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várno) which his pupil Demosthenes carried to persection. (Dion. Hal. de Isato judicium.—Op., ed Reiske, vol. 5, p. 613, seqq.)—So far as the extant specimens of Isaeus enable us to form an opinion, this judgment appears to be just. The perspicuity and artless simplicity of the style of Lysias are admirable; but, on reading Isaeus, we feel that we have to do with a subtle disputant and a close reasoner, whose arguments are strong and pointed, but have too much the appearance of studied effect, and for that reason osten fail to convince.—The author of the life of Isaeus, attributed to Plutarch, mentions sixty-four orations of his, fifty of which were allowed to be genuine. At present there are only eleven extant, all of which are of the forensic class, and all treat of matters relating to wills, and the succession to the property of testators or persons intestate, or to disputes originating in such matters. These orations are valuable for the insight they give us into the laws of Athens as to the disposition of property by will and in cases of intestacy, and also as to many of the forms of procedure.—The best edition of the text of Isaeus is by Bekker, forming part of the Oratores Attici (1822–1823, 8vo, Berol.—Orat. Att., vol. 3.) The most useful edition, however, is that of Schömann, Gryphisw, 1831, 8vo. Sir W. Jones has given a valuable translation of Isaeus. It appeared in 1779. His version, however, extends only to ten of the orations, the eleventh having been discovered since. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 2, p. 215.)—II. A native of Assyria, likewise an orator, who came to Rome A.D. 17. He is greatly commended by Pliny the younger, who observes that he always spoke extempore, and that his language was marked by elegance, unlaboured ease, and great correctness. (Plin., Ep., 2, 3.) Isipis, a river of Umbria. Its ordinary name was the Sapis. (Strab., 216.—Ptol., p. 64.) Its modern appellation is the Savio. It rose not far from Sarsina, and fell into the Adriatic to the northwest of the Rubicon. (Lucan, 2, 406.) Isar and Is ARA, I. now the Isère, a river of Gaul, where Fabius routed the Allobroges. It rose in the Graian Alps, and sell into the Rhodanus near Valentia, the modern Valence.—II. Another, called the Oise, which falls into the Seine below Paris. The Celtic name of Briva Isarae, a place on this river, has been translated into Pont-Oise. Isaur A (as or orum), the capital of Isauria, near the confines of Phrygia. Strabo and Stephanus of Byzantium use the term as a plural one (ra "Idavpa); Ammianus Marcellinus, however, makes it of the first declension (14, 8). It was a strong and rich place, and its inhabitants appear to have acquired their wealth, in a great degree, by plundering the neighbouring regions. The city was attacked by the Macedonians under Perdiccas, the inhabitants having put to death the governor set over the province by Alexander. After a brave resistance, the Isaurians destroyed themselves and their city by fire. The conquerors are said to have obtained much gold and silver from the ruins of the place. (Diod. Soc., 18, 22.) During the contentions between Alexander's successors, the neighbouring mountaineers rebuilt the capital, and commenced plundering anew until they were reduced by Servilius, hence styled Isauricus, and the city was again destroyed. A new Isaura was afterward built by Amyntas, king of Galatia, in the vicinity of the old city, and the stones of this last were employed in its construction. (Strab., 591.) This new Isaura appears to have existed until the third century, when Trebellianus made it his residence, and raised here the standard of revolt. He was slain, and Isaura was probably again destroyed, since, according to Ammianus, its remains were in his time scarcely perceptible. (Amm. Marcell., l. c. Treb, Pollio, 30 Tyranni, c. 25.) D'Anville places the old capital near a lake, about whose existence, however, the ancients are silent; the modern name he makes

Bel-Shehri. New Isaura he places on another lake southeast of the former, and terms it Sidi-Shehri. Mannert opposes this position of the last, and is in favour of Seri-Serail, a small village east-northeast of Iconium. (Mannert, Anc. Geogr., vol. 6, part 2, p. 188.) Isauria, a country of Asia Minor, north of, and adjacent to, Pisidia. The inhabitants were a wild race, remarkable for the violence and rapine which they exercised against their neighbours. P. Servilius derived from his reduction of this people the surname of Isauricus. A conformity in the aspect of the country, which was rough and mountainous, caused Cilicia Trachea, in a subsequent age, to have the name of Isauria extended to it, and it is thus denominated in the notices of the eastern empire. “With respect to Isauria,” observes Rennell, “Strabo is not so explicit as might have been wished; but the subject, perhaps, was not well known to him. He no 3. regards Isauria as a province or a part of Pisidia at large: and mentions its two capitals, the old and the new. But then he speaks of the expedition of Servilius, which was sent to one of those cities, as a transaction connected with the modern or maritime Isauria; that is, Cilicia Trachea. This may, perhaps, be explained by the circumstance of Servilius being at the time proconsul of Cilicia, and the expedition being prepared and sent forth from Caycus, in that country, as a convenient point of outset. But Strabo describes Cilicia Trachea under its proper name, and fixes its boundary westward at Coracesium, on the seacoast; and therefore seems to have had no idea of any other Isauria than that which lay inland. The Isauria of Pliny includes both the original province of that name, lyin north of Taurus, and also Cilicia Trachea, which ha been added to the other; possibly from the date of the above-mentioned expedition of Servilius. About a century and a half had elapsed between the time of Servilius and Pliny; and great changes had probably taken place in the arrangement of boundaries of countries so lately acquired. In later times, the name of Isauria seems to have become appropriate to Cilicia Trachea. Ammianus Marcellinus wrote at so much later a period, that one can hardly allow his description to apply to ancient geography. He describes Isauria as a maritime country absolutely; and per haps the original Isauria was not known by that name, but merged into the larger province of Pisidia.” (Ge. ography of Western Asia, vol. 2, p. 73, seqq.) Isauricus, a surname of P. Servilius, from his conquests over the Isaurians. (Ovid, Fast., 1, 594.— Cic., Att., 5, 21.—Wid. Isaura and Isauria.) IsinöRus, I. a native of Charax, near the mouth of the Tigris, who published in the reign of Caligula a “Description of Parthia.” (IIapóiac repunymruków.) It no longer exists; but we have a work remaining, which appears to be an extract from it, and is entitled XTatsuoi IIapólkot, “Parthian Halting-places.” This work gives a list of the eighteen provinces into which the Parthian empire was divided, with the principal places in each province, and the distances between each town. The list was probably taken from official records, such as appear, from the list of provinces, &c., in Herodotus, to have been kept in the ancient Persian empire. The production just referred to has been printed in the second volume of Hudson's “Geographia veteris Scriptores Graeci Minores,” with a dissertation by Dodwell. There is also a memoir on. Isidorus by Sainte-Croix, in the 50th volume of the Mem. de l'Acad. des Inscr., &c.—II. A native of AEgae, an epigrammatic poet, some of whose productions are preserved in the Anthology. (Jacobs, Anthol. Gr., vol. 3, p. 177; vol. 10, p. 329.)—III. An epigrammatic poet, a native of Bolbitine in Egypt. (Jacobs, Anthol. Gr., vol. 10, p. 332.)—IV. A native of Miletus, a Greek architect of the sixth century, who, together, with Anthemius, was employed by Justinian, emperor of the cast, to erect the church of St. Sophia at Constantinople. Anthemius merely laid the soundation of the edifice, and was then arrested by the hand of death, A.D. 534. Isidorus was charged with the completion of this structure. This church is a square building, with a hemispherical cupola in the centre, and its summit 400 feet fron the pavement below. This edifice, which was considered the most magnificent monument of the age, was scarcely finished before the cupola was thrown down by an earthquake. But Justinian had it immediately rebuilt. On the taking of Constantinople by the Turks, the church of St. Sophia was appropriated to the worship of the Mohammedan conquerors.—W. A New Platomist, a native of Gaza, who succeeded Hegias in the chair of Athens, in the fifth century, or, rather, at the beginning of the sixth. He was a zealous follower of Proclus, but deficient in talent and erudition, and, consequently, soon made way for Zenodotus as his successor. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 7, p. 116.) —VI. A native of Pelusium, a saint in the Roman Catholic calendar, and one of the most celebrated of the disciples of Chrysostom. He lived in the fifth century, professed the monastic life from his youth, and composed some thousand epistles, of which two thousand and twelve remain, in five books, and are deemed valuable, especially for the information which they contain in relation to points of discipline and for practical rules. The best edition is that of Schottus, Paris, 1638 fol. In 1738, Heumann attacked the authenticity of a part of these epistles, in a tract entitled “ Epistola, Isidori Pelusiota maximam partem confectar,” &c.—WII. Another saint in the Roman Catholic calendar, and a distinguished Spanish prelate towards the beginning of the seventh century, when he succeeded his brother Leander in the see of Seville. Hence he is commonly called Isidorus Hispalensis, “Isidore of Seville.” He was, however, a native of Carthago Nova (Carthagena), of which his father Severianus was governor. He presided in a council held in that city, A.D. 619; and at the fourth national council, A.D. 633, in which numerous regulations were by his influence adopted, in order to reform ecclesiastical discipline in Spain. He was well acquainted with Greek and Hebrew, and was considered by the council of Toledo as the most learned man of his age. The style of his works, however, is not very clear, and his judgment appears to have been very defective. He died A.D. 636,-Isidorus was the author of many works, chiefly, however, compilations. His principal production is entitled “Twenty Books of Origins and Etymologies” (Originum sive Etymologiarum Libri XX.). Death prevented him from finishing this, and it was completed by his friend Braulio, bishop of Saragossa. It contains far more than the title would seem to promise, and is, in fact, a species of encyclopædia, or a summary of all the sciences cultivated at that period. The first book is divided into forty-three chapters, of which the first thirty-eight explain terms connected with grammar. The remaining five have reference to matters connected with history. The second book is devoted principally to rhetorical subjects; it contains also an introduction to philosophy, and a system of Dialectics aster Porphyry, Aristotle, and Victorinus. The third book treats of arithmetic, music, and astronomy. The fourth book is devoted to medicine. The fifth book contains jurisprudence and chronology; together with a species of historical summary, terminating at the sixth year of the reign of Heraclius. In the sixth book, the author occupies himself with the Bible, with libraries and manuscripts; he speaks of canons, of gospels, and councils; he then explains the paschal cycle, the calendar, and the festivals of the church. The sementh and eighth books treat of God, of angels

and men, of faith, of heresies, of pagan philosophers, of sibyls, of magicians, and of the gods of the heathen. The ninth book has for its subjects the different languages spoken among men, names of communities, official dignities, relationships, affinities, marriages. The last ten books explain and define a large Cumber of words, the origin of which is not generally known. In these etymologies the author has no doubt committed a number of errors, neither has he displayed much critical acumen in many of his remarks; yet, notwithstanding these defects, his work is valuable on account of the extracts from lost works which it contains, and because it serves to show to what state of advancement each of the sciences of which it treats had attained among the ancients. Isidorus was also the author of a work entitled “De Differentiis sire proprietate verborum,” in three books. The first of these is taken from Agroetius and other ancient grammarians; the second treats “de differentiis spiritualibus.” The third, more complete than the first, is arranged in alphabetical order. We have also various glossaries ascribed to Isidorus, of which has been formed a liber glossarum. A small glossary, containing grammatical terms in Greek and Latin, was published for the first time by Heusinger, in his second edition of Mallius Theodorus.—We have to mention also a Chronicle by Isidorus, from the beginning of the world to the fifth year of the reign of Heraclius, A.D. 615. It is derived from ancient chronicles, and contains likewise some new details respecting the period in which it was composed. It is sometimes cited under the following titles: “De Temporibus ;” “Abbreviator Temporum; “De Sea mundi attatibus;” “Imago Mundi.” Isidorus wrote also two abridged histories of the Germanic tribes that settled in Spain during the fifth century; one entitled “De historia, sire Chronicon Gothorum ;” and the other, “Chronicon brete regum Visigothorum.” The first is followed by an appendix on the Vandals and Suevi. Other works of Isidorus are as follows: “A Treatise on Ecclesiastical Writers;” “Sentences;” “Commentaries on the Historical Books of the Old Testament;” “Scriptural Allegories;” “A Book of Poems, or Prolegomena to the Scriptures;” “A Treatise on Ecclesiastical Discipline,” in which he mentions seven prayers of the sacrifice still to be found in the Mosarabic mass, which is the ancient Spanish liturgy, of which Isidorus was the principal author. A collection of canons, attributed to this Isidorus, were by a later priest of the same name, Isidore of Seville, who is more admired by later churchmen for learning than discrimination, and is frequently ranked among musical writers, much being said by him on the introduction of music into the church, in his divine offices. The best edition of the works of Isidorus is that of Arevali, Roma, 1797– 1803, 2 vols. fol. The best edition of the Origines is that of Otto, forming the third volume of Lindemann's Corpus Grammaticorum Latinorum, Lips, 1833, 4to. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Rom., vol. 3, p. 180, seqq.—Id. ib., vol. 3, p. 333.) Isis, one of the chief deities of the Egyptians, and the sister and spouse of Osiris. She was said to have first taught men the art of cultivating corn, and was regarded as the goddess of secundity. Hence the cow was sacred to her. The annual festival of Isis in Egypt lasted eight days, during which a general purification took place. The priests of the goddess were bound to observe perpetual chastity; their heads were shaved, and they went barefoot. This deity was often represented as a woman with the horns of a cow. She also appears with the lotus on her head and the sistrum in her hand; and in some instances her head is seen covered with a hood. Heads of Isis are frequent ornaments of Egyptian capitals on the pillars of the temples.—As the worship of Isis passed into foreign lands, it assumed a foreign character and§" foreign attributes, as we see from the Greek and Roman writers. Sometimes she is represented like Diana of Ephesus, the universal mother, with a number of breasts. The mysterious rites of Isis were probably in their origin symbolical: on one of her statues was this inscription, “I am all that has been or that shall be; no mortal has hitherto taken off my veil.”—But the Isiac rites, transplanted to Italy, became a cloak for licentiousness, and they were repeatedly forbidden at Rome. Tiberius caused the images of Isis to be thrown into the Tiber; but the worship subsequently revived, and Juvenal speaks of it in an indignant strain. —The Isiac Table in the Turin Museum, which is supposed to represent the mysteries of Isis, has been judged by Champollion to be the work of an uninitiated artist, little acquainted with the true worship of the goddess, and probably of the age of Hadrian. (Consult Plutarch's treatise on Isis and Osiris, ed. Wyttenb., vol. 2, p. 441–Herod., 2, 41, seqq —Pausan., 2, 13, 7–Id., 10, 32, 13 )—The legend of Isis and Osiris may be found in full detail in Creuzer (Sombolik, vol. 1, p. 258, seqq.). On comparing the i. ent explanations given by Plutarch and other ancient writers, it will appear that Osiris is the type of the active, generating, and beneficent force of nature and the elements; Isis, on the contrary, is the passive force, the power of conceiving and bringing forth into life in the sublunary world. Osiris was particularly adored in the sun, whose rays vivify and impart new warmth to the earth, and who, on his annual return in the spring, appears to create anew all organic bodies. He was adored also in the Nile, the cause of Egyptian fertility. Isis was the earth, or sublunary nature in general; or, in a more confined sense, the soil of Egypt inundated by the Nile, the principle of all fecundity, the goddess of generation and production. United to one another, Osiris and Isis typify the universal Being, the soul of nature, the Pantheus of the Orphic verses. (Symbolik, par Guigniaut, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 806.)—In accordance with this general view of the subject are the remarks of Knight: “Isis was the same with the goddess of generation, except that by the later Egyptians the personification was still more generalized, so as to comprehend universal nature; whence Apuleius invokes her by the names of Eleusinian Ceres, Celestial Venus, and Proserpina; and she answers him by a general explanation of these titles. “I am,” says she,

“Nature, the parent of things, the sovereign of the ele

ments, the primary progeny of time, the most exalted of the deities, the first of the heavenly gods and goddesses, the queen of the shades, the uniform countenance; who dispose with my rod the numerous lights of heaven, the salubrious breezes of the sea, and the mournful silence of the dead; whose single deity the whole world venerates in many forms, with various rites and many names. The Egyptians, skilled in ancient lore, worship me with proper ceremonies, and call me by my true name, Queen Isis.’” (Apul, Met., 11, p. 257.) This universal character of the goddess appears, however, to have been subsequent to the Macedonian conquest, when a new modification of the ancient systems of religion and philosophy took place

at Alexandrea, and spread itself gradually over the

world. The statues of this Isis are of a composition and form quite different from those of the ancient Egyptian goddess; and all that we have seen are of Greek or Roman sculpture. The original Egyptian figure of Isis is merely the animal symbol of the cow humanized, with the addition of the serpent disc, or some other accessory emblem: but the Greek and Roman figures of her are infinitely varied, to signify by various symbols the various attributes of universal nature. In this character she is confounded with the personifications of Fortune and Victory, which are, in reality, no other than those of Providence, and, therefore, occasionally decked with all the 688

attributes of universal power. The allegorical tales of the loves and misfortunes of Isis and Osiris are an exact counterpart of those of Venus and Adonis (Suid., s. v. Öuayvá'uov), which signify the alternate exertion of the generative and destructive attributes. (Enquiry into the Symb. Lang., &c., § 118, 119.) The Disa or Isa of the north was represented by a conic figure enveloped in a net, similar to the cortina of Apollo on the medals of Cos, Chersonesus in Crete, Neapolis in Italy, and the Syrian kings; but, instead of having the serpent coiled round it as in the first, or some symbol or figure of Apollo placed upon it as in the rest, it is terminated by a human head. (Ol. Rudbeck, Atlant., vol. 2, c. 5, p. 219.) This goddess is unquestionably the Isis whom the ancient Suevi, according to Tacitus, worshipped (Germ., c. 9); for the initial letter of the first name appears to be an article or prefix joined to it; and the Egyptian Isis was occasionally represented enveloped in a net, exactly as the Scandinavian goddess was at Upsal. (Isiac Table, and Ol. Rudbeck, Atlant., p. 209.) This goddess is delineated on the sacred drums of the Laplanders, accompanied by a child, similar to the Horus of the Egyptians, who so often appears in the lap of Isis on the religious monuments of that people. The ancient Muscovites also worshipped a sacred group, composed of an old woman with one male child in her lap, and another standin

by her, which probably represented Isis and her offspring. They had likewise another idol, called the golden heifer, which seems to have been the animalsymbol of the same personage. (Ol. Rudbeck, Atlant., p. 512, seqq.—Ib., p. 280.-Knight, Enquiry into the Symb. Lang., § 195.) For some speculations on the name of Isis, Jablonski may be consulted. (Panth. Ægypt., 2, 29–Id. Opusc., 1, s. v.) Isis received, as is well known, the names of “Lady,” “Mistress,” “Mother,” “Nurse,” &c., common to many other Egyptian deities. Her favourite name, however, is “Myrionyma,” or “She that has ten thousand names.” Creuzer finds an analogy between the Egyptian Osiris and Isis, and the Hindu Isa and Isan: or Isi; and this analogy displays itself not only in their respective attributes and offices, but also in the meaning of their names; they are the “Lord” and “Lady,” two titles of almost all great popular divinties among the pagan nations both of ancient and modern times. The different forms of the Egyptian year, and the successive efforts made to correct the calendar, could not fail to produce considerable variations in the legend of Isis and Osiris, which had itself been founded originally on a normal period. In this way, perhaps, we may explain the double death of Osiris, and regard it as typifying those variations that were the necessary result of the vague state of the year. The principal festivals of Egypt, moreover, established, like those of most other nations, after the natural epochs of the year, found at once in the popular mythology their commentary and their sanction. The most solemn one of these, called the festival (the lamentations) of Isis, or the disappearance (death) of Osiris, commenced on the 17th of the month Athyr, or the 13th of November, according to Plutarch: it was a sestival of mourning and tears. (Plut., de Is. et Os., c. 39, 69, p. 501, 549, ed. Wyttenb.—Creuzer, Comment. Herod., p. 120, seqq.). Towards the winter solstice was celebrated the finding of Osiris ; and on the seventh of Tybi, or the second of January, the arrival of Isis from Phaenicia. A few days after, the festival of Osiris found (a second time) united the cries of gladness on the part of all Egypt to the pure joy experienced by Isis herself. The festival of grainsowing and that of the burial of Osiris; the festival of his resurrection, at the period when the young blade of grain began to show itself out of the ground; the pregnancy of Isis, the birth of Harpocrates, to whom were offered the first fruits of the approaching

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harvest; the festival of the Pamylia; all these fell in a great period embracing the one half of the year, from the autumnal equinox to that of the spring, at the commencement of which latter season was celebrated the feast of the purification of Isis. A little besore this the Egyptians solemnized, at the new moon of Phamenoth (March), the entrance of Osiris into the Moon, which planet he was believed to fecundate, that it might, in its turn, fecundate the earth. (Plut, Ib.) Finally, on the 30th of Epiphi (24th of July), the festival of the birth of Horus took place (of Horus the representative of Osiris, the conqueror of Typhon), in the second great period, extending from the month Pharmuthi (27th of March) to Thoth (29th of August), when the year recommenced. (Creuzer, Symbolik, note 3, Guigniaut, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 801.) IsMKRUs (Ismara, plur.), a mountain of Thrace near the mouth of the Hebrus, covered with vineyards. This part of Thrace was famous for its wines. Ulysses, in the Odyssey, is made to speak in commendation of some wine given him by Maron, the priest of Apollo. Ismarus was situated in the territory of the Cicones, whose capital was also called by the same name. Homer (Od., 1, 40) makes Ulysses to have taken and plundered this city; but the natives coming down from the interior in great force, he was driven off with severe loss both of men and ships. Ismarus is only known to later writers'as a mountain celebrated for its wine, which indeed Homer himself alludes to in another passage. (Od., 1, 197.-Virg., Georg., 2, 37.) IsMENE, I. a daughter of CEdipus and Jocasta, who, when her sister Antigone had been condemned to be buried alive by Creon for giving burial to her brother Polynices, against the tyrant's positive orders, declared herself as guilty as her sister, and insisted upon being punished along with her. (Soph, Antig.—Apollod, 3, 5.)—II. A daughter of the river Asopus, who married the hundred-eyed Argus, by whom she had Îasus. (Apollod., 2, 1.) sm ENIAs, I. a celebrated musician of Thebes. When he was taken prisoner by the Scythians, Atheas, the king of the country, observed, that he liked the neighing of his horse better than all the music of Ismenias. (Plut. in Apophth)—II. A Theban general, sent to Persia on an embassy by his countrymen. As none were admitted into the king's presence without prostrating themselves at his feet, Ismenias had recourse to artifice to avoid performing an act which would render him degraded in the eyes of his countrymen, and yet, at the same time, not to offend against the customs of Persia. When he was introduced he dropped his ring, and the motion he made to recover it from the ground being mistaken for the required homage, Ismenias had a satisfactory audience of the monarch. (AElian, W. H., 1, 21.) IsMENus, I. a son of Apollo and Melia, one of the Nereides, who gave his name to a river of Boeotia, near Thebes.—II. A river of Boeotia, in the immediate vicinity of Thebes, at the foot of a hill. It was sacred to Apollo, hence called Ismenius, who had a temple here. (Pind., Pyth., 11, 6–Soph., (Ed. Tyr., 19.) The Ismenus is more frequently alluded to in conjunction with the celebrated fountain of Dirce. (Eurip., JBacch., 5.-Id., Phoen., 830.-Herc., Fur., 572–Ib., 781.-Pind., Isthm., 6, 108.) Dodwell observes, that

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teachers were Gorgias, Prodicus and Tisias. On account of his weak voice and natural timidity, he was reluctant to speak in public; but he applied himself with the greatest ardour to instruction in the art of eloquence and preparing orations for others. His success as a rhetorical instructer was most brilliant. He taught at both Chios and Athens, and some of the #. orators of Greece, such as Isabus, Lycurgus,

yperides, and, according to some accounts, Demosthenes, formed themselves in his school. Hence Cicero compares this school of his to the wooden norse at Troy : since the latter contained the most famous chieftains of the Greeks, the former the leaders in eloquence. (De Orat., 2, 22.) Although he never filled any public station, yet he rendered himself usesul to his country by the discourses which he published on various topics of a political character. He is said to have charged one thousand drachmae (nearly 180 dollars) for a complete course of oratorical instruction, and to have said to some one who found fault with the largeness of the amount, that he would willingly give ten thousand drachma to any one who should impart to him the self-confidence and the command of voice requisite in a public orator. The orations of Isocrates were either sent to the persons to whom they were addressed, for their private perusal, or they were intrusted to others to deliver in public. He is said to have delivered only one himself. Isocrates treated of great moral and political questions, and his views are distinguished by a regard for virtue, and an aversion to all meanness and injustice. In his childhood Isocrates was the companion of Plato, and they remained friends during their whole lives. He had a great veneration for Socrates. After the death of that distinguished philosopher, which filled his scholars with fear and horror, he alone had the courage to appear in mourning. He gave another proof of his courage by publicly defending Theramenes, who had been proscribed by the thirty tyrants. Isocrates was particularly distinguished for a polished style and an harmonious construction of his sentences. In Cicero's opinion, it was he who first gave to prose writing its due rhythm. The art of Isocrates is always apparent, a circumstance which, of itself, diminishes in some degree the effect of his writings, and is almost inconsistent with vigour and force. The address to Demonicus, for example, is an almost uninterrupted series of antitheses. Though he falls far below the great orator of Athens, Isocrates is still a perfect master in the style which he has adopted, and has well merited the high encomiums of Dionysius of Halicarnassus for the noble spirit and the rectitude of purpose which pervade all his writings. The composition, revision, and repeated polishing of his speeches occupied so much time that he published little. His celebrated “Panegyrical Oration,” for example, is said to have occupied him ten whole years.-The politics of Isocrates were conciliatory. He was a friend of peace: he repeatedly exhorted the Greeks to concord among themselves, and to turn their arms against their common enemies, the Persians. He addressed Philip of Macedon in a similar strain, after his peace with Athens (B.C. 346), exhorting him to reconcile the states of Greece, and to unite their forces against Persia. He kept up a correspondence with Philip, and two of his epistles to that prince are still extant, as well as one which he wrote to the then youthful Alexander, congratulating him on his proficiency in his studies. Though no violent partisan, he proved, however, a warm-hearted patriot; for, on receiving the news of the battle of Chaeronea, he refused to take food for several days, and thus closed his long and honourable career at the age of ninety-eight, B.C. 338.-In Plutarch's time sixty orations went under his name, not half of which were, however, deemed genuine. Twenty-one now remain. Of these, the *.jou. is the discourse entitled IIavnyvptkóc, Panegyricus, or “Panegyrical Oration,” i.e., a discourse pronounced before the assembled people. The Panegyric of Isocrates was delivered at the Olympic games, and was written in the time of the Lacedæmonian ascendancy. He exhorts the Lacedaemonians and Athenians to vie with each other in a noble emulation, and to unite their forces in an expedition against Asia; and he descants eloquently on the merits and glories of the Athenian commonwealth, on the services it had rendered to Greece, and on its high intellectual cultivation; while he defends it from the charges, urged by its enemies, of tyranny by sea, and of oppression towards its colonies. Among the other twenty discourses of Isocrates, there are three of the parenetic or moral kind: 1. IIpăç Amuávikov, “Discourse addressed to Demonicus,” the son of Hipponicus, who, with his brother Callias, belonged to the highest class of Athenian citizens. It consists of moral precepts for the conduct of life and the regulation of the deportment of the young. Many critics have thought that this piece, abounding with excellent morality, and resembling an epistle rather than a discourse, is not the work of the Athenian Isocrates, but of one of two other orators of the same name, of whom mention is made by the ancient writers, namely, Isocrates of Apollonia, or Heraclea in Pontus, who was a disciple of the Athenian philosopher; and Isocrates the friend of Dionysius of Halicarnassus. One thing is certain, that Harpocration cites a discourse of the Apollonian Isocrates, under the title of IIapaívea to Tpoc Amuávtkov, and it is not probable that the master and his disciple would have written exhortations addressed to the same individual. As regards the third Isocrates just mentioned, it is very doubtful whether he ever existed.—2. IIpêc Nukóx?ca, Discourse addressed to Nicocles II., son of Evagoras, and prince of Salamis in Cyprus, on the art of reigning.—3. Nuxok?ic, Nicocles, a discourse composed for this prince, to be pronounced by him, and treating of the duties of subjects towards their sovereigns. Nicocles is said to have presented Isocrates, in return, with twenty talents. This piece is sometimes cited under the name of the Cyprian Discourse, Körptoo. 26)oc. Five other discourses of Isocrates are of the deliberative kind. 1. The Panegyric, of which we have already spoken.— 2. Påttroc, or IIpoc biotirmov, “Discourse addressed to Philip of Macedon,” to induce him to act as mediator between the Greek cities, and to make war against Persia.-3. 'Apxióauoc, Archidamus. Under the name of this prince, who afterward ascended the throne of Sparta, the orator endeavours to persuade the Lacedæmonians, after the battle of Mantinea, not to relinquish Messenia.-4 'Apelottayt Tukdo, Areopagilicus. One of the best discourses of Isocrates. In it he counsels the Athenians to re-establish the constitution of Solon, as modified by Clisthenes.—5. IIepi tipsync, ; auguaytkóc, “Of Peace,” or, “Respecting the Allies.” In this discourse, pronounced after the commencement of the social war, Isocrates advises the Athenians to make peace with the inhabitants of Chios, Rhodes, and Byzantium. We have also four discourses by this writer that fall under the head of éloges (#ykøutaatuKot): viz., 1. Ełayópac, Eragoras. A funeral oration on Evagoras, king of Cyprus, and father of Nicocles, who had been assassinated, Ol. 101, 3. —2. ‘EAévnç #ykóutov, Eloge on Helen, a piece full of pleasing digressions.—3. Boüalpur, Busiris. The Grecian mythology speaks of this son of Neptune and Lysianassa, who reigned in Egypt, and introduced into that country human sacrifices. Hercules delivered the earth from this monster. The sophist Polycrates had written on Busiris; Isocrates, who hated him because he had published an accusation of Socrates, wished, in treating of the same sub

ject, to mortify the sophist and make his work a failure.—4. IIavathwaikóc, Panathenaicus. An eloge on the Athenians; one of the best pieces of Isocrates, but which has reached us in a defective state —We have likewise from the pen of Isocrates eight discourses of a legal nature, or 26) at Ötzávikot.—1. IIzaraisóg, Complaint of the inhabitants of Platara against the Thebans.—2. II*pi Tic &vrtóóaeoc, “Of the exchanging of property with another.” According to the Athenian laws, the three hundred richest citizens were obliged to equip triremes, furnish the commonwealth with necessary supplies of money, &c. If any person appointed to undergo one of these duties could find another citizen of better substance than himself who was not on the list, then the informer was excused and the other put in his place. If the person named, however, denied that he was the richer of the two, then they exchanged estates. Isocrates, having acquired great riches, had twice to undergo this species of prosecution. The first time he was defended by his adopted son Alphareus, and gained his cause; the second time he was attacked by a certain Lysimachus, was unsuccessful in his defence, and compelled to equip a trireme. The present discourse was delivered by Isocrates on this latter occasion. It has reached us in an imperfect state, but has been completed in our own days by the discoveries of a modern scholar, Moustoxydes.—3. IIepi Toij Čečyovo. A pleading respecting a team of horses, pronounced for the son of Alcibiades.—4. Toastesttukóg, a pleading against the banker Pasion, pronounced by the son of Sopaeus, who had confided a sum of money to his care. Pasion had denied the deposite.—5. IIapaypaoticós Tpóc Ka2%iuarov. An “actio translativa” against Callimachus.— 6. Alytvm rukóc, a pleading pronounced at Ægina in a matter of succession.—7. Karā Toi Aoxtrov, a pleading against Lochites for personal violence against a certain individual whose name is not given. We have only the second part of this discourse.—8. 'AudipTwpoc, or IIpêc Eith vovy irrêp Nuktov, “Pleading for Nicias against Euthymus.” The latter was a faithless depositary, who reckoned on the impossibility of proving a certain deposite through want of witnesses to the transaction.—We have finally a discourse of Isocrates against the Sophists (kara Tów cootaróv), which must be placed in a class by itself. There was also a work on Rhetoric composed by him, more commonly called a Téxvi), “Theory.” Cicero states that he was unable to procure this work (De Incent., 2, 2): it is cited, however, by Quintilian (Inst. Or., 3, 1, et 14.) —The best edition of the Greek text is that of Bekker, forming part of his Oratores Attici. (Berol., 1822–1823, 8vo.—Orat. Att., vol. 2.) The two most useful editions are, that of Lange, Hal., 1803, 8vo, and that of Coray, Paris, 1807, 8vo, forming the second volume of the Bu67 tofokm "E22mukh. This last is based upon a MS. brought from Italy to France, which is the earliest one extant of our author. Coray's edition is accompanied with very learned notes, and may, upon the whole, be regarded as the editio optima. The editions of Battie, Cantab., 1729, 2 vols. 8vo, and of Auger, Paris, 1782, 3 vols. 8vo, are not remarkable, especially the latter, for a very accurate text. Auger's work abounds with typographical errors, and he is also charged with a careless collating of MSS. The best edition of the Panegyricus is that of Morus and Spohn, with the notes and additions of Baiter, Lips., 1831, 8vo. In the preface of this edition (p. xxxi), there are some very just remarks on the Greek text of Bekker.—We have already alluded to the completing of the oration IIepi &vrtóógeac, by Moustoxydes. This scholar found a perfect MS. of the discourse in question in the Ambrosian Library at Milan, and published an edition of the entire piece in 1812 at Milan. It is, however, very inaccurately

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