Obrazy na stronie

nf the chieftain Viriathus.

(Cic, Off, 2, 11.) He lepylus (it is uncertain which), and a fountain near it

was afterward elected into the college of augurs, B.C. |Ariakia. Such was the state of things, according to

1 18, and defeated before the comitia the proposition of L. Crassus, to deprive the senate of the power of electing the members of the augural college, and to transfer this right to the people. Cicero (N.D., 3, 43) calls the speech which he delivered on this occasion “orattuncula aureola.” Bribery and intrigue frustrated for some time his applications for the consulship, notwithstanding the efforts of Scipio in his behalf, until B.C. 140, when his merit triumphed over every obstacle. He was consul with C Servilius Caepio, and conducted himself in this high office with a moderation well calculated to conciliate all minds. Still, however, he could not obtain a re-election, a circumstance to which Cicero alludes, who blames the people for depriving themselves of the services of so wise a magistrate. (Cic, Tusc., 5, 19.) Laolius lived a country life, and, when there, divided his time between study and agriculture. He appears to have been of a cheerful and equable temper, and to have looked with philosophic calmness on both the favours and the frowns of fortune. Hence Horace (Serm., 2, 1, 72) alludes to the “mitis sapientia Lalii.” He numbered among his friends Pacuvius and Terence, and it was thought that, in conjunction with Scipio, he aided Terence in the composition of his dramas. (But consult the article Terentius.) The friendship that subsisted between Laelius and Scipio was celebrated throughout Rome, and it was this which induced Cicero to place the name of the former at the head of his beautiful dialogue “De Amicitia,” the interlocutors in which are Laelius and his two sons-inlaw, C. Fannius and Q. Mutius Scavola. Quintilian mentions a daughter of Laolius who was celebrated for her eloquence. (Quint., 1, 1, 6.) LAERTEs, I. king of Ithaca and father of Ulysses. He was one of the Argonauts. He ceded the crown to his son and retired to the country, where he spent his time in the cultivation of the earth. Ulysses found him thus employed on his return, enfeebled by age and sorrow. (Wid. Ulysses.)—II. A town and harbour of Cilicia, on the confines of Pamphylia, and west of Selinus. Strabo makes it to have been a fortified post on a hill, with a harbour below (669). It was the birthplace of Diogenes Laertius. (Vid. Diogenes III.) LAERTius, Diogenes, a Greek writer. (Vid. Diogenes III.) LAEstrygöNes, a gigantic and androphagous race, mentioned by Homer in his description of the wanderings of Ulysses. The country of the Laestrygones, according to the poet, lay very far to the west, since Ulysses, when driven from the island of Æolus, sailed on farther for six days and nights, at the end of which time he reached the land of the Laestrygonians. Many expounders of mythology, therefore, place the Laestrygones in Sicily. But for this there is no good reason whatever, since Homer makes this race and that of the Cyclopes to dwell at a wide distance from each other. Equally fabulous is the account given by some of the ancient writers, that a colony of Laestrygones passed over into Italy with Lamus at their head, and built the city of Formiae. When once the respective situations of Circe's island and that of Æolus were thought to have been ascertained, it became no very difficult matter to advance a step farther, and, as the Laestrygones lay, according to Homer, between these two islands, to make Formiae on the Italian coast a city of that people. Formiae was, however, in truth, of Pelasgic origin, and seems to have owed a large portion of its prosperity to a Spartan colony. The name appears to come from the Greek "Oputaí, and to have denoted a good harbour. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 4, p. 11, seqq.)--Unlike the Cyclopes, the Laestrygones lived in the social state. Their king was named Antiphates, their town was called Læstrygonia or Te

Homer, when Ulysses came to this quarter in the course of his wanderings. There was a port at a little distance from the city, which all the ships of Ulysses, but the one in which he himself was, entered. A herald, with two other persons, was then sent to the city. They met the daughter of Antiphates at the fountain Artakia, and were by her directed to her father's house. On entering it they were terrified at the sight of his wife, who was “as large as the top of a mountain.” She instantly called her husband from the market-place, who seized one of them, and killed and dressed him for dinner. The other two made their escape, pursued by the Laestrygones, who with huge rocks destroyed all the ships and their crews which were within the harbour, the vessel of Ulysses, which had not entered, alone escaping. (Hom, Od., 10, 81, seqq) LA:toria LEx, I. ordered that the plebeian magistrates should be elected at the Comitia Tributa: passed A.U.C. 292.—II. Another, passed A.U.C. 497, against the defrauding of minors. By this law the years of minority were limited to twenty-five, and no one below that age could make a legal bargain. (Heinecc., Ant. Rom., ed. Haubold, p. 197, seq) LAEviNUs, I. P. Valerius, was consul A.U.C. 472, B.C. 280, and was charged with the conduct of the war against Pyrrhus and the Tarentines. The rapidity of his advance into Southern Italy induced Pyrrhus to offer him terms of accommodation, and to propose himself as an umpire between the Tarentines and Romans. Laevinus made answer to the monarch's envoy, that the Romans neither wished his master for an arbitrator, nor feared him as an enemy. A bloody battle ensued near Heraclea, which Pyrrhus eventually gained by means of his elephants, these monstrous animals having never before been encountered by the Romans. This was the action aster which Pyrrhus exclaimed, that another such victory would prove his ruin. Lavinus, not disheartened by his ill success, sent to Rome for fresh levies, and, having received two legions, set out in pursuit of Pyrrhus, who was advancing against Rome, and by a forced march saved Capua from falling into his hands. (Wid. Pyrrhus.)—II. M. Valerius, of a consular family, obtained the praetorship A.U.C. 540, B.C. 214, and commanded a fleet stationed near Brundisium, in the Ionian Sea. Having heard of some warlike movement on the part of Philip, king of Macedonia, he advanced against that prince, gained various successes over him, and, detaching the AFtolians from his side, concluded a treaty with them, which gave the Romans their first firm foothold in Greece. In A.U.C. 544, B.C. 210, he was elected consul, though absent, and obtained the government of Italy, which he exchanged with his colleague M. Marcellus, at the instance of the senate, for that of Sicily. Before setting out for his government, he distinguished himself at Rome by his patriotic conduct. There being a scarcity of money in the public treasury, and a supply of rowers being required for the fleet, it was proposed that private persons should, as on former occasions, in proportion to their fortunes and stations, supply rowers with pay and subsistence for thirty days. This measure exciting much murmuring and ill will among the people, and a sedition being apprehended, Lavinus recommended to the senate that the rich should first set an example, and contribute to the common fund all their superfluous wealth. The scheme was received with the warmest approbation; and, so great was the ardour on the part of the rich to bring in their gold and silver to the treasury, that the commissioners were not able to receive, nor the clerks to enter, the contributions. (Livy, 26, 36.) As soon as Laevinus reached Sicily he began

the siege of Agrigentum, the only important city which

still held out for the Carthaginians. Its reduction brought with it the submission of the whole of Sicily to the Roman arms. Having been continued in command for another year, he collected all his naval forces, made a descent on the coast of Africa, and, encountering on his return the Carthaginian fleet, gained a splendid naval victory. He was asterward deputed to visit the court of Attalus, king of Pergamus, and obtain the statue of Cybele. (Wid. Cybele.) In A.U.C. 553, B.C. 201, Laevinus was sent as propraetor to Macedonia, against King Philip ; but he died the following year. His sons Publius and Marcus celebrated funeral games in honour of their father, which were continued for the space of four days. (Liv., 24, 10, seqq.—Id., 24, 40, seqq.—Id., 26, 40, seqq.—Id., 29, 11.-Id., 31, 3.-Id, 31, 50.)—III. P. Valerius, a descendant of the preceding, despised at Rome for his vices. (Horat., Serm., 1, 6, 12.—Schol., ad loc.) LAgus, a Macedonian, father of Ptolemy I., of Egypt (Consult remarks at the beginning of the article Ptolemaeus I.) LAGUs A, I. an island in the Sinus Glaucus, near the northern coast of Lycia, now Panagia di Cordialissa, or, according to some, Christiana-II. or Lagussa, an island, or, more properly, a cluster of islands off the coast of Troas, to the north of Tenedos, now Taochan Adasi. (Plin, 5, 31.—Bischaff und Möller, Wörterb, der Geogr., p. 676.) LAixDEs, a patronymic of CEdipus, son of Laius. (Ovid, Mct., 6, fab. 18.) LAIs, I. the most celebrated hetaerist of Greece. She was born at Hyccara in Sicily, and was made captive when her native city was taken by the Athenians, in the course of the expedition against Syracuse, and was conveyed to Athens. She was at this time seven years of age, and the property of a common soldier. Having been subsequently sold by her first owner, she was conveyed by her purchaser to Corinth, at that period the most dissolute city of Greece, where, after the lapse of a few years, she became one of those females who consecrated themselves in that city to the service of Venus. (Wid. Corinthus, towards the close of the article.) The fame of her extraordinary beauty drew together strangers from every part of Greece, while the extravagance of her demands gave rise to the well-known proverb, that “it was not for every one to go to Corinth.” (Oi Tavròg &vöpóc & Köpufföv Šaff & Tržoic. Erasm., Chil., col. 131. —“Non cuivis homini conting it adire Corinthum.” Horat., Epist., 1, 17, 36.) Pausanias speaks of a tomb of Lais at Corinth, near the temple of Venus Melanis, on which was placed a stone lioness, holding a ram with her front paws, an evident allusion to the unprincipled rapacity of the hetaerist. The same writer makes mention also of a tomb of Lais in Thessaly, whither, according to one account, she had gone, through attachment for a youth named Hippostratus; and the females of which country, dreading her evil influence, had assassinated her in the temple of Venus. —Numismatical writers refer to certain coins of ancient Corinth, which have on one side a lioness holding down a ram, and on the other a female head; and they think that these were struck in honour of Lais, the female head being intended as her portrait. (Consult Visconti, Iconogr. Gr., vol. 1, p. 411.) A full account of Lais is given by Bayle (Dict. Hist., s. v.). —II. Another hetarist, often confounded with the former, but who lived fifty or sixty years later. She was the daughter of a Corinthian hetarist attached to Alcibiades. It is to this latter Lais that we must refer the anecdote related of Demosthenes. (Consult l’Histoire de Lais, par B. Le Gouz de Gerland, Paris, 1756, 12mo. Some writers, refuted by Bayle, make this Lais to have been a daughter of Alcibiades. Others, misled by an equivocal expression of Paulmier de Grantemesnil (Palmerius–Exercitat., p. 268), have

taken her for the daughter of the first Lais; an error into which Brunck has also fallen (ad Aristoph. Plut. 179). LAius, a son of Labdacus, who succeeded to the throne of Thebes, which his grandfather Nycteus had left to the care of his brother, Lycus, till his grandson came of age. He was driven from his kingdom by Amphion and Zethus, who were incensed against Lycus for the cruelties which Antiope had suffered. (Wid. Antiope.) On the death of Amphion, Laius succeeded to the throne of Thebes, and married the daughter of Menoeceus, called by Homer Epicasta, by others Jocasta. An oracle, however, warned him against having children, declaring that he would meet his death from the hands of a son, and Laius, in consequence, long refrained from becoming a father. At length, having indulged too freely in wine on a festal occasion, he forgot his previous resolution, and Jocasta brought forth a son. The child, as soon as born, was delivered by the sather to his herdsman, to expose on Mount Cithaeron. The herdsman, moved by compassion, gave the babe, according to one account (Soph., GEd. T., 1038), to a neatherd belonging to Polybus, king of Corinth; or, as others say (Eurip., Phoen., 28), the grooms of Polybus found the infant after it had been exposed, and brought it to the wife of Polybus, who, being childless, reared it as her own, and named it QEdipus, on account of its swollen feet (from oióéo, to swell, and Točg, a foot), for Laius, previous to the exposure of the child, had pierced its ancles with a thong. Many years afterward, Laius, being on his way to Delphi, to learn tidings respecting the child which he had caused to be exposed, whether it had perished or not, and being accompanied only by his herald Polyphontes, met in a narrow road in Phocis a young man also travelling in the direction of the oracle. This was CEdipus, who was anxious to ascertain his true parentage from the god. When the chariot of Laius overtook OEdipus, who was on foot, the driver ordered the young man to retire from the path, and make way for one of royal blood. On his refusal a contest ensued, in which CEdipus slew the herald and his own father, both the latter and his son bein ignorant of each other. The body of Laius was .# and honourably buried by Damasistratus, king of Platapa; and Creon, the son of Menoeceus, ascended the throne of Thebes. The account here given, which is from Euripides, differs in some respects from other versions of the legend. Sophocles makes GEdipus to have met his father aster having consulted the oracle. (Soph., OEd. T., 780, seqq.—Compare Apollod., 3, 5, 7.—Diod. Sic., 4, 64.—Eudoc., 3, 12.) LALAGE, I. a young female beloved by Horace. (Od., 1, 22, 23.)—II. A slave of Cynthia's. (Propert., 4, 7, 45.) LAMXchus, a son of Xenophanes, sent into Sicily with Nicias. He was killed B.C. 414, before Syracuse. Ilamachus is alluded to by Aristophanes in his play of the Acharnenses, and with some degree of ridicule. That he was a man of high courage, the compliments directly and indirectly paid to him by the same poet (Thesm., 841.-Acharn., 1073, et Voss, ad loc.), sufficiently indicate. From an important trust, also, that was reposed in him by Pericles (Plut., Wit. Pericl., c. 20), it should seem, that he was considered by that great statesman a man of talent as well as of courage. If the outward merits of Lamachus had imposed upon the penetration of Pericles, they had not on that of Aristophanes: he saw more froth than substance, more of show than solid worth, in the young soldier; a disposition for the distinctions and emoluments which are to be derived from soldiership, but no evidence of those high talents which constitute a really great captain. That the dramatist had formed a more correct estimate of the powers of Lamachus than the contemporary statesman, the * small figure which he afterward made in history suffi. ciently proves. (Mitchell, ad Aristoph., Acharn., 510.) Law brus or LAMBER, a river of Cisalpine Gaul, issuing from the Eupilis Lacus, and falling into the Olona, one of the tributaries of the Po. It is now the Lambro or Lamhrone. (Plin., 3, 19.) LAMA, a city of Thessaly situate inland from the head waters of the Sinus Maliacus, and, according to Strabo (433), about thirty stadia from the Sperchius. It is celebrated in history as the principal scene of the war which was carried on between the Macedonians under Antipater, and the Athenians, with other confederate Greeks, commanded by Leosthenes; from which circumstance it is generally known by the name of the Lamiac war. Antipater, having been defeated in the first instance, retired to Lamia, where he was besieged by the allies; but he afterward contrived to escape from this place, and retire to the north of Thessaly. Soon aster, with the assistance of the army of Craterus, brought for that purpose from Asia, he gave battle to and defeated his opponents at Cranon, and compelled them to sue for peace. This was granted them on severe terms. The Athenians were required to pay the same tribute as before, to receive a Macedonian garrison, defray the expenses of the war, and deliver up their orators, whose appeals to the feelings of the Athenian people had always occasioned so much difficulty for the Macedonians. Demosthenes and Hyperides were particularly aimed at. (Vid. Demosthenes and Hyperides.)—Livy reports (27, 30) that Philip, the son of Demetrius, twice defeated the AEtolians, supported by Attalus and some Roman troops, near this place. Antiochus was afterward received there with acclamations. (Livy, 35, 43.) The place was subsequently retaken by the Romans. (Liv, 37, 5–Polyb., Excerpt., 20, 11, seqq.—Pliny, 4, 7.) According to Dr. Holland (vol. 2, p. 107), there is very little doubt that the site of Zeitoun corresponds with that of the ancient Lamia. —II. AElius, a Roman of distinguished family, claiming descent from Lamus, the most ancient monarch of the Laestrygones. He signalized himself in the war with the Cantabri as one of the lieutenants of Augustus. (Horat., Od., 3, 17.)—III. The mistress of §. trius Poliorcetes, who rendered herself celebrated by her extravagances, her intrigues, and her ascendancy over that prince. (Plut., Wit. Demetr.—AElian, V. H., 1, 13.) LAMLE, fabulous monsters, commonly represented with the head and breast of a female, and the body of a serpent. According to some, they changed their forms at pleasure, and, when about to ensnare their prey, assumed such appearances as were most seductive and calculated to please. The blood of young persons was believed to possess peculiar attractions for them, and for the purpose of quaffing this they were wont to take the form of a beautiful female. The Lania possessed also another means of accomplishing their object. This was a species of hissing sound emitted by them, so soothing and attractive in its nature, that persons found themselves irresistibly allured by it. . When not in disguise, and when they had sated their horrid appetites, their form was hideous, their visages glowed like fire, their bodies were besmeared with blood, and their feet appeared of iron or of lead. Sometimes they showed themselves completely blind, at other times they had a single eye, either in the forehead or on one side of the visage. The popular belief made them frequent Africa and Thessaly, in both of which countries they watched along the main roads, and seized upon unwary travellers.— The fable of Queen Lamia has some analogy to this fiction, and both, in all probability, owe their origin to one and the same source. Lamia, according to Diodorus Siculus and other ancient authorities, was a queen of Africa, remarkable for beauty, who, on ac

count of her cruel disposition, was eventually transformed into a wild beast. Having lost, it seems, her own children by the hand of death, she sought to console her sorrow by seizing the children of her subjects from their mothers' arms, and causing them to be slain. Hence the transformation inflicted upon her by the gods. (Diod. Sic., 20, 41.—Compare Schol. ad Aristoph., Pac., 757.-Casaub, ad Strub., 36.Wesseling, ad Diod, l.c.) The Lamiae figured extensively in the nursery-legends of antiquity, and their names and attributes were standing objects of terror to the young. (Diod., l.c.—Compare Horat., Ep. ad Pis., 340.-Vid. Lemures.) LAMPEdo, I, a Lacedæmonian female, wise of Archidamus II., king of Sparta, and mother of Agis. She was celebrated as being the daughter, wife, sister, and mother of a king—II. A queen of the Amazons. (Justin, 2, 4.) LAMPETIA, I. a daughter of Helios (the Sun-god) and Neara. She, with her sister Phaëthusa, took care of the flocks and herds of her father, in the island of Thrinakia. There were seven flocks of sheep and as many herds of oxen, fifty animals in each flock and herd. They neither bred nor died. Ulysses, in the course of his wanderings, came to this island, which both Tiresias and Circe had strictly charged him to shun. On discovering that it was Thrinakia, the hero was desirous of obeying the injunctions he had received ; but as it was evening when he arrived, his companions forced him to consent to their landing, and passing the night there. They promised to depart in the morning, and took an oath to abstain from the cattle of the sun. During the night a violent storm came on, and for an entire month afterward a strong southeast wind blew, which confined them to the island. When their provisions were exhausted, they lived on such birds and fish as they could catch. At length, while Ulysses was sleeping, Eurylochus prevailed on the rest to slaughter some of the sacred oxen in sacrifice to the gods, and to vow, by way of amends, a temple to Helios. Ulysses, on awakening, was filled with horror at what they had done; and the displeasure of the gods was soon manifested by prodigies; for the hides crept along the ground, and the flesh lowed on the spits. Still they fed for six days on the sacred cattle; on the seventh the storm lulled, and they left the island; but, as soon as they had lost sight of land, a terrible west wind, accompanied by thunder, lightning, and pitchy darkness, came on. Jupiter struck the ship with a thunderbolt: it went to pieces, and all were drowned except Ulysses. (Od, 12, 260, seqq.)—II. or Lampetie, one of the Heliades, or sisters of Phaëthon. (Ovid, Met., 2, 349.) LAM pridius, AELius, a Latin historian, who flourished in the early part of the fourth century, under Dioclesian and Constantine the Great. Of his works there are extant the lives of the emperors Antoninus, Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, Pertinax, Albinus, Macrinus, &c. The life of Alexander Severus, which, according to the Palatine manuscript, is the work of Spartianus, has been by some authorities ascribed to him. The lives are to be found in the collection of the “Historiae Augusta. Scriptores,” 2 vols. 8vo, 1671. Some critics consider Lampridius as identical with Spartianus. (Consult Voss, de Hist. Lat., 2, 7– Fabric., Bibl. Lat., 3, p. 93, note a. Sarii Onomast., vol. 1, p. 38.) The style and management of Lampridius will not allow him a place o: ans of a superior class, yet he is valuable for his facts. (Bähr, Gesch. Röm. Lit, vol. 1, p. 341.) LAMPsicus, a city of Mysia in Asia Minor, situate on the Hellespont, where it begins to open into the Propontis, and northeast of Abydos. The early name of the spot where Lampsacus stood was Pityus from the number of pinc-trees which grew there (Tírvo, a pine-tree). A Phocaean colony is said to have founded this city and given it its name, being directed by the oracle to settle wherever they saw lightning first. This took place in the district Pityusa, and hence the name of the city, from Aduro, to shine forth. (Mela, 1, 19.-Etym. Mag.—Holsten, ad Steph. Byz., p. 508.) Strabo calls Lampsacus a Milesian colony: very probably it was only enlarged by a colony from Miletus. (Strab., 588.-Mannert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 3, p. 518.) Another account, however, makes the city to have existed prior to the arrival of the Phocasans, and merely the name to have been changed by them. They aided, according to this version of the story, a king of the Bebryces, named Mandro, against the neighbouring barbarians, and were persuaded by him to occupy a part of his territory. Their successes in war, however, and the spoils they had obtained, excited the envy of the Bebrycians, and the Phocaeans would have been secretly destroyed, had not Lampsace, the king's daughter, apprized them of the plot. Out of gratitude to her, they called the city Lampsacus, having destroyed the former inhabitants. (Polyan, 8, 37.—Steph. Byz., s. v.). The neighbouring country was termed Abarnis or Abarnus, because Wenus, who here was delivered of Priapus, was so disgusted with his appearance, that she disowned him (ätmpveiro) for her offspring. (Steph. Byz., s. v. 'A6apvoc. —Holstenius, ad Steph. Byz., l.c.) Priapus was the chief deity of the place. His temple there was the asylum of lewdness and debauchery; and hence the epithet Lampsacius is used to express immodesty and wantonness. Alexander resolved to destroy the city on account of the vices of its inhabitants, or more probably for its firm adherence to the interest of Persia. It was, however, saved from ruin by the artifice of Anaximenes. (Wid. Anaximenes.) The name of Lamsaki is still attached to a small town, near which Lampsacus probably stood, as Lamsaki itself contains no remains or vestiges of antiquity. A modern traveller assures us besides, that “its wine, once so celebrated, is now among the worst that is made in this part of Anatolia.” (Sibthorpe, in Walpole's Collection, vol. 1, p. 91.) LiMus, I. a sabled king of the Laestrygones, said to have founded Formiae. (Vid. Lastrygones.) The Lamian family at Rome pretended to claim descent from him. (Horat, Od., 3, 17.)—II. A son of Hercules and Omphale, fabled to have succeeded his mother on the throne of Lydia–III. A river in the western part of Cilicia Campestris, now the Lamas. It gave to the adjacent district the name of Lamotis. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 338.) LANcíA, the name of two towns in Lusitania, distinguished by the appellations of Oppidana and Transcudana. The first was on the frontiers of the Ilusitani, near the sources of the river Munda or Mondego. It is now La Guarda. The latter lay to the east of the former, and is now Ciudad Rodrigo. It was called Transcudana, because it lay beyond the Cuda. (Bischoff und Möller, Worterb, der Geogr., p. 679.) LANgobardi, a people of Germany, located by most writers on the Albis or Elbe, and the Viadrus or Oder, in part of what is now called Brandenburg. According to the account, however, of Paulus Diaconus, himself one of this nation, they originally came from Scandinavia, under the name of Wilini, and were called by the German nations Long Beards, from their appearance. (Paul Diac., sive Warnefrid, de Gest. Longob, 1, 9.) The German term Lang Baerdt, Latinized, became Langobardi. They seem to have settled on the Elbe, probably in the eastern part of the duchy of Lunenburg. They are the same with the Lombards who overran Italy in a later age. (Mannert, Anc. Geogr., vol. 3, p. 179.-Leo, Entwickelung der Werf. der Lombardischen Städte, Hamburg, 1824, 8vo.) LANuvium, a town of Latium, about sixteen miles from Rome, situate, according to Strabo, to the right

of the Appian Way, and on a hill commanding an extensive prospect towards Antium and the sea. There is no very early mention of Lanuvium in Roman history; but the title of “urbs fidelissima,” given to it by Livy (6, 21), indicates that it very soon sought the protection of the rising city. It is noticed, however, previous to this period, as the place to which M. Wolscius Fictor, whose false testimony had caused the banishment of Caeso Quinctius, retired into exile. (Liv., 3, 29.) Lanuvium did not always remain attached to Rome, but took part in the Latin wars with the neighbouring cities against that power. The confederates were, however, routed near the river Astura, not far from Antium (Liv., 8, 13); and this defeat was soon followed by the subjugation of the whole of Latium. Lanuvium seems to have been treated with more moderation than the other Latin towns; for, instead of being punished, the inhabitants were made Roman citizens, and their privileges and sacred rights were preserved, on condition that the temple and worship of Juno Sospita, which were held in great veneration in their city, should be common to the Romans also. (Liv., 8, 14.) It then became a municipium ; and it remained ever aster faithful to the Romans, particularly in the second Punic war, as we learn from Livy (26, 8) and Silius Italicus (8, 361; 13, 364).Lanuvium and its district had the honour of giving birth to several distinguished characters in the annals of Rome. Milo, the antagonist of Clodius, was a native of this place, and was on his way thither to create a priest, probably of Juno, in virtue of his office of dictator of the city, when he met Clodius on the Appian Way, and the rencounter took place which ended in the death of the latter. (Cic., pro Mil., c. 10.) The famous comedian Roscius was likewise born near Lanuvium. (Cic., de Div., 1, 36. —Id., N. D., 1, 28.] We learn also from Jul. Capitolinus and Æl. Lampridius, that the three Antonines were born here —The ruins of Lanuvium still bear the name of Civita Lavi nia, or Città della Vigna. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol 2, p. 27, seqq.) LAocöo N, a son of Priam and Hecuba, or, according to others, of Antenor, and a priest of Apollo during the Trojan war. While offering, in the exercise of his sarcedotal functions, a bullock to render Neptune propitious to the Trojans, two enormous serpents issued srom the sea, and, having first destroyed his two sons, whom he vainly endeavoured to save, attacked Laocoon himself, and, winding themselves round his body, crushed him to death in their solds. This dreadful punishment was inflicted by the goddess Minerva, for the part Laocoon had taken in endeavouring to dissuade the Trojans from admitting into Troy the famous, and, as it asterward proved to them, fatal wooden horse, which the crafty Greeks had con secrated to Minerva. (Virgil, AEneid, 2, 40, seqq.) Virgil, in speaking of Laocoon, employs the words “ductus Neptuno sorte sarcedos” (AEn., 2, 201). This merely means, as above stated, that, although a priest of Apollo, he had been chosen by lot to propitiate Neptune with a sacrifice. (Heyne, ad loc.)—An enduring celebrity has been gained for the story of Laocoon, from its forming the subject of one of the most remarkable groups in sculpture which time has spared to us. It represents the agonized father and his youthful sons, one on each side of him, writhing and expiring in the complicated folds of the serpents. The figures are naked, the drapery that is introduced being only used to support and fill up the composition. This superb work of art, which Pliny describes inaccurately as consisting of only a single block of marble (sor, in spite of this mistake, there seems to be no doubt, in the opinion of the learned, that this is the identical group alluded to by that writer), originally decorated the baths of Titus, among the ruins of which it was found in the year 1506. The * of the sculptors who executed it are also recorded. They are Agesander, Polydorus, and Athenodorus, natives

[ocr errors]

ter-model of Michael Angelo, who was charged with the task of adding a marble arm, but left the one

of Rhodes. Pliny (36, 5) says, “Laocoon, which is in which he had destined for this object unfinished, in a fit

the palace (domo) of the Emperor Titus, is a work to of despair.

be preferred to all others either in painting or sculpture. Those great artists, Agesander, and Polydorus, and Athenodorus, Rhodians, executed the principal figure (cum), and the sons, and the wondersul solds of the serpents, out of one block of marble.”—There has been much difference of opinion among antiquaries on several points connected with this group : first, as to the date of the artists; Winckelmann contending that they are of a good period of Grecian art, and as early as Lysippus. A considerably later date, however, is now attributed to them. The next question discussed has been, whether the sculptor was indebted for the subject to Virgil's fine description (AEm., 2, 200, seqq.), or whether the poet was indebted to the artist. With respect to date, the most careful consideration seems to fix these sculptors as late as the early emperors; and Lessing, whose work on the Laocoon deserves the attention of all who take an interest in the philosophy and capabilities of art, believes they lived in the reign of Titus. With regard to the subject, it is most probable that the story, being well known, offered advantages for illustration to the sculptor, as it did for description to the poet. As Virgil's riest was habited in his robes during the exercise of is priestly functions, and the group under consideration is entirely naked, the argument is additionally strengthened against the assumption that the artist borrowed from the poet. It is more natural to believe that each drew from a common source, and treated the subject in the way best adapted to the different arts they exercised; the sculptor's object being concentration of effect, the poet's amplification and brilliant description.—This group is justly considered, by all competent judges, to be a master-piece of art. It combines, in its i. all that sculpture requires, and, we may say, admits of, and may truly be studied as a canon. The subject is of the most affecting and interesting kind ; and the expression in every part cf the figures reaches, but does not exceed, the limits of propriety. Intense mental suffering is portrayed in the countenances, while the physical strength of all the three figures is evidently sinking under the irresistible power of the huge reptiles wreathed around their exhausted limbs. One son, in whose side a serpent has fixed his deadly fangs, seems to be sainting; the other, not yet bitten, tries (and the futility of the attempt is faithfully shown) to disengage one foot from the serpent's embrace. The father, Laocoon, himself, is mighty in his sufferings: every muscle is in extreme action, and his hands and feet are convulsed with painful energy. Yet there is nothing frightful, disgusting, or contrary to beauty in the countenance. Suffering is faithfully and strongly depicted there, but it is rather the exhibition of mental anguish than of the repulsive and undignified contortions of mere physical pain. The whole of this figure displays the most intimate knowledge of anatomy and of outward form; the latter selected with care, and freed from any vulgarity of common individual nature: indeed, the single figure of Laocoon may be fairly referred to, as one of the finest specimens existing of that combination of truth and beauty, which is so essential to the production of |. sculpture, and which can alone ensure for it asting admiration. The youths are of a smaller standard than the proportion of the father; a liberty hardly justifiable, but taken, probably, with the view of heightening the effect of the principal figure. The right arm of Laocoon is a restoration, but so ably done, though only in plaster, that the deficiency is said to be scarcely a blemish. It is not certain what modern artist has the merit of this restoration, though it is thought that the arm it now bears was the plas

Some antiquarians have thought that the original action of the arm was not extended, but that this limb was bent back towards the head; and they have supported their hypothesis by the fact of there being a rough and broken surface where they think the hand, or perhaps a sold of the serpent, may have come in contact with the hair. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 13, p. 323, seq.-Heyne, Antiq. Auff, vol. 2, p. 34, seqq.—Winckelmann, Werke., vol. 6, p. 101, seqq.Id., vol. 5, p. 105.—Id., vol. 7, p. 189.-Id., vol. 5, p. 250–Lessing, Laocoon, $ 5, p. 76, &c.) Laodamia, I. a daughter of Acastus and Astydamia, and wife of Protesilaus. (Vid. Protesilaus.) When she received intelligence of the death of her husband in the Trojan war, she caused an image of him to be formed, which she would never allow to be out of her sight. Her father ordered the image to be burned, that her thoughts might be diverted from her loss; but Laodamia threw herself into the flames, and perished along with it. Thence probably the tradition adopted by some poets, that the gods restored life to Protesilaus for three hours, and that this hero, finding the decree irreversible, by which he was to return to the shades below, prevailed on Laodamia to accompany him thither. She was also called Phylacéa. (Virg., AEm., 6,447–Ovid, Her, 13.—Hygin, fab., 104.)—II. A daughter of Bellerophon by Achemone, the daughter of King Iobates. She had a son by Jupiter, called Sarpedon. (Vid. Sarpedon.) Laodice, I. a daughter of Priam and Hecuba, became enamoured of Acamas, son of Theseus, when he came with Diomedes from the Greeks to Troy with an embassy to demand the restoration of Helen, and had by him a son named Munitus. She afterward married Telephus, and, on his desertion of her at the time he abandoned the Trojan cause, she became the wife of Helicaon, the son of Antenor. The rest of her story is variously related. Some make her, after the capture of Troy, to have thown herself from the summit of a rocky ravine when pursued by the Greeks; others, to have been swallowed up by the earth in accordance with her own prayer; and others again, to have been recognised by Acamas, when Troy was taken, and to have returned with him to Greece. (Tzetz, ad Lycophr., 314,495.)—II. One of the three daughters of Agamemnon, called also Electra. (Wid. Electra.)—III. The wife of Antiochus, one of Philip's officers, and mother of Seleucus Nicator. (Consult Justin, 15, 4.)—IV. The sister and wife of Antiochus Theos, by whom she became the mother of Seleucus Callinicus and Antiochus Hierax. (Justin, 27, 9.)—V. A daughter of Mithradates, king of Pontus. She married Antiochus the Great, king of Syria. —VI. The sister and wife of Mithradates Eupator. (Consult Justin, 37, 8.)—VII. Wife of Ariarathes W., king of Cappadocia. (Vid. Ariarathes W.) Laodicës, I. a city of Phrygia, in the southwestern angle of the country. It was situate on the river Lycus (hence called Aaodiketa Širi Atoko, Laodicea ad Lycum), and stood on the borders of Phrygia, Caria, and Lydia. Its situation coincides exactly with that of Cydrara mentioned by Herodotus (7, 30.-Wid. Cydrara). Pliny, however (5, 29), makes its early name to have been Diospolis, changed subsequently to Rhoas. It contained three boundary stones, as being on the borders of three provinces, and hence is commonly called by the ecclesiastical writers Trimetaria. Its name of Laodicea was given to it by Antiochus Theos, in honour of his wife Laodice. He reestablished it. (Steph. Byz., s. v.) Under the Romans it became a very flourishing commercial city. It is supposed to have been destroyed during the inroad of Timur Leng, A.D. 1402. (Ducas, p. 42,

« PoprzedniaDalej »