia, from which they were separated by the Halys; while towards the south they extended themselves from the frontiers of Cilicia to the country of the Pisidians. Between them and the latter people there seems to have been considerable affinity of character, and probably of blood; both nations, perhaps, being originally sprung from the ancient Solymi. Subsequently, however, they would appear to have become distinguished from one another by the various increments which each received from the nations in their immediate vicinity. Thus, while the Pisidians were intermixed with the Carians, Lycians, and Phrygians, the Lycaonians received colonists probably from Cappadocia, Cilicia, Pamphylia, Phrygia, and Galatia; at the same time, both, in common with all the nations of Asia Minor, had no small proportion of Greek settlers in their principal towns. It is a curious fact, which we derive from the New Testament (Acts, 14, 11), that the Lycaonians had a peculiar dialect, which therefore must have differed from the Pisidian language; but even that, as we know from Strabo (631), was a distinct tongue from that of the ancient Solymi. It is, however, very probable, that the Lycaonian idiom was only a mixture of these and the Phrygian language. (Jablonski, de Ling. Lycaon., Opusc., vol. 3, p. 8.Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 63.) Lycastus, an ancient town of Crete, in the vicinity of Gnossus, by the inhabitants of which place it was destroyed. Strabo, who mentions this fact, states that in his time it had entirely disappeared. (Strab., 479.) Polybius informs us (23, 15), that the Lycastian district was afterward wrested from the Cnosians by the Gortynians, who gave it to the neighbouring town of Rhaucus. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 370.) LycéUM (Aíketov), a sacred enclosure at Athens, dedicated to Apollo, where the polemarch originally

kept his court. It was decorated with fountains, plantations, and buildings, by Pisistratus, Pericles, and Lycurgus, and became the usual place of exercise for the Athenian youths who devoted themselves to military pursuits. (Pausan., 1, 19. — Xen., Hipparch.Harpocrat. et Suid., s. v.) Nor was it less frequented by philosophers, and those addicted to retirement and study. We know that it was more especially the favourite walk of Aristotle and his followers, who thence obtained the name of Peripatetics. (Cic., Acad. Quaest., 1, 4.) Here was the sountain of the hero Panops (Plat., Lys., p. 203), and a plane-tree of great size and beauty, mentioned by Theophrastus. (Hist. Pl., 1, 11. — Compare Plat., Phaedr., p. 229.) The position commonly assigned to the Lyceum is on the right bank of the Ilissus, and nearly opposite to the church of Petros Stauromenos, which is supposed to correspond with the temple of Diana Agrotera, on the other side of the river. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 340.) Lychnidus, a city of Illyricum, situate in the interior, on a lake from which the Drino rises. Its found. ation is ascribed by a writer in the Greek Anthology to Cadmus. (Christod., epigr. 3.) We hear of its being constantly in the occupation of the Romans during the war with Perseus, king of Macedon (Liv., 43, 9), and from its position on the frontier it must have always been a place of importance. This was more especially the case after the construction of the great Egnatian Way, which passed through it. (Polyb, ap. Strab., 327.) It appears to have been still a large and populous town under the Greek emperors. Procopius relates, that it was nearly destroyed by an earthquake, which overthrew Corinth and several other cities in the reign of Justinian. (Hist. Arch., 18. —Compare Malch., Sophist. Ercerpt., p. 64.) It is the opinion of Palmerius, who has treated most fully of the history of Lychnidus in his description of ancient Greece, that this town was replaced by Achrida, once the capital of the Bulgarians; and, according to some writers of the Byzantine empire, also the native place of Justinian, and erected by him into an archbishopric, under the name of Justiniana Prima. This opinion of the learned critic has been adopted by the generality of writers on comparative geography. (Grac. Ant. Descript., p. 498.—Wesseling, ad Itin., p. 652.-Mannert, Geogr., vol. 7, p. 415.) Cramer, however, shows very conclusively that the modern Ochrida (as it is now called) does not coincide with the ancient Lychnidus, but that the ruins of the latter place are still apparent near the monastery of St. Naum (Pouqueville, vol. 3, p. 49), on the eastern shore of the lake, and about fourteen miles south ol Ochrida. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 71, seqq.) Lychnitis PALUs, a lake of Illyria, on which Lychnidus was situate. It was formed principally by the waters of what is now the black Drino, and was a considerable expanse of water, about 20 miles in length and 8 in breadth. Diodorus informs us, that Philip, son of Amyntas, extended his conquests in Illyria, as far as this lake (16, 8). Strabo says it abounded in fish, which were salted for the use of the inhabitants. (Strabo, 327.) He also mentions several other lakes in the vicinity which were equally productive. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 74.) Lycia, a country of Asia Minor, in the south, bounded on the northeast by Pamphylia, on the west and north. west by the Carians, and on the north by Phrygia and Pisidia. The country was first named Milyas, and its earliest inhabitants seem to have been the Solymi. Sarpedon, however, being driven from Crete by his brother Minos, came hither with a colony, and drove the Solymi into the interior, with whom, however, they had still to wage a continual warfare. (Hom., Il., 6, 180–Id. ibid., 10, 430.-Id. ibid., 12, 30.) The new-comers took the name of Termilas, as Herodotus writes it (l

173), or Tremilas, as others give it. (Steph. Byz., s. v. Totatoat.) Afterward, Lycus, driven from Athens by his brother Ægeus, retired to the Termila, where he was well received by Sarpedon, and gave, it is said, the appellation of Lycia to the country, and Lycii to the people, from his own name. In the Homeric poems the country is always called Lycia, and the Solymi are mentioned as a warlike people, against whom Bellerephon is sent to fight by the King of Lycia. (Il., 6, 184.) The Solymi, however, disappeared from history after Homer's time, and the name Milyas remained for ever afterward applied to the region commencing in the north of Lycia, and extending into Phrygia and Pisidia. Into this region the Solymi had been driven, and here they remained under the appellation of Milyae, though the name Solymi still continued in Mount Solyma, on the northeastern coast. This mountain, called at present Takhatlu, rises to the height of 7800 feet. Fism this time, in fact, they were reckoned as occupying a part of Pisidia, and having nothing more to do with Lycia. On D'Anville's map, however, they retain the name of Solymi. According to the ancients, Lycia was the last maritime country within Taurus. It did not extend eastward to the inner part of the Gulf of Pamphylia, but was separated from that country and its gulf by the southern arm of Taurus, whose bold and steep descent to the shore caused it to receive the name of Climax. This southern arm of Taurus is so lofty as to be generally covered with snow, and by its course, presenting itself across the line of the navigation along shore, forms a conspicuous landmark, particularly from the eastward. From its general fertility, the natural strength of the country, and the goodness of its harbours, Lycia was one of the richest and most populous countries of Asia in proportion to its extent. The products were wine, wheat, cedar-wood, beautiful plane-trees, a sort of delicate sponge, and fine officinal chalk. It is recorded, to the honour of the inhabitants, that they never committed acts of piracy like those of Cilicia and other quarters. The Lycians appear to have possessed considerable power in early times; and were almost the only people west of the Halys who were not subdued by Croesus. (Herod., 1, 28.) They made also an obstinate resistance to Harpagus, the general of Cyrus, but were eventually conquered. (Herod., 1, 176.) They supplied Xerxes with fifty ships in his expedition against Greece. (Herod., 7, 92.) After the downfall of the Persian empire, they continued subject to the Seleucidae till the overthrow of Antiochus by the Romans, when their country, as well as Caria, was granted by the conquerors to the Rhodians; but their freedom was afterward again secured to them by the Romans (Polyb., 30, 5), who allowed them to retain their own laws and their political constitution, which is highly praised by Strabo (665), and, in his opinion, prevented them from falling into the piratical practices of their neighbours, the Pamphylians and Cilicians. According to this account, the government was a kind of federation, consisting of 23 cities, which sent deputies to an assembly, in which a governor was chosen for the whole of Lycia, as well as judges and other inferior magistrates. All matters relating to the government of the country were discussed in this assembly. The six principal cities, Xanthus, Patara, Pinara, Olympus, Myra, and Tlos, had three votes each, other cities two votes each, and the least important places only one each. In consequence of dissensions among the different cities, this constitution was abolished by the Emperor Claudius (Sueton., Vit. Claud., 25.—Compare Wit. Vesp.), and the country united to the province of Pamphyliá. (Dio Cass., 60, 17.—Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 14, p. 210.— Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 242, seq.) The interior of Lycia was entirely unknown to Europeans until the visit of Mr. Fellows in 1838, who travelled over a large Pog of it. According to this individual, the

country is erroneously represented in all the maps, and there are no mountains of any importance in the interior. The coast, however, is surrounded by lofty mountains, which rise in many places to a great height. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 14, p. 210.)—It was at Patara in Lycia that Apollo had a famous temple and oracle, and there he was fabled to pass the winter months, and the summer at Delos, whence the epithet hiberna applied to Lycia by Virgil (AEn., 4, 143.— Heyne, ad loc.). ycim Nía, a female alluded to by Horace, and thought by Bentley to be the same with Terentia, the wife of Maecenas. (Horat., Od., 2, 12, 13–Bentley, ad loc.) Lycius, a surname of Apollo, given to that deity as the god of light, and derived from the old form AYKH, “light,” to which we may also trace the Latin lu.c. (Compare remarks under the article Lycaon.) According to the common but erroneous opinion, Apollo was called “Lycius” because worshipped with peculiar honours at Patara in Lycia. (Wid. Patara.) Lycomedes, a king of Scyros, an island in the AEgean Sea, son of Apollo and Parthenope. He was secretly intrusted with the care of young Achilles, whom his mother Thetis had disguised in female attire to prevent his going to the Trojan war, where she knew he must perish. (Vid. Achilles.) Lycomedes rendered himself infamous for his treachery to Theseus, who had implored his protection when driven from the throne of Athens by the usurper Mnestheus. Lycomedes, as it is reported, either envious of the fame of his illustrious guest, or bribed by the emissaries of Mnestheus, led Theseus to an elevated place on pretence of showing him the extent of his dominions, and perfidiously threw him down a precipice, where he was killed. According to another account, however, his fall was accidental. (Plut, Wit. Thes,—Pausan, l, 17; 7, 4.—Apollod., 3, 13.) Lycon, an Athenian, who flourished about 405 B.C., and who, together with Anytus and Melitus, was concerned in the prosecution instituted against Socrates. (Vid. Socrates.)—II. A Peripatetic philosopher, a native of Troas, and the pupil and successor of Strato of Lampsacus. He flourished about 270 B.C., and was for forty years the head of the Peripatetic school at Athens. He succeeded Strato at the date just mentioned; and enjoyed also the friendship of Attabus and Eumenes. (Diog. Laert., 5, 66–Athenaeus, 12, p. 546.) Lycon appears to have been the author of a treatise on the sovereign good. His eloquence induced his friends to change his name from Lycon to Glykon (yāvküç, sweet). Cicero calls him “gratione locupletem, rebus ipis jejuniorem” (De Fun., 5, 5). Lycóphron, I. a son of Periander, king of Corinth. The murder of his mother Melissa by his father had such an effect upon him, that he resolved never to speak to a man who had been so wantonly cruel to his own family. This resolution was strengthened by the advice of Procles, his maternal uncle, and Periander at last banished to Corcyra a son whose disobedience and obstinacy had rendered him odious. Cypselus, the eldest son of Periander, being incapable of reigning, Lycophron was the only surviving child who had any claim to the crown of Corinth. But, when the infirmities of Periander obliged him to look for a successor, Lycophron refused to come to Corinth while his father was there, and he was induced to leave Corcyra only on promise that Periander would come and dwell there while he remained the master of Corinth. This exchange, however, was prevented. The Corcyreans, who were apprehensive of the tyranny of Periander, murdered Lycophron before he left that island. (Herod., 3, 51.)—II. A native of Chalcis, in Euboea, the son of Socles, and adopted by the historian Lycus of Rhegium, was a poet and grammarian at the court

of Ptolemy Philadelphus from B.C. *** 250, where he formed one of the seven poets known by the name of the Tragic Pleiades. (Wid. Alexandrina Schola, towards the end of that article.) He is said by Ovid to have been killed by an arrow. (Ibis, 531.) Lycophron wrote a large number of tragedies, the titles of many of which are preserved by Suidas. Only one production of his, however, has come down to us, a poem classed by the ancients under the head of tragic, but more correctly by the moderns under that of Lyric verse. "This poem of Lycophron's is called the Alexandra or Cassandra. It is a monologue, in 1474 verses, in which the Trojan princess Cassandra predicts to Priam the overthrow of Ilium, and the misfortunes that await the actors in the Trojan war. The work is written in Iambic verse, and has no pretensions to any poetical merit; but, at the same time, it forms an inexhaustible mine of grammatical, historical, and mythological erudition. Cassandra, in the course of her predictions, goes back to the earliest times, and descends afterward to the reign of Alexander of Macedon. There are many digressions, but all contain valuable facts, drawn from the history and mythology of other nations. The poet has purposely enveloped his poem with the deepest obscurity, so much so that it has been styled to akotetvöv Toímua, “the dark poem.” There is no artifice to which he does not resort to prevent his being clearly understood. He never calls any one by his true name, but designates him by some circumstances or event in his history. He abounds with unusual constructions, separates words which should be united, uses strange terms (as, for example, kážop, lvag, àuvauoc, and pitvua, in place of vióc); forms the most singular compounds (such as ātlequážektpoc, alvotákyevtos), and indulges also in some of the boldest metaphors. The Alexandrean grammarians amassed a vast collection of materials for the elucidation of what must have appeared to them an admirable production. Tzetzes has made a compilation from their commentaries, and has thus preserved for us a part at least of those illustrations, without which the poem, after the lapse of more than 2000 years, would be unintelligible. He has refuted also the opinion that Lycophron was not the author of the poem. The loss of Lycophron's dramatic pieces is hardly to be regretted, if we can form any opinion of his poetic merits from the production to which we have just referred. A work, however, which he wrote on Comedy (trepi Kopopčías), and which must have been of considerable extent, since Athenæus quotes from the 9th book of it, would have proved, no doubt, a valuable accession to our list of ancient productions, since on this subject the learning of Lycophron must have had sull scope allowed it. The best editions of Lycophron are, that printed at Basle, 1546, fol., enriched with the Greek commentary of Tzetzes ; that of Canter, 8vo, apud Commelin., 1596; that of Potter, fol., Oron., 1702, and that of Bachmann, Lips., 1828, 2 vols. 8vo. The last will be found to be most complete and useful, since it contains, among other subsidia, the Greek paraphrase. Bachmann also published, in 1828, in the second volume of his Anecdota Graeca, a Lexicon Lycophroneum, previously unedited, containing a very ancient collection of scholia. (Schöll, Gesch. Gr. Lit., vol. 2, p. 47,

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scopólis (Aškov Tóżuc), or the “city of wolves,” a city of Upper Egypt, on the western side of the Nile, northwest of Antaeopolis. It derived its name from the circumstance of extraordinary worship being paid here to wolves, which, according to Diodorus Siculus, drove back the Ethiopians when they invaded Egypt, and pursued them to Elephantina. (Diod. Sic, 1, 88.) Pliny merely writes the name Lycon as that of the city (5,9), and Hierocles Aíkov. D'Anville, and, after him, the French savans who accompanied Bonaparte to Egypt, place the site of ancient Lycopolis near the modern Syut. Mannert, however, decides in sa

vour of the vicinity of Mansaluth, coinciding in this with Pococke. (Geogr., vol. 10, pt. 1, p. 387.) Lycorka, I. one of the earliest names of Parnassus. The modern name of the mountain is Liakoura. (Dodwell, Tour, vol. 1, p. 189.)—II. A small town on one of the highest summits of Parnassus. (Strabo, 423– Pausan, 10, 6.) It appears to have been a place of the highest antiquity since it is stated by the Arundelian marbles to have been once the residence of Deucalion. Strabo also affirms that it was more ancien: than Delphi. (Strab., 418.—Compare Pausan., l.c. —Steph. Byz, s. v.–Etym. Mag, s. v.–Schol. ad Apollon., Arg., 1, 1490—Schol. ad Pind, Ol, 9, 68.) Among other etymologies, Pausanias states, that the neighbouring people fled to it during the deluge of Deucalion, being led thither by the howling of wolves (Žiškov). Dodwell was informed that there was a village called Liakoura about three hours from Castri (Delphi), which was deserted in winter on account of the snow, the inhabitants then descending to the neighbouring villages. Some of the peasants of Liakoura informed him that their village possessed considerable remains of antiquity. (Dodwell, l.c.–Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 161.) Lycóris, a female to whom Gallus, the friend of Virgil, was attached. (Consult remarks on page 545, col. 1, near the end.) Lycormas, the more ancient name of the Evenus. (Strab., 451.) Lycosijra, a town of Arcadia, on the slope of Mount Lycaeus, regarded by Pausanias (8, 38) as the most ancient city in the world: it still contained some few inhabitants when he made the tour of Arcadia. Dod well is inclined to identify its position with that oAgios Giorgios, near the village of Stala, where there are walls and other remains which manifest signs of the remotest antiquity. (Tour, vol. 2, p. 395.) Gell, in his Itinerary of the Morea (p. 101), after having spoken of Delli Hassan in the road from Sincmo to Karitena, adds as follows: “We descend again towards the Alpheus. This is the road which Pausanias seems to have taken to Lycorma, which must have been either on the remarkable peak called Sourias to Castro, or almost on the summit of Diaphorte (Lycasus), near the hippodrome, where are the ruins of a fortification.” The same writer remarks (Narrative of a Journey in the Morea, p. 124), “the peaked summit, called Sourias to Castro, is probably the ancient Lycorma.” (Siebelis, ad Pausan., 8,38.—Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 336.) Lyctus, one of the most considerable cities of Crete, situate apparently to the northeast of Præsus, and at no great distance from the sea, since Strabo assigns to it the haven of Chersonesus. It was already an important city in the days of Homer and Hesiod; and Idomeneus, who was a native of the place, obtains from it, in Virgil (Æm., 3, 401), the epithet of Lyctius. (Compare Homer, Il., 2,647; 17, 610) According to Hesiod (Theog., 477), Jupiter was brought up in Mount AEgaus, near Lyctus. We are informed by Aristotle (Polit., 2, 8) that Lyctus subsequently received a Lacedæmonian colony (compare Polyb., 4, 54), and we learn from Diodorus Siculus that it was indebted to the same people for assistance against the mercenary troops which Phalaecus, the Phocian general, had led into Crete after the termination of the Sacred war (16, 62). The Lyctians, at a still later period, were engaged in frequent hostilities with the republic of Gnossus, and succeeded in creating a sormidable party in the island against that city. But the Gnossians, having taken advantage of their absence on a distant expedition, surprised Lyctus and utterly destroyed it. The Lyctians, on their return, were so

disheartened by this unexpected calamity, that they

abandoned at once their ancient abodes, and withdrew to the city of Lampe, where they were kindly and hos

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