Obrazy na stronie

their firm adherence to the Roman power during the

war with Hannibal. It was subsequently recolonized by Augustus and Nero (Front. de Col.), but Strabo (239 and 249) makes it a very inconsiderable place, having suffered materially in the Marsic war. The modern Iscrnia is supposed to represent 4Bsernia. AEston. Vid. Supplement. AEsox, son of Cretheus and Tyro. He succeeded his father in the kingdom of Iolchos, but was dethroned by his half-brother Pelias. A son became the father, by Alcimede, of the celebrated Jason, the leadel of the Argonauts. Through fear of the usurper, Jason was intrusted to the care of the centaur Chiron, and brought up at a distance from the court of Pelias. On his arriving at manhood, however, he came to Iolchos, according to one account, to claim his inheritance; but, according to another, he was invited by Pelias to attend a sacrifice to Neptune on the seashore. The result of the interview, whatever may have been the cause of it, was an order from Pelias to go in quest of the golden fleece. (Wid. Jason.) During the absence of Jason on this well-known expedition, the tyranny of Pelias, according to one version of the story, drove AF’son and Alcimede to self-destruction ; an act of cruelty, to which he was prompted by intelligence having been received, that all the Argonauts had perished, and by a consequent wish on his part to make himself doubly secure, by destroying the parents of Jason. He put to death also their remaining child. (Apollod, 1,9, 16, scqq.—Diod. Str., 4, 50.—Hygin., 24.) Ovid, however, gives a quite different account of the latter days of Æson. According to the poet (Met, 7, 297, seqq.), Jason, on his return with Medea, found his father Æson still alive, but enfeebled by age; and the Colchian enchantress, by drawing the blood from his veins and then filling them with the juices of certain herbs which she had gathered for the purpose, restored him to a manhood of forty years. The daughters of Pelias having entreated Medea to perform the same operation on their aged father, she embraced this opportunity of avenging the wrongs, inflicted on Jason and his parents by the death of the usurper. (Wid. Pellas.) A·soxides, a patronymic of Jason, as being descended from AEson. AEsopus, I. a celebrated fabulist, who is supposed to have flourished about 620 B.C. (Larcher, Hist. d'Herod., Table Chronol, vol. 7, p. 539.) Much uncertainty, however, prevails both on this point, as well as in relation to the country that gave him birth. Some ancient writers make him to have been a Thracian. (Compare Mohnke, Gesch. Litt. Gr. und R., vol 1, p. 291.) Suidas states that he was either of Samos or Sardis ; but most authorities are in favour of his having been a Phrygian, and born at Cotyaeum. All appear to agree, however, in representing him as of servile origin, and owned in succession by several masters. The first of these was Demarchus, or, according to the reading of the Florence MS., Timarchus, who resided at Athens, where Æsop, consequently, must have had many means of improvement within his reach. From Demarchus he came into the ssession of Xanthus, a Samian, who sold him to }. a philosopher of the same island, under whose roof he had for a fellow-slave the famous courtesan Rhodope. (Herod., 2, 134.) Iadmon subsequently we him his freedom, on account of the talents which f. displayed, and Æsop now turned his attention to foreign travel, partly to extend the sphere of his own knowledge, is partly to communicate instruction to others. The vehicles in which this instruction was conveyed were fables, the peculiar excellence of which has caused his name to be associated with this pleasing branch of composition, through every succeeding period. Alsop is said to have visited Persia, Egypt, Asia Minor, and Greece, in the last of which countries

his name was rendered peculiarly samous. The ret utation for wisdom which he enjoyed, induced Cra. sus, king of Lydia, to invite him to his court. The fabulist obeyed the call, but, after residing some tims at Sardis, again journeyed into Greece. At the period of his second visit, the Ashoplans are said to have been oppressed by the usurpetröm of Pisistratus, and to console them under this state of things, AEsop is related to have invented for them the fable of the frogs petitioning Jupiter for a king. The residence of Æsop in Greece at this time would seem to have been a long one, if any argument for such an opinion may be drawn from a line of Phaedrus (3, 14), in which the epithet of sener is applied to the fabulist during the period of this his stay at Athens. He returned, however, eventually to the court of the Lydian monarch. Whether the well known conversation between Æsop and Solon occurred after the return of the former from his second journey into Greece, or during his previous residence with Croesus, cannot be satisfactorily ascertained: the latter opinion is most probably the more correct one, if we can believe that the interview between Solon and Croesus, as mentioned by Herodotus (l, 30, seqq.), ever took place. It seems that Solon had offended Craesus by the low estimation in which he held riches as an ingredient of happiness, and was, in consequence, treated with cold indifference. (Herod., 1, 33.) 42sop, concerned at the unkind treatment which Solon had encountered, gave him the sollowing advice: “A wise man should resolve either not to converse with kings at all, or to converse with. them agreeably.” To which Solon replied, “Nay, he should either not converse with them at all, or converse with them usefully.” (Plut., Wit. Sol., 28.) The particulars of AEsop's death are stated as follows b Plutarch (de sera numinis pindicta, p. 556–Op. .. Reiske, vol. 8, p. 203.) Croesus sent him to Delphi with a large amount of gold, in order to offer a magnificent sacrifice to Apollo, and also to present four minde to each inhabitant of the sacred city. Having had some difference, however, with the people of Delphi, he offered the sacrifice, but sent back the money to Sardis, regarding the intended objects of the king's bounty as totally unworthy of it. The irritated Delo with one accord, accused him of sacrilege, and e was thrown down the rock Hyampea. Suidas makes him to have been hurled from the rocks called Phaedriades, but the remark is an erroneous one, since these rocks were too far from Delphi, and the one from which he was thrown was, according to Lucian, in the neighbourhood of that city. (Phalaris prior.—Op. ed. Bip., vol. 5, p. 46.-Compare Larcher, Hist. d’Herod., vol. 7, p. 539.) Apollo, offended at this deed, sent all kinds of maladies upon the Delphians, who, in order to free themselves, caused proclamation to be made at all the great celebrations of Greece, that if there was any one entitled so to do, who would demand satisfaction from them for the death of AEsop, they would render it unto him. In the third generation came a Samian, named Iadmon, a descendant of one of the former masters of the fabulist, and the Delphians, having made atonement, were delivered from the evils under which they had been suffering. Such is the narrative of Plutarch. And we are also informed, that, to evince the sincerity of their repentance, they transferred the punishment of sacrilege, for the time to come, from the rock Hyampea to that named Nauplia. Other accounts, however, inform us, that Æsop offended the people of Delphi by comparing them to floating sticks, which appear at a distance to be something great, but, on a near approach, dwindle away into insignificance, and that he was accused, in consequence, of having carried off one of the vases consecrated to Apollo. The scholiast on Aristophanes (Vesp., 1486) informs us, that Æsop had ir. ritated the Delphians by remarking of ". that they had no land, like ther people, on the produce of which to support themselves, but were compelled to depend for subsistence on the remains of the sacrifices. Determined to be revenged on him, they concealed a consecrated cup amid his baggage, and, when he was some distance from their city, pursued and arrested him. The production of the cup sealed his fate, and he was thrown from the rock Hyampea, as already mentioned. As they were leading him away to execution, he is said to have recited to them the fable of the eagle and beetle, but without producing any effect. The menory of -esop was highly honoured throughout Greece, and the Athenians erected a statue to him (Phadrus, 2, Epil., 2, seqq.), the work of the celebrated Lysippus, which was placed opposite those of the seven sages. It must be candidly confessed, however, that little, if anything, is known with certainty respecting the life of the fabulist, and what we have thus detailed of him appears to rest on little more than mere tradition, and the life which Planudes, a monk of the fourteenth century, is supposed to have given to the world; a piece of biography possessing jew intrinsic claims to our belief. Hence some writers have doubted whether such an individual as AEsop ever existed. (Compare Wisconti, Iconografia Greca, vol. 1, p. 154, where the common opinion is advocated.) But, whatever we may think on this head, one point at least is certain, that none of the fables which at present go under the name of Æsop were ever written by him. They appear to have been preserved for a long time in oral tradition, and only collected and reduced to writing at a comparatively late period. Plato (Phaedon.—Op. pt. 2, vol. 3, p. 9, ed. Bekker) informs us, that Socrates amused himself in prison, towards the close of his life, with versifying some of shese sables. (Compare Pluto de Aud. Poet., p. 16, c., and Wyttenbach, ad loc.) His example found numerous imitators. A collection of the fables of Æsop, as they were called, was also made by Demetrius Phalereus (Diog. Laert., 5, 80), and another, between 150 and 50 B.C., by a certain Babrius. (Compare Tyrwhiti, Dissert. de Babrio, Lond, 1776, 8vo) The former of these was probably in prose; the latter was in choliambic verse (rid. Babrius). But the bad taste of the grammarians, in a subsequent age, destroyed the metrical form of the fables of Babrius, and reduced them to prose. To them we owe the loss of a large portion of this collection. Various collections of Æsopian fables have reached our times, among which six have attained to a certain degree of celebrity. Of these the most ancient is not older than the thirteenth century; the author is unknown. It is called the collection of Florence, and contains one hundred and ninety-nine fables, together with a puerile life of the fabulist by Planudes, a Greek monk of the fourteenth century. The second collection was made by an unknown hand in the thirteenth or fourteenth century. The monk Planudes formed the third collection. The fourth, called the Heidelberg collection, together with the fifth and sixth, styled, the former the Augsburg collection, the latter that of the Vatican, are the work of anonymous compilers. These last three contain many of the fables of Babrius reduced to bad prose. Besides the collections which have just been enumerated, we possess one of a character totally distinct from the rest. It is a Greek translation, executed in the fifteenth century by Michael Andreopulus, from a Syriac original, which would appear itself to have been nothing more than a translation from the Greek, by a Persian named Syntifa. (Schöll, Hist. Litt. Gr, vol. 1, p. 253.)—As regards the question, whether the sables of the Arabian Lokman have served as a prototype for those of Æsop, or otherwise, it may be remarked, that, in the opinion of De Sacy (Biographic Unirersclle, vol. 24, p. 631, s. v. Lokman), the apologues of the Arabian fabulist are nothing more than

an imitation of some of those ascribed to AEsop, and that they in no respect bear the marks of an Arabian invention. (Compare the observations of Erpenius, in the preface to his edition of Lokman, 1615)—With respect to the person of Æsop, it has been generally supposed that the statement of Planudes, which makes him to have been exceedingly deformed, his head of a conical shape, his belly protuberant, his limbs distorted, &c., was unworthy of credit. Visconti, however, supports the assertions of Planudes in this particular, from the remains of ancient sculpture. (Iconografia Greca, vol. 1, p. 155.)—The best editions of Æsop are the following: that of Heusinger, Lips., 1741, 8vo; that of Ernesti, Lips., 1781, 8vo; that of Coray, Paris, 1810, 8vo; and that of De Furia, Lips., 1810, 8vo.—II. An eminent Roman tragedian, and the most formidable rival of the celebrated Roscius, though in a different line. Hence Quintilian (11, 3) remarks, “Roscius citatior, Æsopus gravior fuit, quod ille coma duas, hic traga dias egut.” His surname was Clodius, probably from his being a freedman of the Clodian or Claudian family. He is supposed to have been born in the first half of the seventh century of Rome, since Cicero, in a letter written A.U.C. 699 (Ep. ad Fum., 7, 1), speaks of him as advanced in years. Some idea of the energy with which he acted his parts on the stage may be formed from the anecdote related by Plutarch (Vat. Cic, 5), who informs us, that on one occasion, as AEsopus was performing the part of Atreus, at the moment when he is meditating vengeance, he gave so violent a blow with his sceptre to a slave who approached, as to strike him lifeless to the earth. A circumstance mentioned by Valerius Maximus (8, 10, 2), shows with what care AEsopus and Roscius studied the characters which they repre sented on the stage. Whenever a cause of any im portance was to be tried, and an orator of any emi nence was to plead therein, these two actors were accustomed to mix with the spectators, and carefully observe the movements of the speakers as well as the expression of their countenances. A sopus, like Ros cius, lived in great intimacy with Cicero, as may be seen in various passages in the correspondence of the latter. He appeared for the last time in public on the day when the theatre of Pompey was dedicated, A.U.C. 699, but his physical powers were unequal to the effort, and his voice failed him at the very beginning of an adjuration, “Si sciens fallo.” (Cic., Ep. ad Fam., 7, 1.) He amassed a very large fortune, which his son squandered in a career of the most ridiculous extravagance... It is this son of whom Horace (Sat., 2, 3, 239) relates, that he dissolved a costly pearl in vinegar, and drank it off. Compare the statement of Pliny (9, 59).-III. An engraver, most probably of Sigoum. The time when he lived is uncertain. In connexion with some brother-artist, he made a large cup, with a stand and strainer, dedicated by Phanodicus, son of Hermocrates, in the Prytaneum at Sigeum. (Consult the remarks of Hermann, uber Bockh's Behandlung der Griech. Inschrist., p. 216– 219.)—IV. Wid. Supplement. AEstil, a nation of Germany, dwelling along the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea. Hence the origin of their name, from the Teutonic Est, “east,” as indicating a community dwelling in the castern part of Germany. (Compare the English Esser, i. e., AEstseasia.) They carried on a traffic in amber, which was found in great abundance along their shores. This circumstance alone would lead us to place them in a part of modern Prussia, in the country probably beyond Dantzic. Tacitus calls their position “the right side of the Suevic” or Baltic “Sea.” It is incorrect to assign them to modern Esthonia. Either this last is a general name for any country lying to the east, or else the Esthians of Esthonia came originally from what is now Prussia. The AEstii worshipped, according to Tacitus, the mother of the gods, Hertha, and the symbol of her worship was a wild boar. Now, as this animal was sacred to Freya, the Scandinavian Venus, and as Freya is often confounded with Frigga, the mother of the gods in the Scandinavian mythology, Tacitus evidently fell into a similar error, and misunderstood his informers. (Tacit., M. G., 45.—Pinkerton, Diss. on Scythians, &c., p. 168.)" AEst; L.A., a town of Latium, the site of which remains undiscovered. Horace (Od, 3, 29, 6) speaks of it in the same line with Tibur, whence it is naturally supposed to have stood in the vicinity of that place. Pliny (3, 5) enumerates ABsula among the Latin towns, which no longer existed in his time. Velleius Paterculus (1, 14) calls the place Æsulum, and reckons it among the colonies of Rome. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, . 66.) p AEsyśtes, a Trojan prince, supposed by some to have been the parent of Antenor and Ucalegon, while others make him to have been descended from a more ancient Ucalegon, who had married Ilios, the daughter of Laomedon. Homer (Il., 13,427) mentions Alcathous as the son of Æsyetes, and the son-in-law of Anchises, who had given him his eldest daughter Hippodamia in marriage. (Heyne, ad Il., 2, 793.) The tomb of Æsyetes is alluded to by Homer (Il., 2, 793), and is said by Strabo (599) to have been five stadia distant from Troy, and on the road leading to Alexandrea Troas. It afforded a very convenient post of observation in the Trojan war. Dr. Clarke gives the following account of it (Travels, &c., vol. 3, p. 92, seqq., Eng. ed ): “Coming opposite to the bay, which has been considered as the naval station used by the Greeks during the Trojan war, and which is situate on the eastern side of the embouchure of the Mender, the eye of the spectator is attracted by an object predominating over every other, and admirably adapted, by the singularity of its form, as well as by the peculiarity of its situation, to overlook that station, together with the whole of the low coast near the mouth of the river. This object is a conical mound, rising from a line of elevated territory behind the bay and the mouth of the river. It has, therefore, been pointed out as the tomb of Æsyetes, and is now called Udjek Tepe. If we had never heard or read a single syllable concerning the war of Troy, or the works of Homer, it would have been impossible not to notice the remarkable appearance presented by this tumulus, so peculiarly placed as a post of observation commanding all approach to the harbour and river.”. In another part (p. 19s), the same intelligent traveller observes: “The tumulus of AEsyetes is, of all others, the spot most remarkably adapted for viewing the Plain of Troy, and it is visible in almost all parts of Troas. From its top may be traced the course of the Scamander; the whole chain of Ida, stretching towards Lectum; the snowy heights of Gargarus, and all the shores of the Hellespont near the mouth of the river, with Sigueum, and the other tumuli upon the coast.” Bryant endeavours to show, that what the Greeks regarded as the tombs of princes and warriors, were not so in reality, but were, for the most part, connected with old religious rites and customs, and used for religious purposes. (Mythology, vol. 2, p. 167, seqq.) Lechevalier, however, successfully refutes this. AF's von Notes. Wid. Supplement. Aorti Ali A. vid. Ilva. A. rh Molines, a son of Mercury, and herald of the Argonauts, who obtained from his father the privilege of being among the dead and the living at stated times. Hence he was called étopiluspoo kopuš, from his spending one day in Hades, and the next upon earth, alternately. It is said also that his soul underwent various transmigrations, and that he appeared successively as Euphorbus, son of Panthūs, Pyrus the Cretan, an Elean whose name is not known, and Pythagoras. (Schol.

Æther (Aldog), a personified idea of the mythical cosmogonies. (Wid. Supplement.) AETuices, a Thessalian tribe of uncertain but ancient origin, since they are mentioned by Homer (Il., 2,744), who states that the Centaurs, expelled by Pirithous from Mount Pelion, withdrew to the Æthices. Strabo (327 and 434) says, that they inhabited the Thessalian side of Pindus, near the sources of the Peneus, but that their possession of the latter was disputed by the Tymphoei, who were contiguous to them on the Epirotic side of the mountain. Marsyas, a writer cited by Stephanus Byzantinus (s. v. Altusia), described the AEthices as a most daring race of barbarians, whose sole object was robbery and plunder. Lycophron (r. 802) calls Polysperchon Attikov spouoc. Scarcely any trace of this people remained in the time of Strabo. Aothicus. Wid. Supplement. .i. thiopia, an extensive country of Africa, to the south of Egypt, lying along the Sinus Arabicus and Mare Erythraeum, and extending also far inland. An idea of its actual limits will best be formed from a view of the gradual progress of Grecian discovery in relation to this region. Althiops (Albiop) was the expression used by the Greeks for everything which had contracted a dark or swarthy colour from exposure to the heat of the sun (alto, “to burn,” and Čop, “the visage”). The term was applied also to men of a dark complexion, and the early Greeks named all of such a colour AEthiopes, and their country AEthiopia, wherever situated. It is more than probable that the Greeks obtained their knowledge of the existence of such a race of men from the Phoenicians and Egyptians, and that this knowledge, founded originally on mere report, was subsequently confirmed by actual inspection, when the Greek colonists along the shores of Asia Minor, in their commercal intercourse with Sidon and Egypt, beheid there the caravans which had come in from Southern Africa. Homer makes express mention of the AEthiopians in many parts of his poems, and speaks of two divisions of them, the Eastern and Western. The explanation given by Eustathius and other Greek writers respecting these two classes of men, as described by the poet, cannot be the true one. They make the Nile to have been the dividing line (Eustath., p. 1386, ad Hom, Od., 1, 23); but this is too refined for Homer's geographical acquaintance with the interior of Africa. By the Eastern AEthiopians he means merely the imbrowned natives of Southern Arabia, who brought their wares to Sidon, and who were believed to dwell in the immediate vicinity of the rising sun. The Egyptians were acquainted with another dark-coloured nation, the Libyans. These, although the poet carefully distinguishes their country from that of the AEthiopians (Od, 4, 84), still become, in opposition to the Eastern, the poet's Western Alothiopians, the more especially as it remained unknown how far the latter extended to the west and south. This idea, originating thus in early antiquity, respecting the existence of two distinct classes of darkcoloured men, gained new strength at a later period. In the immense army of Xerxes were to be seen men of a swarthy complexion from the Persian provinces in the vicinity of India, and others again, of similar visage, from the countries lying to the south of Egypt. With the exception of colour, they had nothing in common with each other. Their language, manners, physical make, armour, &c., were entirely different. Notwithstanding this, however, they were both regarded as AEthiopians. (Compare Herodotus, 7, 69, seqq., and 3, 94, seqq) The AEthiopians of the farther east disappeared gradually from remembrance, while a more intimate intercourse with Egypt brought the AEthiopians of Africa more frequently into view, and it is to these, therefore, that we now turn our attention—f thiopia, according to Herodotus, includes the countries above Egypt, the present Nubia and Abyssinia. Immediately above Syene and Elephantine, * writer (2,29), the Ethiopian races begin. As far as the town and island of Tachompso, seventy or eighty miles above Syene, these are mixed with Egyptians, and higher up dwell AEthiopians alone. The 4thiopians he distinguishes into the inhabitants of Meroe and the Macrobii, *In Strabo (800) and Pliny (6,29) we find other tribes and towns referred to, but the most careful division is that by Agatharchides, whose work on the Red Sea is unfor. tunately lost, with the exception of some fragments. Agatharchides divides them according to their way of life. Some carried on agriculture, cultivating the millet; others were herdsmen ; while some lived by the chase and on vegetables, and others, again, along the sea-shore, on fish and marine animals. The rude tribes who lived on the coast and fed on fish are called by Agatharchides the Ichthyophagi. Along both banks of the Astaboras dwelt another nation, who lived on the roots of reeds growing in the neighbouring swamps : these roots they cut to pieces with stones, formed them into a tenacious mass, and dried them in the sun. Close to these dwelt the Hylophagi, who lived on the fruits of trees, vegetables growing in the valleys, &c. To the west of these were the hunting nations, who sed on wild beasts, which they killed with the arrow. There were also other tribes, who lived on the flesh of the elephant and the ostrich, the Elephantophagi and Struthophagi. Besides these, he mentions another and less populous tribe, who fed on locusts, which came in swarms from the southern and unknown districts. (Agathurch, de Rubr. Mar.-Geograph. Gr. Min., ed. Hudson, vol. 1, p. 37, seqq.) The accuracy with which Agatharchides has pointed out the situation of these tribes, does not occasion much difficulty in assimilating them to the modern inhabitants of Æthiopia. According to him, they dwelt along the banks of the Astabo. ras, which separated them from Meroë this river is the Atbar, or, as it is also called, the Tacazze : they must, consequently, have dwelt in the present Shangalla. The mode of life with these people has not in the least varied for 2000 years; although cultivated nations are situate around them, they have made no rogress in improvement themselves. Their land being unsavourable both to agriculture and the rearing of cattle, they are compelled to remain mere hunters. Most of the different tribes mentioned by Agatharchides subsist in a similar manner. The Dobenahs, the most powerful tribe among the Shangallas, still live on the elephant and the rhinoceros. The Baasa, in the plains of Sire, yet eat the flesh of the lion, the wild hog, and even serpents: and farther to the west dwells a tribe, who subsist in the summer on the locust, and at other seasons on the crocodile, hippopotamus, and fish. Diodorus Siculus (3,28) remanks, that almost all these people die of verminous diseases produced by this food; and Bruce (Travels, 3d ed., vol. 5, p. 83) makes the same observation with respect to the Waito, on the Lake Damhea, who live on crocodiles and other Nile animals. Besides these inhabitants of the plains, AEthiopia was peopled by a more powerful, and somewhat more civilized, shepherd-nation, who dwelt in the caves of the neighbouring mountains, namely, the Troglodyta. A chain of high mountains runs along the African shore of the Arabian Gulf, which in Egypt are composed of granite, marble, and alabaster, but farther south of a softer kind of stone. At the foot of the gulf these mountains turn inward, and bound the southern portion of Abyssinia. This chain was, in the most ancient times, inhabited by these Troglodyta, in the holes and grottoes formed by nature but enlarged by human labour. These people were not hunters; they were herdsmen, and had their chiefs or princes of the race. Remains of the Troglodyta still exist in the Shipo, Hazorta, &c., mentioned by Bruce (vol. 4, p. 266). A still more celebrated AEthiopian nation, and one which has been particularly described to us by Herodotus (3, 17, seqq.), was the Macrobii, for an account of

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respecting the trade of Æthiopia —The early and curious belief respecting the AEthiopian race, that they stood highest in the favour of the gods, and that the deities of Olympus, at stated seasons, enjoyed among them the festive hospitality of the banquet, would seem to have arisen from the peculiar relation in which Meroe stood to the adjacent countries as the parent city of civilization and religion. Piety and rectitude were the first virtues with a nation whose dominion was founded on religion and commerce, not on oppression. The active imagination, however, of the early Greeks, gave a different turn to this feature in the Lihiopian character, and, losing sight of the true cause, or, perhaps, never having been acquainted with it, they supposed that a race of men, who could endure such intense heat as they were thought to encounter, must be a nobler order of beings than the human family in general; and that they who dwelt so near the rising and setting of the orb of day, could not but be in closer union than the rest of their species with the inhabitants of the skies. (Compare Mannert, 10, 103.)--The AEthiopians were intimately connected with the Egyptians in the early ages of their monarchy, and Æthiopian princes, and whole dynasties, occupied the throne of the Pharaohs at various times, even to a late period before the Persian conquest. The AEthiopians had the same religion, the same sacerdotal order, the same hieroglyphic writing, the same rites of sepulture and ceremonies as the Egyptians. Religious pomps and processions were celebrated in common between the two nations. The images of the gods were at certain times conveyed up the Nile, from their Egyptian temples to others in AEthiopia; and, after the conclusion of a festival, were brought back again into Egypt. (Diod. Sic., 1, 33.-Eustath., ad Îl., 1,423.) The ruins of temples found of late in the countries above Egypt (rud. Meroe), and which are quite in the Egyptian style, confirm these accounts; they were, doubtless, the temples of the ancient AEthiopians. It is nowhere asserted that the AEthiopians and Egyptians used the same language, but this seems to be implied, and is extremely probable. We learn from Diodorus, that the AEthiopians claimed the first invention of the arts and philosophy of Egypt, and even pretended to have planted the first colonies in Egypt, soon after that country had emerged from the waters of the Nile, or rather of the Mediterranean, by which it was traditionally reported to have been covered. The AEthiopians, in later times, had political relations with the Ptolemies, and Diodorus saw ambassadors of this nation in Egypt in the time of Caesar, or Augustus. An Aothiopian queen, named Candace, made a treaty with Augustus, and a princess of the same name is mentioned by St. Luke in the Acts of the Apostles. How far the dominion of the AEthiopian princes extended is unknown, but they probably had at one period possessions on the coast of the Red Sea, and relations with Arabia. After this we find no farther mention of the ancient AEthiopian empire. Other names occur in the countries intervening between Egypt and Abyssinia; and when the term AEthiopian is again met with in a later age, it is found to have been transferred to the princes and people of Habesh. Such is the history of Æthiopia among the profane writers. By the Hebrews the same people are mentioned frequently under the name of Cush, which by the Septuagint translators is always rendered Althotrec, or AEthiopians. The Hebrew term is, however, applied sometimes to nations dwelling on the eastern shore of the Red Sea, and hence a degree of ambiguity respecting its meaning in some instances. This subject has been amply discussed by Bochart and Michaelis. Among the Hebrews of later times, the term Cush clearly belongs to

the Æthiopians. The AEthiopians, who were connected with the Egyptians by affinity and intimate political relations, are by the later Hebrew historians termed Cush. Thus Tizhakah, the Cushite invader of Judah, is evidently Tearchon the AEthiopian leader mectioned by Strabo, and the same who is termed Tarakos, and is set down by Manetho, in the wellknown tables of dynasties, as an AEthiopian king of Egypt. In the earlier ages the term Cush belonged apparently to the same nation or race; though it would appear that the Cush or Æthiopians of those times occupied both sides of the Red Sea. The Cush mentioned by Moses are pointed out by him to be a nation of kindred origin with the Egyptians. In the Toldoth Beni Noach, or Archives of the sons of Noah, which Michaelis (Spicileg. Geogr. Hebr. Ext.) has proved to contain a digest of the historical and geographical knowledge of the ancient world, it is said, that the Cush and the Misraim were brothers, which means, as it is

enerally allowed, nations nearly allied by kindred. t is very probable, that the first people who settled in Arabia were Cushite nations, who were afterward exfo or succeeded by the Beni Yoktan or true Arabs. n the enumeration of the descendants of Cush in the Toldoth Bchi Noach, several tribes or settlements are mentioned in Arabia, as Saba and Havila. When the author afterward proceeds to the descendants of Yoktan, the very same places are enumerated among their settlements. That the Cush had in remote times possessions in Asia, is evident from the history of Nimrod, a Cushite chieftain, who is said to have possessed several cities of the Assyrians, among which was Babel, or Babylon, in Shinar. Long after their departure the name of the Cush remained behind them on the coast of the Red Sea. It is probable that the name of Cush continued to be given to tribes which had succeeded the genuine Cushites in the possession of their ancient territories in Arabia, after the whole of that people had passed into Africa, just as the English are termed Britons, and the Dutch race of modern times Belgians. In this way it happened, that people, remote in race from the family of Ham, are yet named Cush, as the Midianites, who were descended from Abraham. The daughter of Jethro, the Midianite, is termed a Cushite woman. Even in this instance, the correspondence of Cush and Æthiopia has been preserved. We find the word rendered Æthiopissa by the Septuagint translators, and in the verses of Ezekiel, the Jewish Hellenistic poet, Jethro is placed in Africa, and his people are termed Ethiopians. On the whole, it may be considered as clearly established, that the C. are the genuine AEthiopian race, and hat the country of the Cush is generally in Scripture that part of Africa which lies above Egypt. In support of these positions may be cited, not only the authority of the Septuagint, and the writers already mentioned, but the concurring testimony of the Vulgate, and all other ancient versions, with that of Philo, Josephus, Eupolemus, and all the Jewish commentators and Christian fathers. There is only one writer of antiquity on the other side, and he was probably misled by the facts which we have already considered. This single dissentient is the writer of Jonathan's Targum, and on this authority the learned Bochart, supported by soune doubtful passages, maintains that the land of Cush was situated on the eastern side of the Arabian Gulf. It has been satisfactorily shown, however, by the authors of the Universal History, and by Michaelis, that many of these passages require a different version, and prove that the land of Cush was Æthiopia. (Prichard's Physical History of Man, 2d ed., vol. 1, p. 289, seqq.)—As regards the physical character of the ancient AExhiopians, it may be remarked, that the Greeks commonly used the term AEthiopian nearly as we use that of negro : they constantly spoke of the AEthiopians, as we speak ; the negroes, as if they were the blackest

people known in the world. “To wash the AEthiopian white,” was a proverbial expression applied to a hopeless attempt. It may be thought that the term AEthiopian was perhaps used vaguely, to signify all or many African nations of dark colour, and that the genuine AEthiopians may not have been quite so black as others. But it must be observed, that though other black nations may be called by that name when taken in a wider sense, this can only have happened in constquence of their resemblance to those from whom the term originated. It is improbable that the AEthiopians were destitute of a particular character, the possession. of which was the very reason why other nations participated in their name, and came to be confounded with them. And the most accurate writers, as Strabo, for example, apply the term AEthiopian in the same way. Strabo, in the 15th book (686), cites the opinion of Theodectes, who attributed to the vicinity of the sun the black colour and woolly hair of the AEthiopians. Herodotus expressly affirms (7,70), that the AEthiopians of the west, that is, of Africa, have the most wooll hair of all nations: in this respect, he says, they dif. fered from the Indians and Eastern AEthiopians, who were likewise black, but had straight hair. Moreover, the Hebrews, who, in consequence of their intercourse with Egypt under the Pharaohs, could not fail to know the proper application of the national term Cush, seem to have had a proverbial expression similar to that of the Greeks, “Can the Cush change his colour, or the leopard his spots " (Jeremiah, 13, 23.) his is sufficient to prove, that the AEthiopian was the darkest race of people known to the Greeks, and, in earlier times, to the Hebrews. The only way of avoiding the inference, that the AEthiopians were genuine negroes, must be by the supposition, that the ancients, among whom the foregoing expressions were current, were not acquainted with any people exactly resembling the people of Guinea, and therefore applied the terms woolly-haired, flat-nosed, &c., to nations who had these characters in a much less degree than those people whom we now term negroes. It seems possible, that the people termed Æthiopians by the Greeks, and Cush by the Hebrew writers, may either of them have been of the race of the Shangalla, Shilluk, or other negro tribes, who now inhabit the countries bordering on the Nile, to the southward of Sennaar; or they may have been the ancestors of the present Nouba or Barabra, or of people resembling them in description. The chief obstacle to our adopting the supposition that these AEthiopians were of the Shangalla race, or of any stock resembling them, is the circumstance, that so near a connexion appears to have subsisted between the former and the Egyptians; and we know that the Egyptians were not genuine negroes. Perhaps, after all, however, we would be more correct in considering the Bedjas, and their descendants the Abadbé and Bisharein, as the posterity of the ancient AEthiopians. Both the Ababdé and Bisharein belong to the class of red, or "..."; people. The former are described by Belzoni (Travels, p. 310), and the latter by Burckhardt (Travels in Nubia.) AF'thlius. Wid. Supplement. A2th RA, daughter of Pittheus, king of Troezene, and mother of Theseus by AEgeus. (Wid. AEgeus) She was betrothed, in the first instance, to Bellerophon; but this individual being compelled to fly, in consequence of having accidentally killed his brother, Æthra remained under her father's roof. When Ægeus came to consult Pittheus respecting an obscure oracle which the former had received from the Delphic shrine, Pittheus managed to intoxicate him, and give him the company of his daughter. From this intercourse sprang Theseus. 8: AEgeus.) AEthra was afterward taken captive by Castor and Pollux, when these two came in quest of Helen, whom Theseus had carried off, and made themselves masters of Athens. so, accompa

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