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GythéUM, the port of Sparta, about 40 stadia from Las (Pausan., 3, 24), and 240 from Sparta itself. (Strabo, 363.) Pliny says it was the nearest point to embark from for the island of Crete (4, 5). Gytheum was taken by the Athenians under Tolmidas, who burnt the docks before the Peloponnesian war. (Diodorus Sic., 11, 84.) It was also attacked by the Thebans in their first invasion of Laconia, for three days, but without success. (Xen., Hist. Gr., 6, 5, 32.) It was afterward besieged by the Roman army under the command of T. Q. Flaminimus and his brother Lucius, and compelled to surrender. Livy says it was a strong and populous town, and well provided with the means of resistance (34, 29). On the renewal of the war, it was, however, retaken by Nabis. (Liv., 35, 26. — Compare Polyb., 2, 69.). The Gytheatae pretended that their city had been built by Hercules and Apollo, whose statues were placed in the forum. Polybius states (5, 19), that the port, distant 30 stadia from the city itself, was both commodious and secure. Strabo remarks, that it was an artificial haven. Gytheum stood a little to the north of the present town of Marathonisi. The site is now called Palacopoli, but no habitation is left upon it. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol 3, p. 192, seqq.)

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Hapes (siónç), the place of departed spirits, according to the Grecian mythology; from a, not, and eiów, to see, as denoting the lower or invisible world. Its divisions were Elysium and Tartarus, the respective abodes of the good and bad. In the Homeric times, however, this arrangement formed no part of the popular creed. The prevalent belief was merely as follows; that the souls of the departed, with the exception of those who had personally offended against the gods, were occupied in the lower world with the unreal performance of the same actions that had formed their chief objects of pursuit in the regions of day. All the other accompaniments of the fable, the judges, the tribunals, the trials of the dead, &c., are merely posthomeric additions. (Constant, de la Religion, vol. 3, p. 383.) As regards the analogy between the terms hades and our English word hell, it may be remarked, that the latter, in its primitive signification, perfectly corresponded to the former. For, at first, it denoted only what was secret or concealed; and it is found, moreover, with little variation of form, and precisely with the same meaning, in all the Teutonic dialects. (Compare Junius's Gothic Glossary, subjoined to the Codex Argenteus, on the word herlyan; and the Diversions of Purley, vol. 2, p. 377, ed. 1829.) With regard to the situation of hades, it seems always to have been conceived, by both Jews and pagans, as in the lower parts of the earth, near its centre, as we should term it, or its foundation (according to the notion of the Hebrews, who knew nothing of its spherical figure), and answering in depth to the visible heavens in height. (Compare, on this whole subject, Campbell's Gospels, vol. 1, p, 272, seqq., Disc. 6, t. 2.) P HADRANUM, a town of Sicily, near Mount AEtna, having in its vicinity a river of the name of Hadranus. (Steph. Byz., s. v.) It was founded by Dionysius. (Diod. Sic., 14, 38—Compare Silius Italicus, 14, 250.)

HADR1ANUs (Publius AElius), I. a Roman emperor, born at Rome A.D. 76. He lost his father when ten years of age, and had for his guardians Trajan, who was his relation, and Cornelius Tatianus, a Roman knight. His parent's name was AElius Hadrianus Afer, and it is conjectured that the surname of Afer was given the latter because he had been governor of Africa, and that he is the same with the Hadrianus who put the martyr Leontius to death at Tripolis, in the reign of Vespasian. (Bayle, Hist. Dict, s.

v., vol. 5, p. 670.) Hadrian's father was Trajan's first cousin; for he was the son of Ulpia, the sister of Marcus Ulpius Trajanus, the Emperor Trajan's father. (Compare Tzschucke, ad Eutrop., s. 6.) Hadrian began very early to serve in the army, and was tribune of a legion before Domitian's death. The sorces in Lower Moesia chose him to congratulate Trajan upou his being adopted by Nerva, and it was he that acquainted Trajan with the first news of Nerva's death. He regained the emperor's favour, which he had almost entirely lost by his extravagant expenses and the debts which he had in consequence incurred, and married the grand niece of this prince, Sabina, chiefly through the aid of Plotina the empress. His subsequent rise was rapid, and he was the companion of Trajan in most of his expeditions. He particularly distinguished himself in the war against the Dacians, and was successively appointed praetor, governor of Pannonia, and consul. The orations he composed for Trajan increased his credit. (Spartian., Wit. Hadr.) After the siege of Atra, in Arabia, Trajan left him in command of his army, and when he found his death approaching, adopted him, although the reality of this adoption is disputed by some authorities, who attribute his elevation to the intrigues and good offices of Plotina. (Dio Cass., c. 69, vol. 2, p. 1148, ed. Reimar.—Spartian., Wit. Hadr., c. 4, p. 45.—Bayle, Hist. Dict., s. v. Plotina, vol. 8, p. 433.) On the death of Trajan he assumed the reins of government, with the concurrence of the Syrian army; and the senate readily ratified the act. The first care of Hadrian was to make a peace with the Persians, and to restore all the provinces just taken from them, making the Euphrates the boundary of the Roman empire. He had then to turn his attention to certain revolts and insurrections in Egypt, Libya, and Palestine; and, after quickly concluding a peace with the Parthians, returned to Rome, A.D. 118. The senate decreed him a triumph, and honoured him with the title of Father of his Country; but he refused both, and required that Trajan's image should triumph. He sought popularity by a repeal of fifteen years accumulation of arrears of public debt, by a vast reduction of taxation generally, and by immense largesses to the people. He was less generous to certain senators accused of a plot against him, four of whom, although of consular rank and intimates of Trajan, he caused to be put to death. A year after his return to Rome, Hadrian marched against the Alani, the Sarmatians, and the Dacians, but showed a greater desire to make peace with these barbarians than to extend the progress of the Roman arms. This policy has been attributed to envy of the same of his warlike predecessor; but a due consideration of the subsequent history of the empire will amply justify him against the imputation; for it had reached an extent which rendered all increase to its limits a source of weakness rather than of strength. Hadrian was an active prince and a great traveller, visiting every province in the empire, not simply to indulge his curiosity, but to inspect the administration of government, repress abuses, erect and repair public edifices, and exercise all the vigilance of personal examination. In A.D. 120, he passed over from Gaul to Britain, where he caused a wall to be built from the mouth of the Tyne to Solway Frith, in order to secure the Roman provinces from the incursions of the Caledonians. (Consult Hutton's Roman Wall, Lond., 1802.) Like Trajan, he lived familiarly with his friends, but was much mole suspicious, and could not repose in them the same confidence. When at Rome he cultivated all kinds of literature, conversing with learned men, and giving and receiving information in their society, but not without occasionally displaying an unbecoming jealousy and caprice. Hadrian had again to visit the East to repress the Parthians, who paid little regard to treatles. On his return he passed the winter at Athens, and was initiated in the Eleusinian mysteries. He published no edict against the Christians, yet they nevertheless endured considerable persecution, until, upon the remonstrance of Quadratus, bishop of Athens, and Aristides, an eminent Christian, he ordered the persecution to cease; but no credit is due to the unauthorized assertion of Lampridius, that he thought of building a temple to our Saviour. His treatment of the Jews, on the other hand, was extremely severe, though ample provocation had been given by that turbulent nation. They had raised disturbances towards the end of Trajan's reign, which were not completely quelled until the second year of Hadrian. But now a more forinidable insurrection broke out under Barcochebas (“Son of a Star”), who, though a robber by profession, had given himself out for the Messiah. It required a war of three years to reduce the revolted Jews to complete subjection, and after this was accomplished, there was scarcely any indignity that was not inflicted on the conquered nation. jo, was rebuilt under the new title of AElia Capitolina, uniting the family name of the emperor with the Roman surname of Jupiter, and in the execution of his plan Hadrian studiously profaned all the places which had been most revered by both Jews and Christians, whom he seems on this occasion to have purposely confounded together. He built a temple in honour of Jupiter Capitolinus upon the mountain where had stood that of the true God; he placed a hog of marble upon the gate of the city which looked towards Bethlehem; he erected in the place where Jesus was crucified a statue of Venus; and in that where he rose from the dead one of Jupiter; in the grotto of Bethlehem, where our Saviour was born, he established the worship of Adonis. The Jews were also forbidden the very sight of Jerusalem, which they were not permitted to enter but on one day in the year, the anniversary of the destruction of the city. After the conclusion of the Jewish war Hadrian returned to Italy, where a lingering illness put a stop to his unsettled mode of life, and eventually terminated his existence. Having no children of his own, Hadrian first adopted for his successor L. Ceronius Commodus, more generally known by the name of Verus, to which last he prefixed that of Ælius after his adoption by the emperor. Verus, however, who was remarkable for nothing but his excessive effeminacy and debauched mode of life, died soon after, and Hadrian made a second selection in the person of the virtuous Antoninus. (Vid. Antoninus Pius.), Hadrian died not long after at Baia, A.D. 136, in the 63d year of his age and 22d of his reign. His disorder was the dropsy, from which disease his sufferings were so great as apparently to affect his reason. The character of this monarch presents a strange mixture of virtues and vices. If he cultivated literature and courted the society of the learned, he yet occasionally displayed towards them a degree of jealousy and caprice altogether unworthy of his station and abilities. If he was, in general, a just and able ruler, yet there were times when he showed himself revengeful, suspicious, and cruel. His treatinent of his wife Sabina does no honour to his memory, his disgraceful predilection for Antinous loads it with infamy ; nor does his excessive superstition, to which even that favourite fell a victim, entitle him to any other than feelings of contempt. The better portion of the Romans appear to have formed a just estimate of his character long before his death, and it was with difficulty that Antoninus could obtain from the senate the usual compliment of having him ranked among the gods. Their dread of the soldiery, by whom Hadrian was greatly beloved, appears to have conquered their reluctance. Hadrian wrote several works. He was fond of entering the lists against the poets, philosophers, and orators of the day,

and Photius mentions several declamations of the emperor's, written for such occasions, as still existing in his time, and not devoid of elegance. Hadrian coinposed a history of his own times, which he published under the name of his freedman Phlegon, and Doritheus the grammarian made at a subsequent period a collection of his decisions and rescripts. All that we have of his productions at the present day are, a fragment of a work on military operations, entitled 'EmTúðevua, and an epigrammatic address to his soul, written a short time before his death, and as remarkable for its elegance as its scepticism. It is as follows:

“Animula, ragula, blandula, Hospes comesque corporis, Quac nunc abubis in loca, Pallidula, rigida, nudula, Nec, ut soles, dabis jocos ?”

(Pausanias, 1, 18. —Id., 8, 9. –Aurel. Vict.—Capitol., Vit. Anton., c. 2.-Euseb., Chron., p. 281, seqq., ed. Maii et Zohrabi...—Id., Hist. Eccles., 4, 6.)—II. A philosopher of Tyre, who studied under Herodes, and taught eloquence after him at Athens. He was also secretary to the Emperor Commodus. ("Avriypaspeig Tøv Štuatoždov.) He died at Rome after having attained the age of 80 years. We have only some fragments remaining of the works of this writer, which cause no regret for what are lost. They are found in the Excerpta of Allatius, and at the end of Orellius's edition of Philo of Byzantium. (Scholl, Hist. Litt. Grecque, vol. 4, p. 233.) HADRIAticum MARE. Wid. Adriaticum. HAEM on, a son of Creon king of Thebes. According to Apollodorus (3, 5, 8), he was devoured by the Sphinx. The tragic writers, however, assigned him a different fate. (Wid. Antigone.) HAEM oxia, one of the earlier appellations of Thessaly, and supposed to be derived from the name of an ancient monarch Haemon. (Strabo, 443.) Other writers give the name less correctly without the initial aspirate. (Stephanus Byz, s. v. —ed. Berkel, p. 63.) In Brunck's edition of Apollonius Rhodius, the true form is given in both the text and scholia. It is more than probable, that the name Haemonia was brought in by the Pelasgi; and to this same race, no doubt, must the appellation of Haemus, given to the northern boundary of Thrace, be in strictness attributed. (Vid. Haemus.) HAEMus, a chain of mountains forming the northern boundary of Thrace, and separating it from Moesia. The ancients had such an idea of the elevation of this chain, that Pomponius Mela (2, 2) affirms that the Euxine and Hadriatic could be seen from it at the same time. Polybius also makes the same assertion, but this Strabo (313) expressly contradicts. The historian, however, is doubtless correct in another remark of his, that the chain of Haemus is higher than that of the Alps. Livy relates (40, 22), that Philip, king of Macedonia, having heard it reported that from the summit of Haemus could be seen at once the Euxine, the Adriatic, the Danube, and the Alps, determined to ascend the mountain, in order to take a view, as it were, of the approaching scene of action between himself and the Romans. He was three days in reaching the summit, after a difficult and toilsome march ; the weather, however, proved unfavourable for the view. Pliny (4,2) Inakes Haemus six miles high. It is remarkable that Herodotus should have taken no notice of it in his mention of the expedition of Darius against the Scythians, though it must have presented so formidable a barrier to the army of that monarch. He speaks of it, however, on another occasion (4,49). According to Stephanus of Byzantium (p. 64, ed. Berk.), the mountain derived its name from Haemus, or AEmus, a son of Boreas and Orithyia. Apollodorus, however (6, 3), says the chain was called Hasmus from alua, “blood,” because Typhon having been chased hither by Jupiter, waged battle in this place against the monarch of the skies, and covered the mountain with his blood. Heyne, ad Apollod, l.c., where this etymology is staled to be the offspring of later ages.) The true root is found in the Sanscrit Hema, which connects together the names of Imaus, Himmala, Haemus, Hymettus, in ancient geography, and the appellation Himmel, given to various mountains in Saxony, Jutland, and elsewhere. (Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 1, 536. — Creuzer, Symbolik, par Guignaut, vol. 1, p. 135. — Gotting. Gel. auz, 1815, No. 36, p. 357.) This root Hema, otherwise written Himeras, Imos, Jenna, &c., appears to carry with it the idea of height (compare the German himmel, “heaven”), and also that of a snowy or wintry elevation. (Compare the Latin hiems and the Greek Aelua.-Klaproth, Memoires relatifs a l'Asie, vol. 1, p. 432.)—The length of the chain of Haemus is not less remarkable than its height, extending for 500 miles; one end resting on the Gulf of Venice, and the other on the Black Sea. The modern name is Balcan, which signifies a difficult defile; and it is properly divided into high and low, the latter advancing on each side, like outworks before the great natural rampart. (Walsh's Journey from Constantinople to England, p. 104, Am. ed.) The passage of the Balcan by the Russian forces, in their conflict with the Mussulman power, has excited great interest and called forth considerable applause. From the remarks, however, of a very recent traveller, it would appear that the undertaking was anything but difficult. (Keppel's Journey across the Balcan, vol. 1, p. 301.) HALEsus, I. an Argive, who, after the murder of Agamemnon by Clytemnestra and Ægisthus, settled in Italy, in the vicinity of Mons Massacus, a mountain of Campania. At the head of the Aurunci and Osci, he assisted Turnus against Æneas, but fell by the hand of Pallas. (Virg., AEn., 7, 724.—Id. ib., 10, 532.) Halesus is said by Virgil to have been the son of a soothsayer, who foretold the sate of his child; and, in order to avert this, if possible, brought him up in the woods. The epithet Agamemnonius, therefore, which Virgil applies to him (Æm., 7, 724), and which some suppose has reference to his being the son of Agamemnon, is merely used by the poet to denote the pretended origin of his race. (Heyne, Ercurs., 8, ad AEm., 7.)—II. or Hales ("A?mo, -evroc), a river of Asia Minor, running near the city of Colophon, and said to have the coldest water of all the streams of Asia. (Plin., 5, 29.) It took its rise in Mount Gallesus or Gallesium, and fell into the Sinus Ephesius. (Strab., 642–Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 1, p. 359.) HallacMon, a large and rapid stream of Macedonia, flowing into the sea a short distance below Pydna. It rises in the chain of mountains called Cambunii, or by Ptolemy Canalovii, on the northern confines of Thessaly. The modern name of this river is InidgeCarason, or Jenicora, according to Dr. Brown, who must have crossed it in its course through Elimäea. (Travels, p. 46. So also the editors of the French Strabo, vol. 3, p. 124.) Dr. Clarke calls it Inje-Mauro. The epitomist of Strabo (7, p. 330) seems to place the Haliacmon soon after Dium, as does also Ptolemy (p. 82). This is, however, an error, which apparently misled Dr. Holland, who imagined he had sorded this stream about two miles beyond Katima; but what he speaks of is probably the Baphyrus of Livy and Pausanias (vol. 2, p. 31). According to Caesar (B. C., 3, 36), it formed the line of demarcation between Macedonia and Thessaly. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 217.) HALIARTUs, I. a son of Thersander, said to have founded the city of Haliartus in Boeotia. He was adopted by Athamas, though he did not succeed him,

(Compare the remark of

but gave up the throne willingly to Presbon, grandsoe of this prince. (Pausan., 9, 34.)—II. A city of Boeotia, situate, according to Strabo, on the lower shore of the Copaic lake, and near the mouth of the Permessus, which flows from Helicon. The epithet of woulevra is attached to this city by Homer (Il., 2, 503.--Hymn. in Apoll., 243), from the numerous meadows and marshes in its vicinity, on the side of Orchomenus. (Strab., 407.) Pausanias affirms that Haliarius was the only Boeotian city which did not savour the Persians, for which reason its territory was ravaged with fire and sword by their army (9, 32). Haliartus, having favoured the cause of Perseus, king of Macedonia, was besieged by the Romans, under the command of the praetor Lucretius, and, though obstinately defended, was taken by assault, sacked, and utterly destroyed, the inhabitants being sold and their territory given to the Athenians. (Lit., 42, 53–Polyb., 30, 18.— Strab., 411.) The remains of Haliartus, according to Dodwell (vol. 1, p. 248), are situated about fifteen miles from Lebadea, and at nearly an equal distance from Thebes. The place is now called Mikrokouza. Sir W. Gell says, “The ruins of Haliartus lie just below the village of Mazi, on the road from Thebes to Lebadea.” (Itinerary, p. 124.) HALIAs, a district of Argolis, so called apparently from the fisheries established along the coast, and lying between Hermione and Cape Scyllaeum. Its territory was twice ravaged by the Athenians during the Peloponnesian war. (Thucyd., 2, 56.-Id., 4, 45.) The name of Aliki is still attached to a spot situated a little to the east of Castri. (Pouqueville, vol. 4, p. 255.) HalicARNAssus, the principal city of Caria, situate on the northern shore of the Sinus Ceramicus. It was founded by a Doric colony from Troezene, in Argolis, according to Strabo (656). These were joined afterward by some Argives, headed by Melas and Arenanias. (Vitruv., 2,8.—Compare Pausan., 2, 30.) Herodotus, however, only recognises the former colonists (7,99). This city, on account of its origin, had naturally been included in the Dorian confederation, which consisted originally of six states. But Agasicles, a citizen of Halicarnassus, having, contrary to prescribed custom, carried off the tripod assigned to him in the games celebrated in honour of the Triopian Apollo, instead of dedicating it to the god, the other five cities, in consequence of this offence, determined to exclude Halicarnassus from any participation in these festivities, which amounted, in fact, to an exclusion from the Dorian confederacy, which thenceforth was named Pentapolis. (Herod., 1, 144) Not long after this event, Halicarnassus may be supposed to have lost its independence, Lygdamis, one of the principal citizens, having usurped the authority. He was succeeded by his daughter Artemisia, of whom Herodotus has made such honourable mention in his history. (Wid. Artemisia, I.) This princess, in all probability, transmitted the sovereign power to her son, named Lygdamis, like his natural grandfather; and it was during his reign that Herodotus, unwilling to see his native city under the denomination of a despot, abandoned it for Samos, where he completed his studies. Subsequent to this period we have little knowledge of what occurred in Halicarnassus; but from Thucydides (2,9) we learn that Caria and Doris were tributary to Athens, and Halicarnassus itself is mentioned, towards the close of his history, as being in the hands of her troops (8, 42). Somewhat later we find it subject to princes of Carian extraction. The first of these was Hecatomnus, who had three sons, Mausolus, Hidrieus, and Pixodarus; and two daughters, Artemisia and Ada, who married the two elder brothers. Mausolus succeeded his father on the throne of Caria, and, dying without offspring, left the crown to his sister and consort Artemisia. She erected to his memory the splendid mausoleum, or tomb called after his name. (Wid. Mausoleum.) Artemisia, dying of grief for the loss of

her husband, was succeeded by Hidrieus, who, having

no issue, left the crown to his wife Ada. But Pixodarus, the youngest of Hecatomnus' sons, formed a party against her, and, with the assistance of Orontobates, a Persian satrap, succeeded in expelling her from Halicarnassus. Orontobates, having married the daughter of Pixodarus, remained, on the death of the latter, in possession of Halicarnassus. . It was at this period that Alexander arrived with his forces in Caria, and laid siege to the city. It was a long and severe one, owing to the natural strength of the place, and the number and description of the troops which defended it, under the command of Memnon, the best general in the Persian service. Alexander, however, eventually took the place, razed it to the ground, and restored Ada to the sovereignty of Caria. Halicarnassus was afterward rebuilt, and, to compensate for its losses, had six towns annexed to it. (Plin., 6, 29.) The citadel of this place was named Salmacis, from the fountain celebrated in Ovid (Met., 4, 11). According to Scylax, there were two ports at Halicarnassus, protected by the little island Arconnesus. Halicarnassus could boast of having produced Herodotus, Dionysius, and Heraclitus the poet. It appears to have suffered in the Mithradatic war, and to have been restored to a great degree of its former prosperity by Cicero's brother Quintus. (Ep. ad Q. Fratr., 1, 8.) —The ruins of Halicarnassus exist at Boudrown, and Captain Beaufort has given a plan of the harbour and the Turkish town, with the adjacent coast. (Beaufort's Karamania, p. 95, seqq.—Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 176, seqq.) Dr. Clarke, quoting from Walpole's MS. journal, remarks, that Budrun is a corruption, through Petrumi, as the Turks write it, from Pietro, referring to the sort or castle of San Pietro (castellum Sancti Petri), which corresponds to the ancient citadel. (Travels, vol. 3, p. 256, seqq.) Halicy AE, ("AAtkūat), a town of Sicily, between Entella and Lilybaeum. The modern name is Saleme. (Steph. Byz, s. v.–Diod. Sic., 14, 55.) Halirrhothius, a son of Neptune and Euryte, who committed an outrage on Alcippe, daughter of Mars, and was, in consequence, slain by that deity. Neptune summoned Mars to trial for the murder of his son. The cause was heard before the twelve gods, sitting as judges, on the Areopagus at Athens; which hill derived its name ("Apetoc Trăyoc, “Hill of Mars”) from this circumstance. The trial ended in the acquittal of the accused deity. (Apollod., 3, 14.—Schol. ad Eurip., Orest., 1665.) Meier considers 'Apetor equivalent here to portkóc. (Rhein. Mus., 2, p. 266.) HALMy Dessus. Vid. Salmydessus. Halo NNEsus, a small island at the opening of the Sinus Thermaicus, and northeast of Scopelus. It is celebrated in history as having been a subject of contention between Philip the son of Amyntas, and the Athenians; on which occasion one of their orators composed an harangue, which is to be sound in the works of Demosthenes, and has been ascribed by some to that celebrated orator. (Orat. 7, Demosth., p. 75. —Strab., 435.—Pomp. Mel., 2, 7.) It is now called Chelidromi. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 451.) HALys, a celebrated river of Asia Minor, rising on the confines of Pontus and Armenia Minor, and which, after flowing westwardly through Cappadocia to the borders of Phrygia, turns to the northwest, and enters the Euxine some distance to the northwest of Amisus. Herodotus (1,72) and Strabo (546) both speak of its rising in the region we have mentioned, and pursuing the route described. Pliny (5, 2), however, makes it rise in a far different quarter, viz., in the southern part of Cataonia, near Tyana, at the foot of the chain of Mount Taurus, Larcher (Hist, d'Herod., vol. 8, p. 239.-Table Geogr.) and others seek to reconcile these orro statements, by giving the Halys two 4 *

branches, an eastern and a southern one. This, however, merely increases the difficulty; for why should Strabo, a native of Amasea, be ignorant of the course of a river so near his native city 1 and why does he make no mention of the southern Halys, when he describes the very ground over which it is supposed to have flowed 1 Mannert (Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 2, p. 455) thinks, that this southern arm is the river which Tavernier calls the Jekel Ermak, or green river, which D'Anville, on the contrary, makes the modern name of the ancient Iris. The modern name of the Halys is the Kizil Ermak, or red river. According to Strabo (546), the ancient name of the river is owing to its passage in its course by some salt-works. This, however, is a mere arbitrary derivation, and so, in fact, Eustathius evinces, who states that the river was called Halys by those who derived its name from salt; by others, however, Alys. (Eustath., ad Dion. Perieg., v. 784.) This river formed the western boundary of the dominions of Croesus, with which was connected a famous oracle. (Wid. Croesus.) HAMADry Koes. Wid. Nymphae. HAMILCAR (for the orthography and derivation of the name, consult remarks at the end of the article), I. a Carthaginian general, son of Mago, or, according to others, of Hanno, conquered by Gelon, in Sicily, the same day that Xerxes was defeated at Salamis. Herodotus (7, 165) states, that he was never seen either living or dead, after the battle in which his army was defeated. According to Polyaenus, however (1 27, 2), Gelon destroyed him by a stratagem while sacrificing—II. Surnamed Rhodanus, a Carthaginian general of considerable talent. Perceiving his sellowcitizens to be greatly disquieted at the projects of Alexander of Macedon, he betook himself to that prince, in order, if possible, to penetrate his designs, and give his countrymen timely notice of them. After the death of that monarch he returned to Carthage, where he was put to death, on false pretensions of treason, as the recompense of his devotion to his country. (Justin, 21, 5.)—III. A Carthaginian general, in the time of Agathocles, tyrant of Sicily. He came to the succour of Syracuse when besieged by this usurper. Being gained over, however, by the gold of Agathocles, he prevailed on the Syracusans to make peace, and favoured by his inaction the schemes of the tyrant. The Carthaginian senate condemned him to lose his head, but he died at Syracuse, B.C. 311, before the sentence could be made public. (Justin, 22, 2.)— IV. The son of Giscon, a Carthaginian general, sent into Sicily about 311 B.C., to oppose the progress of Agathocles. On his arrival he gained a victory, which opened to him the gates of several large cities. In attempting to make himself master of Syracuse, during the absence of Agathocles in Africa, he was taken prisoner and put to death, B.C. 309–V. Surnamed Barcas, the leader cf the popular party at Carthage, was appointed in the eighteenth year of the first Punic war (B.C. 247) to the command of the Carthaginian forces. . We possess no particulars respecting his early life or the time of his birth; but we learn from Nepos (Vat. Hamil., c. 1) that he was very young when he obtained the command. He ravaged with his fleet the coast of the Brutii and the Epizephyrian Locrians, and afterward seized upon a strong fortress in Sicily, which was situated between Eryx and Panormus. In this place he continued for some years, with very little support from the Carthaginian government; and, although the Romans were masters of almost the whole of the island, they were unable to dislodge him. He frequently ravaged the southern coasts of Italy as far as Cumae, and defeated the Roman troops in Sicily. On one occasion he took Eryx, which he held till the conclusion of the war. The Romans at length fitted out a fleet to cut off all communication between Hamilcar and Carthage; the Carthaginian fleet sent to his assistance was defeated by the Roman consul Lutatius Catulus, B.C. 241, and the Carthaginians were obliged to sue for peace. This was granted by the Romans; and Hamilcar led his troops from Eryx to Lilybaeum, whence they were conveyed to Africa. But a new danger awaited Carthage. The Carthaginian treasury was exhausted; and it was proposed to the troops that they should relinquish a part of the pay which was due to them. The soldiers rejected the proposal, appointed two of their number, Spendius and Matho, commanders, and proceeded to enforce their demands. Being joined by many of the native tribes of Africa, they defeated Hanno, the Carthaginian general sent against them, and brought Carthage to the brink of ruin. In these desperate circumstances Hamilcar was appointed to the command, and at length succeeded in subduing them after the war had lasted three years and four months. After the end of this war Hamilcar was sent into Spain, B.C. 238. He remained in Spain nearly nine years, during which time he extended the dominion of Carthage over the southern and eastern parts of that country. He fell in a battle against the natives, B.C. 229. The abilities of Hamilcar were of the highest order; and he directed all the energies of his mind to diminish the power of Rome. Polybius states his belief (lib. 3), that his administration would soon have produced another war with the Romans, if he had not been prevented by the disorders in which his country was involved through the war of the mercenaries. Hamilcar was succeeded in his command in Spain by his son-in-law Hasdrubal, who must not be confounded with Hasdrubal the brother of Hannibal. He carried on the conquests of Hamilcar, and reduced almost the whole of the country south of the Iberus, which river was fixed by a treaty between the Carthaginians and the Romans, B.C. 226, as the frontier of the Carthaginian dominions. Hasdrubal was murdered in his tent by a Gaul, B.C. 221, after holding the command eight years. (Polyb., 1, 2–Corn. Nep., wit. Hamilc., c. 3.-Encycl. Useful Knowl., vol. 12, p. 25.)—VI. A Carthaginian general, son of Bomilcar, conquered by the Scipios (B.C. 215) when besieging Ilitingis, in Hispania Baetica, along with Hasdrubal and Mago. He is supposed by some to be the same with the Hamilcar who, fifteen years after, at the head of a body of Gauls, took and sacked Placentia, and was defeated and slain before Cremona. Others affirm, that he was taken prisoner three years later in a battle fought near the Mincius, and served to adorn the victory of the conqueror. (Liv., 23, 49.— Id, 31, 10. –Id., 32, 23.−Plin., 3, 1.)—The name Hamilcar was equivalent in Punic to “(quem) donawit Milcar.” The true orthography is with the initial aspirate. Consult Heins., ad Sil, Ital., 1,39.—Drakenb., ad Liv., 21, 1.—Gesenius, Phoen. Mon., p. 407. —The interpretation given by Hamaker (diatr. 47) to the name Hamilcar is rejected by Gesenius (l. c.). HANNibal, (equivalent in Punic to “gratia Baalis”), son of Hamilcar Barcas (vid. Hamilcar V.), was born B.C. 247. At the age of nine he accompanied his father to Spain, who, previous to his departure, took his son to the altar, and, placing his hand on the victim, made him swear that he would never be a friend to the Romans. It does not appear how long Hannibal remained in Spain, but he was at a very early age associated with Hasdrubal, who succeeded his father in the command of the Carthaginian army in that country. On the death of Hasdrubal, B.C. 221, he obtained the undivided command of the army, and quickly conquered the Olcades,Vaccaans, Carpesians, and the other Spanish tribes that had not been subdued by Hasdrubal. The inhabitants of Saguntum, alarmed at his success, sent messengers to Rome to inform the Romans of their danger. A Roman embassy was accordingly sent to Hannibal, who was passing the winter at New Carthage, to announce to him that the in570

dependence of Saguntum was guarantied by a treaty between the Carthaginians and Romans (concluded B.C. 226), and that they should consider any injury done to the Saguntines as a declaration of war against themselves. Hannibal, however, paid no regard to this remonstrance. More than twenty years had elapsed since the termination of the first Punic war, during which period the Carthaginians had recovered their strength, and had obtained possession of the greater part of Spain; and the favourable opportunity had arrived for renewing the war with the Romans. In B.C. 219, Hannibal took Saguntum, after a siege of eight months, and employed the winter in making preparations for the invasion of Italy. He first provided for the security of Africa and Spain by leaving an army of about 16,000 men in each country; the army in Africa consisted principally of Spanish troops, and that in Spain of Africans, under the command of his brother Hasdrubal. He had already received promise of support from the Gauls who inhabited the north of Italy, and who were anxious to deliver themselves from the Roman dominion. Having thus made every necessary preparation, he set out from New Carthage late in the spring of B.C. 218, with an army of 80,000 foot and 12,000 horse. In his march from the Iberus to the Pyrenees he was opposed by a great number of the native tribes, but they were quickly defeated, though with loss. Before crossing the Pyrenees, he left Hanno to secure his recent conquests with a detachment from his own army of 11,000 men. He sent back the same number of Spanish troops to their own cities, and with an army now reduced to 50,000 foot and 9000 horse, he advanced to the Rhone. Meantime, two Roman armies had been levied; one, commanded by the consul P. Cornelius Scipio, was intended to oppose Hannibal in Spain; and a second, under the consul T. Sempronius, was designed for the invasion of Africa. The departure of Scipio was delayed by a revolt of the Boian and Insubrian Gauls, against whom the army was sent which had been intended for the invasion of Spain, under the command of one of the praetors. Scipio was therefore obliged to remain in Rome till a new army could be raised. When the forces were ready, he sailed with them to the Rhone, and anchored in the eastern mouth of the river; being persuaded that Hannibal must still be at a considerable distance from him, as the country through which he had to march was difficult, and inhabited by many warlike tribes. Hannibal, however, quickly surmounted all these obstacles, crossed the Rhone, though not without some opposition from the Gauls, and continued his march up the left bank of the river. Scipio did not arrive at the place where the Carthaginians had crossed the river till three days afterward; and, despairing of overtaking them, he sailed back to Italy with the intention of meeting Hannibal when he should descend from the Alps. Scipio sent his brother Cnaeus into Spain, with the greater part of the troops, to oppose Hasdrubal. Hannibal continued his march up the Rhone till he came to the Isara. Marching along that river, he crossed the Alps, descended into the valley of the Dora Baltea, and followed the course of the river till he arrived in the territories of the Insubrian Gauls. (The particular route will be given at the close of this article.)—Hannibal completed his march from New Carthage to Italy in five months, during which he lost a great number of men, especially in his passage over the Alps. According to a statement engraved by his order on a column at Lacinium, in the country of the Brutii, which Polybius saw, his army was reduced to 12,000 Africans, 8000 Spaniards, and 6000 cavalry when he arrived in the territories of the Insubrian Gauls. After remaining some time in the territories of the Insubrians to recruit his army, he marched southward, and encountered P. Cornelius Scipio on the right bank of the river Ticinus. In the

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