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HARPKI.us, I, an early and favoured friend of Alexander the Great. Having been left at Babylon as satrap of the province, and treasurer of a more considerable portion of the empire, he abused his trust so grossly, that, on the king's return, he was compelled to flee through fear of punishment. He was accompanied by six thousand soldiers, and with these he landed in Laconia, in the hope, it may be supposed, of engaging the Lacedaemonians to renew their opposition to Alexander. Failing there of support, he left his army and went to Athens as a suppliant, but carrying with him money to a large amount. His cause was taken up by many eminent orators hostile to Alexander; and Demosthenes himself, who had at first held back, was prevailed upon to espouse it. It failed, however; the Athenians adhered to the existing treaties; and Harpalus, being obliged to quit Athens, carried his troops into Crete, where he perished by assassination. It was said that his gold had been largely distributed among his Athenian supporters, and a prosecution was instituted against Demosthenes and his associates, as having been bribed to miscounsel the people. They were convicted before the Areopagus; and Demosthenes, being fined in the sum of 50 talents (about 53,000 dollars), withdrew to Ægina. (Wid. Demosthenes.—Diod. Sic., 17, 108, seqq.)—II. An astronoiner of Greece, who flourished about 400 B.C. He corrected the cycle of Cleostratus. This alteration, from a revolution of eight to one of nine years, was, in the fourth year of the eighty-second Olympiad, again improved by Meton, who increased the cycle to a period of nineteen years. (Wid. Meton.— L'Art de verifier les Dates, vol. 3, p. 133.)

HARPALYce, the daughter of Harpalycus, king of Thrace. Her mother died when she was but a child, and her father fed her with the milk of cows and mares, and inured her to martial exercises, intending her for his successor in the kingdom. When her father's kingdom was invaded by Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, she repelled and defeated the enemy with many courage. The death of her father, which happer, d in a sedition, rendered her disconsolate; she fled ‘he society of mankind, and lived in the forests upox plunder and rapine. Every attempt to secure her y \oved fruitless, till her great swiftness was overcomv by intercepting her with a net. After her death the pople of the country disputed their respective right to the possessions she had acquired by rapine, and games were subsequently instituted as an expiation for her death. (Hygin, fab., 193.—Virg., AEm., 1, 321.)

HARPocrites, an Egyptian divinity, represented as holding one finger on the lips, and thence commonly denominated the God of Silence. The name Harpocrates is said to designate the infant Horus, and to mean “Horus with soft or delicate feet” (Har-phonkrates, Har-phoch-rat, Har-pokrat). The god who bore this appellation was confounded, at a later period probably, with another earlier and superior deity, Phtah-Sokari, the infant Phtah, equally surnamed Pokrat. (Compare Jablonski, Panth., 1, p. 245, seqq.— Creuz or's Symbolik, par Guigniaut, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 808.) Porphyry (de antro Nymph.) informs us, that the Egyptians worshipped, under the symbol of silence, the source of all things, and that hence came the mysterious statue of Harpocrates, with the finger on the mouth. (Plut., de Is... et Os., p. 378.-Constant, de la Religion, vol. 3, p. 78.)

HARPocration, Woo. a grammarian of Alexandrea, supposed by some to be the same with the one that instructed L. Verus in Greek; while others take him to be identical with the Harpocration of whom mention is made in a letter of Libanius to Aristanetus. He was the author of a Lexicon, derived principally from the ter. Attic orators, and entitled, on that account, Ae: Köv táv Óéka Émtépov. It is a very useful

work. Harpocration composed also another work, entitled “A collection of flowers,” or Anthology. "Avtompov ovvaywyń, which has not reached us. The latest edition of the Lexicon is that published at Leipsic in 1824, 2 vols. 8vo, by an anonymous editor. Many places in Harpocration are corrected by Toup (Emendationes in Suidam, etc., vol. 4, ed. Burgess), and by Schleusner (Observ. in Harp. Ler.—Friedemann und Seebode's Miscell. Crit., vol. 2, pt. 4, p. 744, seqq.). HARPy1A, winged monsters, who had female faces, and the bodies, wings, and claws of birds. They were three in number, Aello, Ocypéte, and Celano, daughters of Neptune and Terra. They were sent by Juno to plunder the tables of Phineus, whence they were driven to the islands called Strophades by Zethes and Calais. (Wid. Phineus) They emitted a noisome stench, and polluted whatever they touched. Wirgil introduces them into the AFneid, as plundering the table of Æneas and his companions, when that hero touched at the Strophades; and makes Celaeno, one of their number, predict to the Trojan leader the calamities that await him. (AEm., 3, 210, seqq.)—The Harpies are nothing more, in fact, than personifications of the storm-winds, and they appear clearly as such in the poems of Homer and Hesiod. The former says nothing of their shape or parentage; the latter says. that they were sisters of Iris, daughters of Thaumas and Electra, swift as birds or as the blasts of wind. (Theog., 267.) Their names, according to him, are Aéllo and Ocypete. Homer says, that Xanthus and Balius, the steeds of Achilles, were the offspring of Zephyrus by the harpy Podarge (Swift-foot). Virgil gives Celaeno as the name of the third of these monsters.—To the vivid imagination of the Greeks, the terrors of the storm were intimately associated with the idea of powerful and active demons directing its blasts. Hence the names bestowed on these fabulous creations. Thus we have the Harpies or “Snatchers,” from apitášw, in allusion to the storm-winds seizing a vessel and hurrying it away from its course: so also the individual appellations of the three, Aello, “a tempest;” Ocypete, “swift-flyer;” and Celaeno, “gloom.” The mixed form commonly assigned them was the addition of a later age. (On the subject of the Harpies, compare Salmas., ad dedic. Stat. Regill., p. 96, 241. —Spanheim, de usu et praes., mum. 1, p. 260, seqq.— Huschke, de Vasculo Locris, invento, p. 17–Creuzer, Comment. Herodot., p.346, seqq.) M. Le Clerc has a curious though unfounded theory respecting the Harpies. He supposes them to have been a swarm of locusts, which, after they had laid waste Bithynia and Paphlagonia, produced a famine there. According to him, the word arba, of which he maintains that of harpy is formed, signifies a locust; and as the north wind rid the country of them, having driven them as far as the Ionian Sea, where they perished, it was fabled that the sons of Boreas had put them to flight. Among many other objections to this explanation, it may suffice to urge but one here, namely, that the scene of the adventure of King Phineus is placed by the poets in Thrace, never in Asia. (Wid. Argonauta.) HARuspices, called also Extispices, a class of priests at Rome, who examined the victims and their entrails (exta), and thence derived omens respecting the future. They divined also from the flame, smoke, and other circumstances attending the sacrifice. If the victim came to the altar without resistance, stood there quietly, fell by one stroke, bled freely, &c., these were favourable signs. If, on the other hand, the victim struggled, or broke away from those who were leading it; if any part of the entrails, were wanting, or if they fell from the hand of the officiating priest; if the liver were double; if no heart appeared, &c., all these were ominous of evil. It will easily be perceived from this how wide a door was left for imposition; and hence probably one reason why the

haruspices were not esteemed so honourable as the
augurs. When Julius Caesar admitted one of them,
Ruspina, into the senate, Cicero represents it as an
indignity to that order. Their art was called Harus-
picina, or Haruspicum disciplina, and was derived
from Etruria, whence haruspices were often sent for to
Rome during the earlier periods of her history. They
sometimes also came from the East: thus we have in
Juvenal, “Armenius vel Commagenus harusper" (6,
549). The college of the haruspices was instituted
oy Romulus, according to the popular belief. Of
what number it consisted is uncertain.—The ordinary
ierivation of the terms haruspices and ertispices makes
the former come from ara, “an altar,” and specio,
“to examine” or “observe;” and the latter from exta,
“the entrails” of the victim, and specio. Donatus,
however (ad Terent., Phorm., 4, 28), gives a different
etymology for Harusper, namely, from haruga (the
name of hostia, a victim) and specio. That the name
itself is not an Etrurian one, appears very evidently
from the Inscriptio Bilinguis, found at Pisaurum, in
which the words harusper fulguriator are rendered
into Tuscan by netmff trutnft phruntac. (Müller,
Etrusker, vol. 2, p. 13, in notis.) A critic in the Halle
Alg. Lit. Zeit., 1824 (vol. 3, p. 45), condemns the
derivation from haruga, and deduces the name harus-
per from a Tuscan word here, which he makes equiva-
lent to Isacra, or the Greek term tepôg. In inscrip-
tions, aresper and arrespex also occur. (Compare
Creuzer, Symbolik, par Guigniaut, vol. 2, p. 467,
seqq.)
HasdrüBAL (meaning in Punic “(whose) help (is)
Baal”), I. a Carthaginian general, son of Mago, who
succeeded to the titles and glory of his father. It was
under his conduct that the Carthaginians carried the
war into Sardinia. He received a wound in that island
which caused his death, B.C. 420. (Justin, 19, 1.)
—II. Son of the preceding, made war upon the Nu-
midians, and freed Carthage from the tribute she had
been compelled to pay for being permitted to establish
herself on the coast of Africa. (Justin, 19, 2.)—III.
A son of Hanno, sent into Sicily at the head of a pow-
erful army to oppose the Romans. He was defeated
by Metellus, the Roman proconsul, B.C. 251. Has-
drubal fled to Lilybaeum, but was condemned to death
by his countrymen at home. (Id. ibid.)—IV. Son-in-
law of Hamilcar, distinguished himself under the or-
ders of that general in the war with Numidia. On the
the death of his father-in-law he was appointed com-
mander, and carried on military operations in Spain
during eight years. He reduced the greater part of
this country, and governed it with wisdom and pru-
dence. He founded Carthago Nova (Carthagena).
The Romans, wishing to put a stop to his successes,
made a treaty with Carthage, by which the latter bobnd
herself not to carry her arms beyond the Iberus. Has-
drubal faithfully observed the terms of this compact.
He was slain, B.C. 220, by a slave whose master he
had put to death. (Liv., 21, 2–Polyb. 2, 1–Id.,
3, 12.-Id., 2, 13.—Id., 10, 10.)—W. Son of Hamil-
car, brought from Spain large reinforcements for his
brother Hannibal. He crossed the barrier of the Alps,
and arrived in Italy, but the consuls Livius Salinator
and Claudius Nero, having intercepted the letters which
he had written to Hannibal, apprizing him of his arrival,
attacked him near the river Metaurus, and gave him a
complete defeat, B.C. 208. Hasdrubal fell in the
battle, with 56,000 of his troops. The Romans lost
about 8000 men, and made 5400 prisoners. The head
of Hasdrubal was severed from his body, and was
thrown a few days after into the camp of Hannibal.
Before attempting to enter Italy by land. Hasdrubal at-
tempted to cross the sea from Spain, but was defeat-
ed by the Roman governor of Sardinia. (Liv., 21, 23.
–Polyb., 11, 1.)—VI. A Carthaginian commander,
4 D

son of Giscon, who commanded the forces of his coun-
try in Spain during the time of Hannibal. Being sec-
onded by Syphax, he afterward carried on the war
against the Romans in Africa, but was defeated by
Scipio. He died B.C. 206. (Liv., 24, 41.—Id., 29,
35–Id., 30, 5.)—WII. A Carthaginian, surnamed
“Kid” (Lat. Hoedus), an opponent of the Barca sac-
tion. He advised his countrymen to make peace with
the Romans, and censured the ironical laugh of Han-
nibal in the Carthaginian senate, after the peace was
concluded.—VIII. A Carthaginian general, who, du-
ring the siege of Carthage by the Romans, command-
ed an army of 20,000 men without the walls, with
which he kept constantly harassing the besiegers. Be-
ing compelled at last to take refuge with his forces
within the city, he took command of the place, and
for a long time bravely withstood the attacks of the
Romans. After the capture of the city, he retired
with the Roman deserters, who had no quarters to ex-
pect, into the temple of Æsculapius in the citadel, re-
solved to bury himself under its ruins, taking with him,
at the same time, his wife and two young sons. At
length, however, having secretly left the temple, he
threw himself at the feet of Scipio, and supplicated for
life. Scipio granted his request, and showed him as
a suppliant to the deserters in the temple. These
desperate men, after venting against him a torrent of
reproaches, set fire to the temple, and perished amid
the flames. His wife, when the fire was kindling, dis-
played herself on the walls of the building in the rich-
est attire she was at the moment able to assume, and,
having upbraided her husband for his cowardice, slew
her two sons, and threw herself, with them, into the
burning pile. (Appian, Bell. Pun., 131.)
Hebe, the goddess of Youth ('Hôm), a daughter of
Jupiter and Juno. Her parentage is not mentioned
in the Iliad. Ovid calls her the step-daughter of Ju-
piter, in allusion to the sable which made Juno to have
conceived her after eating of lettuce. (Ov., Met., 9,
416.) In Olympus she appears as a kind of maid-ser-
vant; she hands round the nectar at the banquets of
the gods (Il., 4, 2.-Heyne, ad loc.); she makes ready
the chariot of Juno (Ill., 5, 722), and she bathes and
dresses Mars, when his wound has been cured. (Il.,
5, 905.) This last, however, was not a servile office,
since the daughter of Nestor renders it to Telemachus.
(Od., 3,464.) When Hercules was translated to the
skies, Hebe was given to him in marriage; a beautiful
fiction, by which the venerated sun-god was united to
immortal youth. According to the vulgar fable, Hebe
was dismissed from her office of cup-bearer in the
skies, and superseded by Ganymedes, because she had
fallen in an awkward and unbecoming manner while
handing around, on one occasion, the nectar to the
gods. Homer, however, merely says that Ganymedes
was carried off by the gods to be their cup-bearer (Il.,
20, 234), while in another part (4, 2) he represents
Hebe as still ministering to the gods. At Phlius, in
the Peloponnesus, a goddess was worshipped, whom
the ancient Phliasians, according to Pausanias, call
Ganymédé (Tavvuñón), but in his time she was named
Hebe. (Pausan., 2, 13.) Strabo says, that Hebe
was worshipped at Phlius and Sicyon under the name
of Dia. In the arts, Hebe is represented with the
cup in which she presents the nectar, under the figure
of a charming young girl, her dress adorned with roses,
and wearing a wreath of flowers. An eagle often
stands by her, as at the side of Ganymedes, which she
is caressing. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 111.--Mül-
ler, Archaeol. der Kunst, p. 625.) -
Hebrus, a large river of Thrace, and one of the
most considerable in Europe. It rises in the central
chain that separates the plains of Thrace from the
great valley of the Danube. Thucydides says (2,96),
that it takes its source in Mount sco,” Plin,

(4, 11) in Mount Rhodope. After receiving several tributary streams, it falls into the AEgean, near the city of AEmus. An estuary, which it forms at its mouth, was known to Herodotus by the name of Stentoris Palus (Xrevropido; Aiuvn–7, 58.—Compare Plin., 4, 1 l). The Hebrus is now called the Maritza. Dr. Clarke found the Maritza a broad and muddy stream, much swollen by rains. (Travels, vol. 8, p. 94, London ed.) Plutarch (de Fluv.) states, that this river once bore the name of Rhombus; and there grew upon its banks, perhaps the identical plant now constituting a principal part of the commerce of the country; being then used, as it is now, for its intoxicating qualities. It is, moreover, related of the Hebrus by Pliny (33, 4), that its sands were auriferous ; and Belon has confirmed this observation, by stating that the inhabitants annually collected the sand for the gold it contained. (Observat. cn Grece, p. 63, Paris, 1555.) According to the ancient mythologists, after Orpheus had been torn in pieces by the Thracian Bacchantes, his head and lyre were cast into the Hebrus, and, being carried down that river to the sea, were borne by the waves to Methymna, in the island of Lesbos. The Methymneans buried the head of the unfortunate bard, and suspended the lyre in the temple of Apollo. (Opid, Met., 11, 55.—Philarg. ad Virg., Georg., 4, 523.− Eustath. in Dionys., v. 536.-Hygin., Astron. Poet., 2, 7.) Servius adds, that the head was at one time carried to the bank of the river, and that a serpent thereupon sought to devour it, but was changed into stone. (ad Virg., Georg., l.c.) Dr. Clarke thinks, that this part of the old legend may have originated in an appearance presented by one of those extraneous fossils called Serpent-stones or Ammonitae, found near this river. (Travels, vol. 8, p. 100, Lond, ed.) At the junction of the Hebrus with the Tonsus and Ardiscus, Orestes is said to have purified himself from his mother's blood. (Wid. Orestias.) HEcAlesia, a festival at Athens, in honour of Jupiter Hecalesius. It was instituted by Theseus, in cominemoration of the kindness of Hecale towards him, when he was going on his enterprise against the Macedonian bull. This Hecale was an aged female, according to the common account, while others referred the name to one of the borough towns of the Leontian tribe in Attica. (Steph. Byz., s. v.–Plut., Wit. Thes.—Castellanus, de Fest. Graec., p. 108.) Heckt.E FANUM, a celebrated temple sacred to Hecate, near Stratonicea in Caria. (Strabo, 660.) Hecataeus, I. a native of Miletus. We learn from Suidas, s. v. 'Ekaraioc, that his father's name was Hegesander; that he flourished about the sixty-fifth Olympiad, during the reign of Darius, who succeeded Cambyses; that he was a scholar of Protagoras, and the first who composed a history in prose; and that Herodotus was much indebted to his writings. Under the word ‘E2.24v.ukoc, Suidas says that Hecatasus flourished during the Persian wars. This account is in part confirmed by Herodotus, who tells us that, when Aristagoras planned the revolt of the Ionian cities from Darius (5, 36), Hecataeus, in the first instance, condemned the enterprise ; and afterward (5, 125), when the unfortunate events of the war had demonstrated the wisdom of his former opinion, he recommended Aristagoras, in case he found himself under the necessity of quitting Ionia, to fortify some strong position in the island of Leros, and there to remain quiet until a favourable opportunity occurred of reoccupying Miletus. We learn also from Herodotus (2, 143), that Hecatasus had visited Egypt. According to Diogenes Laertius, Protagoras flourished in the eighty-fourth Olympiad; consequently Hecataeus could not have been his scholar, as Suidas supposes. The Abbé Sevin (Mem. de l'Acad, des Inscr., vol. 6, p. 472) has two conjectures on this point; he suggests that we should either read Pythagoras instead of Pro

tagoras, or that Suidas has, by mistake, said of the Milesian Hecataeus what was true of another Hecataeus, a native of Teos. Wossius, from misunderstanding a passage in Diogenes, erroneously conceives our Hecataeus to have been a scholar of Heraclitus. (De Hist. Graec., p. 439.) As regards the assertion of Suidas, alluded to above, that Hecataeus was the first prose-writer, it may be remarked, that the lexicographer is not altogether consistent on this point. He asserts, in another place, that, in the opinion of some persons, Cadmus was the first that wrote in Greek prose. Under the word £epeköönc, he divides the honour of being the first prose-writer between Cadmus and Pherecydes. Pliny (2, 59,) makes Cadmus the first who wrote in prose; but in another passage (7, 56) we find the following: “Prosam orationem condere Pherecydes Syrius instituit, Cyri regis a tate; historiam Cadmus Milesius.” Cadmus, after all, appears best entitled to the honour of having been the earliest Grecian prose-writer.—But to return to Hecataeus ; the references to his works are numerous, and show that he was a very voluminous writer. Suidas tells us that he wrote a history; Strabo (17) mentions it. It is also referred to by Stephanus under the words Alvin and 4.4%avva, and by the scholast on Apollonius Rhodius (1, 551). Hecataeus also wrote a genealogical work; it contained several books, the first and second of which are mentioned by Stephanus (s. v. Mežía.—s. v. 'Augavaí.—s. v. Xačvaria); the second by Harpocration (s. v. sidežjiseuv); the third by Athenaeus (2, p. 148); the fourth by Stephanus (s. v. Mūytoot.—s. v. Tutuiàn). We have the testimony of Strabo, that Hecatasus was one of the earliest writers on geographical subjects. Agathemerus (p. 2, ed. Huds.) says, that Hecataeus corrected a map of the world which had been delineated by Anaximander. Ammianus Marcellinus also (22, 8) mentions him as a writer on geographical subjects. (Mus. Crit., vol. 1, p. 88, seqq.) Whether the treatises . which we find quoted in various writers, under the titles of Etpørmo Treptădoc, 'Aqiao Treptăymouc, Atóón: Teptiymouc, Alyūrrow Treptăymouc, were distinct works, or parts of his larger geographical work, cannot now be ascertained. The remark of Suidas has already been cited at the commencement of this article, that Herodotus was much indebted to the writings of Hecataeus, and it has been supposed that the very particular account which the latter gave, in his work on Egypt, of the history of Thebes, was the reason that Herodotus says comparatively so little on this interesting topic. (Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 1, p. 240.) Dionysius of Halicarnassus praises the simplicity and clearness which distinguished the style of Hecataeus. The fragments of this writer that have reached our times were collected by Creuzer, and published in his Historicorum Græcorum Antiquiss. Fragmenta, 8vo, Heidelb., 1806. A separate edition of them, to which is appended the Periplus of Scylax, was given in 1831, 8vo, by Klausen, from the Berlin press. (Hoffmann, Ler. Bibliogr., vol. 2, p. 334.)—II. A native of Abdera, who accompanied Alexander the Great into Asia. He was a disciple of Pyrrho, the head of the Sceptic school. He wrote a work on the Antiquities of the Jews, cited, under the title IIepi 'Iovčasov 3-62sov, by Origen (Contra Cels., 1, p. 13), and under that of 'Iovöatov tatopia by Eusebius. (Prap. Ev., lib. 3, p. 239, ed. R. Steph.) It is from this work that Photius has preserved for us an interesting extract, with which, however, he credits Hecatasus of Miletus. Clemens Alexandrinus (Strom., 5, p. 717, ed. Potter) speaks of a work of Hecataeus's on Abraham and Egypt, which is probably the same with the one just mentioned. Scaliger (Epist. 115), Eichhorn (Bibl. der Biblischen. Lit., vol. 5, pt. 3, p. 431), and others, have thought that this work or these works, of which Josephus and Photius (after Diodorus) have preserved an extract

must be referred to the Hellenistic Jews, as a fabrication of theirs. Sainte-Croix, on the other hand, undertakes to support their authenticity. (Examen des Historiens d'Alexandre-le-Grand, p. 558.) It appears, however, that Hecataeus of Abdera actually wrote a work on Egypt, for Diodorus Siculus (1, 47) and Plutarch (De Is. et Os., p. 143, ed. Wyttenb.—ed. Reiske, vol. 7, p. 392) both cite it. The fragments of Hecatasus of Abdera were published by Zorn, Altona, 1730, 8vo, and are given in part also by Creuzer, in his Hist. Graec. Antiquiss. Fragm., p. 28, seqq.— III. A native of Teos, supposed to have flourished about the ninetieth Olympiad. Compare the remarks of Creuzer, (Hist. Gr. Ant. Fragm., p. 6, seqq.)—IV. A native of Eretria, who wrote IIepi Nóatov, “On the wanderings of the Grecian chieftains returning from Troy.” He is mentioned also by Plutarch among the historians of Alexander. (Schöll, Hist. Litt. Gr., vol. 4, p. 133.) Heckte ('Ekārn), the name of a goddess in the Grecian mythology. In the Theogony of Hesiod (v. 411), this deity is made the daughter of Perses and Asteria. Bacchylides speaks of her as the daughter of Night, while Musæus gave her Jupiter as a sire in place of Perses. (Schol. ad Apoll. Rh., 3, 467.) Others again made her the offspring of the Olympian king by Pheraea, the daughter of AEolus (Tzotz, ad Lyc., 1180), or by Ceres (Schol, ad Theocrit., 2, 12). According to Pherecydes, her sire was Arista:us. (Schol. ad Apoll. Rh., l.c.) It is said in the Theogony (412, seqq.), that Hecate was highly honoured by Jupiter, who allowed her to exercise extensive power over land and sea, and to share in all the honours enjoyed by the children of Heaven and Earth. She rewards sacrifice and prayer to her with prosperity. She presides over the deliberations of the popular assembly, over war, and the administration of justice. She gives success in wrestling and horse-racing. The fisherman prays to her and Neptune; the herdsman to her and Hermes; for she can increase and diminish at her will. Though an only child (in contrast to Apollo and Diana, who have similar power), she is honoured with all power among the immortals, and is, by the appointment of Jupiter, the rearer of children, whom she has brought to see the light of day.—This passage, however, is plainly an interpolation in the Theogony, with which it is not in harmony. It has all the appearance of o; an Orphic composition, and is, perhaps, the work of the notorious forger Onomacritus. (Göttling, ad loc.—Thiersch, uber Hesiodus, p. 24.—Keightley's Mythology, p. 66.)—Hecate is evidently a stranger-divinity in the mythology of the Greeks. It would appear that she was one of the hurtful class of deities, transported by Hesiod, or his interpolator, into the Grecian mythology, and placed behind the popular divinities of the day, as a being of earlier existence. Hence the remark of the bard, that Jupiter respected all the prerogatives which Hecate had enjoyed previous to his ascending the throne of his father. Indeed, the sphere which the poet assigns her, places her out of the reach of all contact with the acting divinities of the day. She is mentioned neither in the Iliad nor Odyssey, and the attributes assigned her in the more recent poem of the Argonauts are the same with those of Proserpina in Homer. (Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 1, p. 158-Id, 2, 120–Goerres, Mythong., vol. 1, p. 254.—Hermann, Handb. der Myth., vol. 2, p. 45.) Jablonski (Panth. Ægypt.) regards Hecate as the same with the Egyptian Tithrambo. Her action upon nature, her diversified attributes, her innumerable functions, are a mixture of physical, allegorical, and philosophical traditions respecting the fusion of the elements and the generation of beings. Hecate was the night, and, by an extension of this idea, the primitive night, the primary cause or parent of all things. She was the moon, and

hence were connected with her all those accessary ideas which are grouped around that of the moon: she is the goddess that troubles the reason of men, the goddess that presides over nocturnal ceremonies, and, consequently, over magic; hence her identity with Diana for the Grecian mythology, with Isis for the Egyptian ; and hence also all her cosmogonical attributes, assigned to Isis in Egypt. (Constant, de la Religion, vol. 4, p. 139, in notis.)—As regards the etymology of her name, it may be remarked, that the most probable one seems to be that which deduces it from the Greek ékáts, the seminine of £karoc, denoting either “her that operates from asar,” or “her that removes or drives off.” (Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 2, p. 124.) Expiatory sacrifices were offered to this goddess on the thirtieth of every month, in which eggs and young dogs formed the principal objects. The remains of these animals and of the other offerings, together with a large quantity of all sorts of coinestibles, were exposed in the cross-roads, and called the “Supper of Hecate” ('Ekārn; deitvov). The poorer class and the Cynics seized upon these viands with an eagerness that passed among the ancients as a mark of extreme indigence, or the lowest degree of baseness. (Compare the note of Hemsterhuis, ad Lucian. Dial. Mort, 1. – Op., ed. Bip., vol. 2, p. 397, seqq.) Her statues were in general dog-headed, and were set up at Athens and elsewhere, in the marketplaces and at cross-roads. It is probable, indeed, that the dog-headed form was the ancient and mystic one of Hecate, and that under which she was worshipped in the mysteries of Samothrace, where dogs were immolated in her honour. Hecate had also her mysteries, celebrated at AEgina, and the establishment of which was ascribed to 8. Another name of this goddess was Brimo (from 3péuo, “to roar"). This seems to have been chiefly employed to denote her terrific appearance, especially when she came summoned by magic arts. Apollonius of Rhodes (Arg., 3, 1214, seqq.) describes her as having her head surrounded by serpents, twining through branches of oak, while torches flamed in her hands, and the infernal dogs howled around. Lucian's “liar of the first magnitude,” Eucrates, gives a most terrific description of her appearance. (Philopseud., 22, seqq.) In this character she was also sometimes called Empusa. (Eudocia, 147.) These, however, were evidently late ideas and fictions. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 67.) HEcAtombol A, a festival celebrated in honour of Juno by the Argives and people of AEgina. It received its name from ēkarów and Boöc, being a sacrifice of a hundred oxen, which were always offered to the goddess, and the flesh distributed among the poorest citizens. There were also public games, first instituted by Archinus, a king of Argos, in which the prize was a shield of brass with a crown of myrtle.—There was also an anniversary sacrifice called by this name in Laconia, and offered for the preservation of the 100 cities which once flourished in that country. HecatoxiphöNíA (from ékatów, “a hundred,” and govečw, “to kill”), a solemn sacrifice offered by the Messenians to Jupiter when any of them had killed a hundred enemies. Aristomenes is said to have offered up this sacrifice three times in the course of the Messenian wars against Sparta. (Pausan, 4, 19.) HEcAtompólis, an epithet given to Crete, from the hundred cities which it once contained. (Hom., Il., 2, 649.) The same epithet was also applied to Laconia. (Strabo, 362–Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Autok?at.) The greater part of these, however, were probably, like the demi of Attica, not larger than villages. (Wid. Laconia.) Hecatompylos, I. an epithet applied to Thebes in Egypt, on account of its hundred gates. (Vid remarks under the article Theba, I.)—II. The metropolis of Parthia, and royal residence of the Aio, Situate

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in the district of Comisene, and southwest part of the province of Parthiene. The name is of Grecian origin, probably a translation of the native term, and has a figurative allusion to the numerous routes which diverge from this place to the adjacent country. D'Anville makes it correspond with the modern Demegan. (Plin., 6, 15.-Curt., 6, 2.—Ammian. Marcell., 23, 24.—Polyb., 10, 25.—Diod. Sic., 17, 25.) Hecaton NEsi, small islands between Lesbos and Asia. They derived their names, according to Strabo (13), from £karoc, an epithet of Apollo, that deity being particularly worshipped along the continent of Asia, off which they lay. It seems more probable, however, that they had their name from ēkarów, a hundred, and were called so from their great number, which is about forty or over. And Herodotus, in fact, writes the name 'Ekaróv Nijgot (1, 151). The modern appellation is Musco-Nisi. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 1, p. 165.) Hector, son of Priam and Hecuba, was the most valiant of all the Trojan chiefs that fought against the Greeks. He married Andromache, daughter of Eétion, by whom he became the father of Astyanax. Hector was appointed commander of all the Trojan forces, and for a long period proved the hulwark of his native city. He was not only the bravest and most powerful, but also the most amiable, of his countrymen, and particularly distinguished himself in his conflicts with Ajax, Diomede, and many other of the most formidable leaders. The fates had decreed that Troy should never be destroyed as long as Hector lived. The Greeks, therefore, aster the death of Patroclus, who had fallen by Hector's hand, made a powerful effort under the command of Achilles; and, by the intervention of Minerva, who assumed the form of Deiphobus, and urged Hector to encounter the Grecian chief, contrary to the remonstrances of Priam and Hecuba, their effort was crowned with success. Hector sell, and his death accomplished the overthrow of his father's kingdom. The dead body of the Trojan warrior was attached to the chariot of Achilles, and insultingly dragged away to the Grecian fleet; and thrice every day, for the space of twelve days, was it also dragged by the victor around the tomb of Patroclus. (Il., 22, 399, seqq.— Ib., 24, 14, seqq.). During all this time, the corpse of Hector was shielded from dogs and birds, and preserved from corruption, by the united care of Venus and Apollo. (Il., 23, 185, seqq.) The body was at last ransomed by Priam, who went in person, for this purpose, to the tent of Achilles. Splendid obsequies were rendered to the deceased, and with these the action of the Iliad terminates.—Virgil makes Achilles to have dragged the corpse of Hector thrice round the walls of Troy. (AEn., 1,483.) Homer, however, is silent on this point. According to the latter, Hector fled thrice round the city-walls before engaging with Achilles; and, after he was slain, his body was immediately attached to the car of the victor, and dragged away to the ships. (Il., 22, 399.) The incident, therefore, alluded to by Virgil must have been borrowed from some one of the Cyclic bards, or some tragic poet, for these, it is well known, allowed themselves great license in diversifying and altering the features of the ancient heroic legends. (Heyne, Ercurs. 18, ad Virg, Æn, 1.-Wernsdorff, ad Epit. Il in Poet. Lat. Min., vol. 4, p. 742.) Hectiba ('Ekdom), daughter of Dymas, a Phrygian o or, according to others, of Cisseus, a Thracian ing, while others, again, made her the daughter of the

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of Priam, king of Troy. (Apollod., 3, 12, 6.) She bore him nineteen children (Ill., 24, 496), of whom the chief were Hector, Paris, Deiphobus, Helenus, Troilus, Polites, Polydorus, Cassandra, Creüsa, and Polyxena. When she was pregnant of Paris, she dreamed that she o, into the world a burning torch, which re0

duced her husband's palace and all Troy to ashes. On her telling this dream to Priam, he sent for his son AEsacus, by a former wife Arisbe, the daughter of Merops, who had been reared and taught to interpret dreams by his grandfather. ACsacus declared, that the child would be the ruin of his country, and recommended to expose it. As soon as born, the babe was given to a servant to be left on Ida to perish; but the attempt proved a fruitless one, and the prediction of the soothsayer was fulfilled. (Wid. Paris.) After the ruin of Troy and the death of Priam, Hecuba fell to the lot of Ulysses, and she embarked with the conquerors for Greece. The fleet, however, was detained off the coast of the Thracian Chersonese by the appearance. of the spectre of Achilles on the summit of his tomb, demanding to be honoured with a new offering. Po. lyxena was, in consequenec, torn from Hecuba and immolated by Neoptolemus on the grave of his sire. The grief of the mother was increased by the sight of the dead body of her son Polydorus, washed upon the shore, who had been cruelly slain o Polymestor, king of Thrace, to whose care Priam had consigned him. Bent on revenge, Hecuba managed, by artifice, to get Polymestor and his two children in her power, and, by the aid of her fellow-captives, she effected the murder of his sons, and then put out the eyes of the father. (Vid. Polydorus, Polymestor.). This act drew upon her the vengeance of the Thracians: they assailed her with darts and showers of stones; and, in the act of biting a stone with impotent rage, she was suddenly metamorphosed into a dog. (Ovid, Met., 13, 429, seqq.)—Hyginus says, that she threw herself into the sea (fab. 111), while Servius states, that she was changed into a dog when on the point of casting herself into the waters. (ad AEm., 3, 6–Consult Schol. ad Eurip., Hec., 1259. — Tzetz., Chil., 111, 74.— Schol. ad Jun., Sat., 10,271.-Plaut., Menach., 1– Heyne, ad Apollod., 3, 12, 5.) HEGEMon, a native of Thasos, and author of satyric dramas in the age of Alcibiades. This distinguished individual was his friend, and managed to get him freed from an accusation that had been brought against him. A piece of this poet, entitled Gigantomachia, was getting represented when the news arrived of the defeat of Nicias in Sicily. This Hegemon bore the appellation of Phace (oaks, “a lentil"), conferred on him as a nickname. He wrote also a comedy entitled Philinna. (Böckh, Staatsh der Athener, vol. 1, p. 435. —Schöll, Gesch. Griech. Lit., vol. 1, p. 269,290.) HEGesù NAx, a Greek writer, a native of Alexandrea-Troas, and contemporary with Antiochus the Great, by whom he was patronised. He was the author of an historical work; and indulged also in poetic composition, having written a poem entitled tâ Tpoká, “Trojan Affairs.” Some ascribed to him the “Cyprian Epic.” He was likewise a writer of tragedies; and, according to Athenaeus, from whom all these particulars are obtained, was also a tragic actor, having improved and strengthened his voice, which was naturally weak, by abstaining for eighteen years from eating figs. (Athen, 3, p. 80, d.—Id., 4, p. 155, b-Id, 9, p. 393, d.) - Hegesias, I. a Cyclic poet, born at Salamis, in the island of Cyprus, and, according to some, the author of the Cyprian Epic. (Wid. Stasinus.)—II. A native of Magnesia, who wrote an historical work on the companions in arms of Alexander the Great. His style was loaded with puerile ornaments, and betrayed a total want of taste. (Dion. Hal., de Struct. Orat., c. 18.) He wrote also some discourses, which are lost. . The ancients regarded him as the parent of that species o' eloquence denominated the Asiatic, which had taken the place of the simple and elegant Attic, (Compare Quintil., Inst. Or, 12, 10.)—III. A philosopher, surnamed IIetat64varoc, or “Advocate of Death.” He pushed the principles of the Cyrenaic sect, to

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