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der the greatest diversity of forms.--It was the habit of the Greeks to appropriate particular plants and animals to the service of their deities. There was generally some reason for this, sounded on physical or moral grounds, or on both. Nothing could be more natural than to assign the oak (onyóg, quercus asculus), the monarch of trees, to the celestial king, whose ancient oracle, moreover, was in the oak-woods of Dodona. In like manner, the eagle was evidently the bird best suited to his service. The celebrated AEgis, the shield which sent forth thunder, lightning, and darkness, and struck terror into mortal hearts, was formed for Jupiter by Vulcan. In Homer we see it sometimes borne by Apollo (Il., 15, 508) and sometimes by Minerva (Il., 5, 738.-Od., 22, 297)—The most famous temple of Jupiter was at Olympia in Elis, where, every fourth year, the Olympic Games were celebrated in his honour; he had also a splendid fame in the island of Ægina. But, though there were few deities less honoured with temples and statues, all the inhabitants of Hellas conspired in the duty of doing homage to the sovereign of the gods. His great oracle was at Dodona, where, even in the Pelasgian period, the Selli announced his will and the secrets of futurity. (Il., 16, 233.)—Jupiter was represented by artists as the model of dignity and majesty of mien; his countenance grave but mild. He is seated on a throne, and grasping his sceptre and thunder. The eagle is standing beside the throne.—An inquiry, of which the object should be to select and unite all the parts of the Greek mythology that have reserence to natural phenomena and the changes of the seasons, although it has never been regularly undertaken, would doubtless show, that the earliest religion of the Greeks was founded on the same notions as the chief part of the religions of the Fast, particularly of that part of the East which was nearest to Greece, namely, Asia Minor. The Greek mind, however, even in this the earliest of its productions, appears richer and more various in its forms, and, at the same time, to take a loftier and wider range, than is the case in the religion of the Oriental neighbours of the Greeks, the Phrygians, Lydians, and Syrians. In the religion of these nations, the combination and contrast of two beings (Baal and Astarte), the one male, representing the productive, and the other female, representing the passive and nutritive powers cf Nature; and the alternation of two states, namely, the strength and vigour, and the weakness and death, of the male personification of Nature, the first of which was celebrated with vehement joy, the latter with excessive lamentation, recur in a perpetual cycle, that must have wearied and stupified the mind. The Grecian worship of Nature, on the other hand, in all the various forms which it assumed in different quarters, places one Deity, as the highest of all, at the head of the entire system, the God of heaven and light, the Father Æther of the Latin poets. That this is the true meaning of the name Zeus (Jupiter) is shown by the occur. rence of the same root (DIU), with the same signification, even in the Sanscrit, and by the preservation of several of its derivatives, which remained in common use both in Greek and Latin, all containing the notion of Heaven and Day. The root DIU is most clearly seen in the oblique cases of Zeus, Atrás, Atfi, in which the U has passed into the consonant form F (Digamma); whereas in Zetic, as in other Greek words, the sound DI has passed into Z, and the vowel has been lengthened. In the Latin Joris (Iuce in Umbrian) the D has been lost before I, which, however, is preserved in many other derivatives of the same root, as, dies, dium.—With this god of the heavens, who dwells in the pure expanse of ether, is associated, though not as a being of the same rank, a goddess worshipped under the name of Hera or Juno. The marriage of Zeus with this divinity was regarded as a joins. and typified the union of heaven and earth in the ser

tilizing rains. Besides this goddess, other beings are associated on one side with the Supreme God, who are personifications of certain of his energies; powersul deities, who carry the influence of light over the carth, and destroy the opposing powers of darkness and confusion: such as Minerva, born from the head of her father, in the height of the heavens; and Apollo, the pure and shining god of a worship belonging to other races, but who, even in his original sorin, was a god of light. On the other side are deities allied with the earth, and dwelling in her dark recesses; and as all life appears not only to spring siom the earth, but to return to that whence it sprung, these deities are, for the most part, also connected with death; as Hermes or Mercury, who brings up the treasures of fruitfulness from the depth of the earth, and the child, now lost and now recovered by her mother Ceres, Proserpina (Cora) the goddess both of flourishing and of decaying nature. It was natural to expect that the element of water (Neptune or Poseidon) should also be introduced into this assemblage of the personified powers of Nature, and should be peculiarly combined with the goddess of the Earth: and that fire (Vulcan or Hephæstus) should be represented as a powerful principle, derived from heaven and having dominion on the earth, and be closely allied with the goddess who sprang from the head of the god of the heavens. Other deities are less important and necessary parts of this same system, as Venus (Aphrodite), whose worship was evidently, for the most part, propagated over Greece from Cyprus and Cythera, by the influence of Syrophoenician tribes. As a singular being, however, in the assembly of the Greek divinities, stands the changeable god of flourishing, decaying, and renovated Nature, ão. or Dionysus, whose alternate joys and sufferings, and marvellous adventures, show a strong resemblance to the form which religious notions assumed in Asia Minor. Introduced by the Thracians (a tribe which spread from the north of Greece into the interior of the country), and not, like the gods of Olympus, recognised by all the races of the Greeks, Bacchus always remained to a certain degree estranged from the rest of the gods, although his attributes had evidently most affinity with those of Ceres and Proserpina. But in this isolated position Bacchus exercises an important influence on the spirit of the Greek nation, and both in sculpture and poetry gave rise to a class of feelings, which agree in displaying more powerful emotions of the mind, a holder slight of the imagination, and more acute sensations of pain and pleasure, than were exhibited on occasions where this influence did not operate. In like manner, the Homeric Poems (which instruct us not merely by their direct statements, but also by their indirect allusions; not only by what they say, but also by what they do not say), when attentively considered, clearly show how this ancient religion of nature sank into the shade as compared with the salient and conspicuous forms of the deities of the heroic age. The gods who dwell on Olympus scarcely appear at all in connexion with natural phenomena. Zeus chiefly exercises his power as a ruler and king; although he is still designated (by epithets doubtless of high antiquity) as the god of the ether and the storms; as in much later times the old picturesque expression was used, “What is Zeus doing?” for “What kind of weather is it?” In the Homeric conception of Minerva and Apollo, there is no trace of any reference of these deities to their earlier attributes. Vulcan also has passed, from the powerful god of fire in heaven and on earth, into a laborious smith and worker of metals, who performs his duty by making armour and weapons for the other gods and their favourite heroes. As to Mercury, there are some stories in which he is represented as givin fruitfulness to cattle, in his capacity of the rural g of Arcadia; from which, by means of various metamorphoses, he is transmuted into the messenger of Zeus and the servant of the gods. (Müller, Hist. Gr. Lit., p. 13, seqq.) Jura, a chain of mountains, which, extending from the Rhodanus or Rhone to the Rhenus or Rhine, separated Helvetia from the territory of the Sequani. The name is said to be in Celtic, Jourag, and to signify the domain of God or Jupiter. The most elevated parts of the chain are the Dole, 5082 feet above the level of the sea; the Mont Tendre, 5170; and the Reculet (the summit of the Thoiry), 5196. (Plin., 3, 4.—Caes., B. C., 1, 2.—Ptol., 2, 9.) JustiNtANUs, Flavius, born near Sardica in Moesia, A.D. 482 or 483, of obscure parents, was nephew by his mother's side to Justinus, afterward emperor. The elevation of his uncle to the imperial throne, A.D. 518, decided the fortune of Justinian, who, having been educated at Constantinople, had given proofs of considerable capacity and application. Justinus was ignorant and old, and the advice and exertions of his nephew were of great service to him during the nine years of his reign. He adopted Justinian as his colleague, and at length, a few months before his death, feeling that his end was approaching, he crowned him in presence of the patriarch and senators, and made over the imperial authority to him, in April, 527. Justinian was then in his 45th year, and he reigned above 38 years, till November, 565, when he died. His long reign forms a remarkable epoch in the history of the world. Although himself unwarlike, yet, by means of his able generals, Belisarius and Narses, he completely defeated the Vandals and the Goths, and reunited Italy and Africa to the empire. Justinian was the last emperor of Constantinople, who, by his dominion over the whole of Italy, reunited in some measure the two principal portions of the ancient empire of the Caesars. On the side of the East, his arms repelled the inroads of Chosroes, and conquered Colchis; and the Negus, or king of Abyssinia, entered into an alliance with him. On the Danubian frontier, the Gepidae, Lango. bardi, Bulgarians, and other hordes, were either kept in check or repulsed. The wars of his reign are related by Procopius and Agathias.—Justinian must be viewed also as an administrator and legislator of his vast empire. In the first capacity he did some good and much harm. He was both profuse and penurious; personally inclined to justice, he osten overlooked, through weakness, the injustice of subalterns; he established monopolies of certain branches of industry and commerce, and increased the taxes. But he introduced the rearing of silkworms into Europe, and the numerous edifices which he raised (vid. Isidorus IV.), and the towns which he repaired or sortified, attest his love for the arts, and his anxiety for the security and welfare of his dominions. Procopius (“De a dificiis Domini Justiniani") gives a notice of the towns, churches (St. Sophia among the rest), convents, bridges, roads, walls, and fortifications constructed or repaired during his reign. The same Procopius, however, wrote a secret history ('Avékóora) of the court and reign of Justinian, and his wife Theodora, both of whom he paints in the darkest colours. Theodora, indeed, was an unprincipled woman, with some abilities, who exercised, till her death in 548, a great influence over the mind of Justinian, and many acts of opression and cruelty were committed by her orders. }. yet the Anecdota of Procopius cannot be implicitly trusted, as many of his charges are evidently misrepresentations or malignant exaggerations.—Justinian was easy of access, patient of hearing, courteous and affable in discourse, and perfect master of his temper. In the conspiracies against his authority and person, he often showed both justice and clemency. He excelled in the private virtues of chastity and temperance; his meals were short and frugal; on solemn fast he contented himself with water and vege

tables, and he frequently passed two days and as many nights without tasting any food. He allowed himself little time for sleep, and was always up before the morning light. His restless application to business and to study, as well as the extent of his learning, have been attested even by his enemies ('Avékóota, c. 8, 13). He was, or professed to be, a poet and philosopher, a lawyer and theologian, a musician and architect; but the brightest ornament of his reign is the compilation of Roman law, which has immortalized his name, and an accouut of which will be found under the article Tribonianus. Unfortunately, his love of theological controversy led him to intersere with the consciences of his subjects, and his penal enactments against Jews and heretics display a spirit of mischievous intolerance which has ever since afforded a dangerous authority for religious persecution.—Justinian died at 83 years of age, on the 14th of November, 565, leaving no children. He was succeeded by his nephew Justinus IV. (Ludewig, Vita Justiniani Magni. —Gibbon, Decline and Fall, c. 40, seqq.)—II. The second of the name, was son of Constantine III., and lineal descendant of the Emperor Heraclius. He succeeded his father on the throne of Constantinople, A.D. 685, but his reign, which lasted ten years, was marked chiefly by wars with the Saracens, and by the exactions and oppressions of his ministers. At last, his general Leontius drove him from the throne, and, having caused his nose to be cut off, banished him to the Crimea, A.D. 695. Leontius, however, was soon after deposed himself, and banished by Tiberius Apsimerus, who reigned for seven years. Meantime Justinian had escaped from the Crimea and married the daughter of the Kakan, or King of the Gazari, a tribe of Turks; and he afterward, with the assistance of the Bulgarians, entered Constantinople, and put to a cruel death both Leontius and Tiberius, along with many others. He ordered, also, many of the principal people of Ravenna to be put to death. At last Justinian was dethroned and killed by Philippus Bardanes, A.D. 711. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 13, p. 166.) w. JustiNUs, I. M. JUNIANus, or, as he is named in some manuscripts, M. Justinus Frontinus, a Latin historian, generally supposed to have flourished in the age of the Antonines. The chief reason for assigning him to this period is the dedication of his work, addressed to Marcus Aurelius. Many critics, however, regard the line in the manuscripts which expresses this dedication as an addition by some ignorant copyist, who had confounded this writer with Justinus the Martyr. Nothing is known of the particulars of Justin's life. He made an epitome of, or, rather, a selection of extracts from, the historical work of Trogus Pompeius. This epitome is entitled, “Historiarum Philippicarum et totius mundi originum, et terra situs, ex Trogo Pompeio excerptarum libri XLIV, a Nino ad Caesarem. Augustum.” In making his extracts, Justin gave the preference to those facts and those passages which he considered peculiarly interesting. (Compare his own words : “Omissis his quae nec cognoscendi voluptate jucunda, nec exemplo erant necessaria.”) Other events are only mentioned briefly, and by way of transition. Chronology is entirely neglected in the work of Justin, as in the greater part of the ancient writers. Justin is deficient in judgment and sagacity. His style is correct, simple, and elegant, but unequal; it is far preferable, however, to that of Florus. The best editions are, that of Gronovius, L. Bat., 1719, 8vo; of Hearne, Oxon., 1705, 8vo; of Fischer, Lips., 1757, 8vo; and of Wetzel, Leign., 1817, 8vo. —The value of Justin's history chiefly depends on the circumstance of Trogus's work having been compiled from some of the best of the ancient historical writers, such as Theopompus, Herodotus, Ctesias, Hieronymus of Cardia, Timaeus, Phylarchus, Polybius, Posidonius, &c. (Compare Gatterer, vom o des Tro

gus, &c.—Hist. Bibl., vol. 3, p. 118.-Borhek, Mag

zin fur Erklärung, d. Gr. u, R., vol. 1, p. 180– Koch, Proleg. ad Theopomp. Chium., Lips., 1804, p. 13.—Heyne, de Trogi Pompeii ejusque epitomatoris Justini fontibus, &c., Comment. Soc. Reg. Gotting., vol. 15, p. 183, seqq.) In order that the student may be better enabled to appreciate the extent of Trogus's labours, we will now proceed to sketch an outline of his work, as far as it has been determined by the researches of modern scholars. Book 1. History of the Assyrian, Median, and Persian empires, down to the reign of Darius, son of Hystaspes. Book2. Digression respecting the Scythians, Amazons, and Athenians; the kings of Athens; the legislation of Solon, the tyr. anny of the Pisistratidae, the expulsion of this family, and the war with Persia which ensued, the battle of Marathon, the history of Xerxes and of his contests with the Greeks. Book 3. The accession of Artaxerxes. Digression respecting the Lacedæmonians, the legislation of Lycurgus, and the first Messenian war. Commencement of the Peloponnesian war. Book 4. Continuation of the Peloponnesian war, expedition to Sicily. Digression respecting Sicily. Book 5. Close of the Peloponnesian war. The thirty tyrants, and their expulsion by Thrasybulus. The expedition of the younger Cyrus, and the retreat of the Ten Thousand. Book 6. The expeditions of Dercyllidas and Agesilaus into Asia. The Theban war. The peace of Antalcidas. The exploits of Epaminondas. É. of Macedon begins to interfere in the affairs of Greece. —In these first six books, which are to be regarded as a kind of introduction to the history of the Macedonian Empire, the true object of Trogus, his principal guide was Theopompus. He has also occasionally availed himself of the aid of Herodotus and Ctesias, and even of that of the mythographers.-Book 7. Digression respecting the condition of Macedonia anterior to the reign of Philip. Book 8. History of Philip and of the Sacred War. Book 9. End of the history of Philip. Book 10. Continuation and end of the Persian history, under Artaxerxes Mnemon, Ochus, and Darius Codomanus.-In these four books Trogus appears to have merely translated Theopompus.-Book 11. History of Alexander the Great, from his accession to the throne until the death of Darius. Book 12. Occurrences in Greece during the absence of Alexander: expeditions of this prince into Hyrcania and India. His death. –In these two books, no fact would appear to have been stated that is not also contained in other works which have reached us.-Books 13, 14, 15. History of the wars between the generals of Alexander the Great, down to the death of Cassander. Book 16. Continuation of the history of Macedonia to the accession of Lysimachus.-This part of Justin's history is so imperfect, that we find it impossible to divine the sources whence Trogus derived his materials. It has been supposed, however, that the digressions on Cyrene (13, 7) and Heraclea (16, 4) are obtained from Theopompus, and that the episode on India (15, 4) is from Megasthenes. Book 17. History of Lysimachus. Digression respecting Epirus before the time of Pyrrhus.-As Justin shows himself, in this book, very partial towards Seleucus, and the reverse towards Lysimachus, it has been conjectured that Hieronymus of Cardia was the guide of Trogus in this part of the original work.-Book 18. Wars of Pyrrhus in Italy and Sicily. Digression respecting the ancient history of Carthage. Book 19. Wars of the Carthaginians in Sicily. Book 20. Dionysius of Syracuse transfers the theatre of the war to Magna Graecia. Digression respecting Metapontum. Book 21. History of Dionysius the younger. Books 22 and 23. History of Agathocles.—These six books of Justin are very important; they embrace nearly all that we know respecting the Carthaginians before their collision with the Romans. The parts that relate to

Syracuse and Magna Graecia, Trogus appears to have taken from Theopompus, and, by way of supplement, from Timaeus: this latter, for example, seems to have furnished the materials for the history of Agathocles. —Book 24. Continuation of the history of Macedonia. Invasion of the Gauls under Brennus. Book 25. Antigonus Gonatas, king of Macedonia. Establishment of the Gauls in Bithynia. Book 26. Continuation of the history of Macedonia. Book 27, Seleucus, king of Syria. Book 28. Continuation of the history of Macedonia to the accession of Philip. Book 29. War of Philip with the Romans.—In these six books Phylarchus has been the principal authority of Trogus.Book 30. Continuation of the Macedonian war. Alliance of the AEtolians with Antiochus the Great. Book 31. Hannibal prevails on Antiochus to make war against the Romans. War in Syria. Book 32. Death of Philopoemen. War of the Romans with Perseus. Death of Hannibal. Book 33. Fall of the Macedonian empire. Book 34. Achaean war. Continuation of the history of Syria. Book 35. Demetrius I. and II., kings of Syria—These six books are taken from Poybius. Book 36. Continuation of the history of the kings of Syria. Digression respecting the Jews. The kingdom of Pergamus becomes a Roman province. Book 37. History of Mithradates the Great. Book 38. Continuation of the history of Mithradates. Ptolemy Physcon, king of Egypt. Continuation of the history of Demetrius, king of Syria. Book 39. Continuation of the history of Syria and Egypt. Book 40. End of the kingdom of Syria. Book 41. History of the Parthians. Book 42. Continuation of the history of the Parthians. History of Armenia.-On comparing the contents of these six books with the fragments of Posidonius of Rhodes that have been preserved by Athenaeus, it would appear that this historian has here been the guide of Trogus. Posidonius, who was a friend of Trogus's, had published a history of the period that had intervened between the destruction of Corinth and the fall of the kingdom of Syria. It was a large work in fifty-two books. The digression respecting the Jews is full of confusion : it is well known what erroneous ideas were prevalent concerning this people in the time of Augustus, and even at the period when Tacitus wrote; but one is surprised to find that Justin was not able to rectify the mistakes of his original.—Book 43. Earlier history of Rome and Massilia. In the latter part of this book Diocles the Peparethian furnished the materials. Book 44. History of Spain, derived most probably from Posidonius, —Such appear to have been, in general, the authorities followed by Trogus, and, consequently, by his abbreviator Justin. (Schöll, Hist. Lat. Rom., vol. 3, p. 139, seqq.—Bähr, Gesch. der Röm. Lit., p. 299, seqq.)— II. Surnamed the Martyr, one of the earliest and most learned writers of the Christian church. He was the son of Priscus, a Greek by nation, and was born at Flavia Neapolis, anciently called Sichem, a city of Samaria in Palestine, towards the close of the first century. He was educated in the pagan religion, and, aster studying in Egypt, became a Platonist, until, in the year 132, he was led, by the instructions of a zealous and able Christian, to embrace the religion of the Gospel. He subsequently went to Rome in the beginning of the reign of Antoninus Pius, and drew up his first apology for Christianity at a time when the Christians were suffering rather from popular fury than from the bearing upon them of the regular authority of the state, and it prevailed so far as to obtain for them some favourable concessions from the emperor. He was also equally zealous in opposing alleged heretics, and particularly Marcion, against whom he wrote and published a book. He not long after visited the East, and at Ephesus had a conference with Tryphon, a learned Jew, to prove that Jesus was the Messiah, an account of which conference he gives us in

his “Dialogue with Tryphon.” On his return to Rome discontent, moreover, prevailed in the capital and provhe had frequent disputes with Crescens, a Cyn- inces, owing to the malversations of the governors and ic philosopher, in consequence of whose calumnies Inagistrates, and Justin himself, deprived by infirmity he published his second apology, which seems to have of the use of his feet, and confined to the palace, was been presented to the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, A.D. not able to repress abuses and infuse vigour into the 162. It produced so little effect, that when Crescens administration. Feeling at last his impotence, he preferred against him a formal charge of impiety for chose Tiberius, the captain of the guards, as his sucneglecting the pagan rites, he was condemned to be cessor, A.D. 578. The choice was a good one, and scourged and then beheaded, which sentence was put the conduct of Tiberius fully justified Justin's discerninto execution A.D. 164, in the seventy-fourth or sev- ment. Justin lived four years after his abdication, in enty-fifth year of his age. It was eminently as a mar- quiet retirement, and died in the year 578. (Encycl. tyr or witness that Justin suffered; for he might have Us. Knowl., vol. 13, p. 166.) saved his life had he consented to join in a sacrifice Jutes, an old Teutonic or Scandinavian tribe, which, to the heathen deities. Hence with his name has de- in the fifth century of our era, appear to have been setscended the addition of “The Martyr,” a distinction ted in the northern part of the Chersonesus Cimbrica, which, in a later age, was given to Peter, one of the which is still called, after their name, Jutland. ManProtestant sufferers for the truth. Justin Martyr is |ner thinks that they were a colony from the opposite spoken of in high terms of praise by the ancient Chris- coast of Scandinavia, of the same race as the Guthi tian writers, and was certainly a zealous and able ad- or Guta mentioned by Ptolemy. The first Germanic vocate of Christianity, but mixed up its doctrines with invaders of Britain, after the departure of the Romans, too much of his early Platonism. He was the first were Jutes, who, under their leaders Hengist and Horfather of the church who, regarding philosophy and sa (A.D. 445), landed in the isle of Thanet, and settled revealed religion as having emanated from the same in Kent. The Saxons, under Ella, came A. D. 477, source, wished to establish between them an intimate and the Angles did not come until the following cenunion. Justin was of opinion that Plato had derived tury. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 3, p. 288.) his doctrine, if not from the Sacred Writings of the Jutur NA, a water-nymph in the Italian mythology. Jews, at least from the works of others who were ac- | Her fountain was near the Numicius, and its waters, quainted with these writings, and hence he concluded owing to her name (from juro, “to assist”), were held that the system and the tenets of Plato could be easily to be very salubrious: the sick drank them (Varro, brought back to, and united with, the principles of L. L., 4, p. 21), and the Romans used them in their Christianity. All other systems of philosophy, how- sacrifices. A temple was built to Juturna in the ever, except the Platonic, he utterly rejected, and Campus Martius, and there was a festival named the more particularly that of the Cynics. Even in the Juturnalia. (Serp. ad Virg., 12, 139. — Orid, Fast, Platonic scheme he combated one point, which is in 1,464.) Virgil, as usual, Euhemerizing the old Italdirect opposition to revelation, the doctrine of the ian deities, makes Juturna the sister of Turnus. She eternal duration of the world. There are several was, he says, violated by Jupiter, and made by him, valuable editions of his works, the best of which are, in recompense, a goddess of the lakes and streams. that of Maran, Paris, 1742, fol., and that of Oberthür, (Æn., 12, 139.—Keightley's Mythology, p. 542.) Wurtzburgh, 1777, 3 vols. 8vo. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Juvenilis, Decius JUNius (or, according to some, Gr., vol. 5, p. 212.)—III. The first, also called the Decimus Junius), was a celebrated Roman satirist. “Elder,” an emperor of the East, born A. D. 450, of His birthplace, on no very sure grounds, is said to Thracian origin. He abandoned the employment of have been Aquinum, and he is supposed to have been a shepherd for the profession of arms, and, passing born somewhere about A.D. 40, under Caligula, and through the several military gradations, attained even- to have died turned of 80, under the Emperor Hadrian. tually to the highest dignities of the empire. On the But few particulars of his life are known, and for these death of Anastasius (A.D. 516) he held the command we are indebted to a short biographical sketch ascribed of the imperial guards, and was commissioned by to Suetonius. This notice, however, is found in so Amantius to distribute a sum of money among the corrupt a state in the MSS. as to have given rise to soldiers, in order to secure the elevation of one of the interpretations directly at variance with each other. creatures of the former. Justin did this, but in his Without stopping to inquire into the discussions which own name, and was in consequence himself proclaim- have thus been excited, we will proceed to lay before ed emperor. Justin was sixty-eight years of age the student the results at which the best and most rewhen he ascended the throne. Being himself unin- cent critics have arrived. Juvenal's birth was far from formed in civil affairs, he relied for the despatch of elevated. The author of his life doubts whether he the business of the state on the quaestor Proclus, a was the son or merely the foster-son of a rich freedman. faithful servant, and on his own nephew Justinian, From the period of his birth till he had attained the who had acquired a great ascendancy over his uncle, age of forty, nothing more is known of him than that By Justinian's advice, a reconciliation was effected he continued to perfect himself in the study of elobetween the Greek and the Roman churches, A.D. quence by declaiming, according to the practice of 520. The murder of Vitalianus, who had been raised those days: yet more for his own amusement than to the consulship, but was stabbed at a banquet, casts from any intention to prepare himself either for the a dark shade upon the character of both Justin and schools or the courts of law. About this time he Justinian. In other respects Justin is represented by seems to have discovered his true bent, and betaken historians as honest and equitable, though rude and himself to poetry. Domitian was now at the head of distrustful. After a reign of nine years, being afflict- the government, and showed symptoms of reviving that ed by an incurable wound, and having become weak | system of favouritism which had nearly ruined the in mind and body, Justin abdicated in favour of his empire under Claudius, by his unbounded partiality nephew, and died soon aster, in A.D. 527–IV. The for a young pantomime dancer of the name of Paris. second, surnamed the “Younger,” an emperor of the Against this minion Juvenal seems to have directed East, succeeded his uncle Justinian, A.D. 565. His the first shafts of that satire which was destined to reign was an unfortunate one. The Langobardi, un- make the most powerful vices tremble, and shake the der their king Alboin, who is supposed to have been masters of the world on their thrones. He composed invited by Narsas, invaded Italy by the Julian Alps, a satire on the influence of Paris with considerable A.D. 568, and in a few years all Northern Italy was success, but dared not publish it, though it was selost to the Byzantine emperor. The provinces of cretly handed about among his friends. Hence QuinAsia were likewise overrun by the Persians. Internal tilian, who wrote A.D. 92, makes no * of Ju

venal among the Latin satirists; although it has been supposed that he had him in view in the passage where he remarks, “we possess at the present day some distinguished ones, whom we will name hereafter.”, (Inst. Or., 10, 1.) It was under Trajan that Juvenal wrote the greater part of his satires: the thirteenth and fif. teenth were composed under Hadrian, when the author was in his 79th year. Then for the first time he recited his works in public, and met with the most unbounded admiration. The seventh satire, however, involved him in trouble. It was the one he had first composed, and in it the poet had lashed the pantomime Paris, the favourite of Domitian. Hadrian, who had suffered a comedian of the day to acquire a great ascendancy over him, believed that the poet meant to reflect upon this weakness of his, and resolved to have revenge. Under pretext, therefore, of honouring the old man, he named him prefect of a legion stationed at Syene, in Egypt; according to others, at Pentapolis, in Libya; or, according to others again, he was sent to one of the Oases, an ordinary abode of exiles. He died a few years after, in this honourable exile.— We have sixteen satires from the pen of Juvenal. In some editions they are divided into five books, of which the first contains five satires; the second one ; the third three; the fourth three ; and the fifth four. If we may judge of the character of a writer from his works, Juvenal was a man of rigid probity, and worthy of living in a better and purer age. His satires everywhere breathe a love of virtue and abhorrence of vice. Differing widely in this respect from Persius, he does not give himself up to the principles of one particular school of philosophy ; he paints, on the contrary, in strong and glowing colours, the hypocrisy and the vices of the pretended philosophers of his time, and especially of the Stoic sect, to whose failings Persius had shut his eyes. He differs, moreover, from this last-mentioned satirist in not borrowing from the schools of philosophy the arms with which he attacked their sailings: he found these abundantly supplied by the resources of his own genius, by the experience which a long acquaintance with the world had gained for him, and by the indignation which warmed his bosom on contemplating the gross corruption of the times. His genius in some respect resembled that of Horace, but a long-established habit of fainiliarity with rhetorical subjects produced an influence on his general manner, which is infinitely graver than that of the friend of Maecenas. Horace laughs at the follies of his age; Juvenal glows with indignation at the vices of his own. The former passes rapidly from one topic to another, and seems, as it were, led onward by his subject; Juvenal, on the contrary, follows a regular and methodical plan; he treats his subject according to the rules of the oratorical art, and is careful never to lose the thread of his discourse. The distinctive character of Juvenal's satire is a passionate hatred of, and an inexorable severity towards vice, and on this theme he never indulges in pleasantry; neither does any digression ever lead him off from the object which he has in view. It is this manner that gives to the satires of Juvenal a certain appearance of dryness, which form a direct contrast to the agreeable variety that pervades the satires of Horace. A circumstance extremely favourable to the literary reputation of Juvenal is to be sound in the fact, of his not having dared to publish his satires until an advanced period of life. Hence he was enabled to revise and retouch them, to purify his taste, and to calm the fiery spirit which animated his earlier efforts by the sober judgment of maturer years. Juvenal is said to have spent much time in attendance on the schools of the rhetoricians, and the effect of this, in an age not remarkable for purity of taste, may be observed, perhaps, in a tendency to hyperbolical inflation of both thought and style, which would soon betray a writer of less power into the ridiculous. From

this his wit, command of language, and force and fulness of thought, completely preserve him: still, perhaps, he would produce more effect if the effort to do his utmost were less apparent.—The writings of Juvenal are addressed to the encouragement of virtue no less than to the chastisement of vice; and parts of them have been recommended by Christian divines as admirable storehouses of moral precepts. Still they lie open to the objection of descending so minutely into the details of vice, as to minister food as well as physic to the depraved mind. To the scholar they are invaluable for the information which they supply concerning private life among the Romans. The best editions of Juvenal are, that of Ruperti, Lips., 1819, 2 vols. 8vo, and that of Lemaire, Paris, 1823, 3 vols. 8vo. The latter, indeed, may be regarded as the Editio Optima. An enumeration of the previous editions will be found in the Prolegomena appended to the last volume of Lemaire's work. Juventas, a goddess at Rome, who presided over youth and vigour. She is the same as the Hebe of the Greeks. The altar of Juventas stood in the vestibule of the temple of Minerva. (Dion. Hal., 3, 69.) There was a temple of this goddess in which a registry was kept of the names of the young men who were of the military age. (Dion. Hal., 4, 15.) Juver NiA ('Iovepwia), a name for Ireland, found among the Greek writers. (Agathem., 2, 4.—Ptol., 2, 2.) In the various names of Ireland, as known to the classic writers, namely, Iris, Iernis, Juvernis, Juvernia, Hibernia, &c.. the radical Iror Eri, by which it is still known to its own natives, is plainly traceable. It is customary among the Irish to indicate a country by the prefix Hy or Hua, sometimes written O, as in the case of proper names, signifying, literally, “the (dwelling of the) sons or family of,” such as Hy-Mania, Hy-Tuirtre, Hy-Brazil, &c. In adding this prefix to names beginning with a vowel, it is optional to insert a consonant to prevent the concurrence of open sounds; thus, Hy-v-Each means the country of the descendants of Each or AEacus. Again, this prefix requires the genitive, which in Eri is Erin, and thus all variations of the name, from the Iris of Diodorus Siculus, and the Ir-land or Ire-land of modern times, to the 1ernis (Hy-Ernis) of the Orphic poems, and the Hibernia (Hy-b-Ernia) of the Latin writers, would seem to be accounted for. (Wid. Hibernia.) Ixion, the son of Antion or Peision, or, according to some, of Phlegyas. Others, again, gave him the god Mars for a sire. He obtained the hand of Dia, the daughter of Deioneus, having, according to the usage of the heroic ages, promised his father-in-law large nuptial gifts; but he did not keep his engagement, and Deioneus seized his horses and detained them as a pledge. Ixion then sent to say that the #. were ready if he would come to fetch them. eioneus accordingly came, but his treacherous sonin-law had prepared in his house a pit filled with fire, and covered over with bits of wood and with dust, into which the unsuspecting prince fell and perished. Aster this deed Ixion became deranged, and the atrocity of the crime was such that neither gods nor men would absolve him, till at length Jupiter took pity on him and purified him, and admitted him to his residence and table on Olympus. But, incapable of good, Ixion cast an eye of desire on the wife of his benefactor. Juno thereupon, in concert with her lord, formed a cloud in the likeness of herself, which Ixion embraced. He boasted of his good fortune, and Jupiter precipitated him into Erebus, where Mercury fixed him with brazen bands to an ever-revolving fiery wheel. (Pind; Pyth., 2, 39, seqq.—Schol. ad Pind, Pyth., 2, 39.—Hygin., fab., 62.)—This myth is probably of great antiquity; as the customs on which it is founded only prevailed in the heroic age. Its chief object seems to have been to inspire horror for the violation of the duties of hos

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