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GANG Arip.A., a people near the mouths of the Gan#. Ptolemy assigns them a capital, called Ganga egia, on the western side of the Ganges, which D'Anville places in latitude 24° 50', and makes the site to coincide with that of Raji-mohol. The Ganso were allies of the Prasii, who lay nearer the ndus towards the northwest. The united forces of these two nations awaited the army of Alexander on the other side of the Hyphasis; but report made them so formidable for numbers and valour, that the wearied and alarmed Macedonians refused to cross the stream, in spite of all the efforts and remonstrances of their king. (Justin, 12, 8.-Curt., 9, 2–Virg., AEm., 3, 27.) o GANges, a famous river of India, which, in the lan. guage of Hindustan, is called Padda, and is also named Burra Gonga, or the Great River, and Gonga, or the river, by way of eminence; and hence the European name of the stream is derived. The Sanscrit name of the Ganges (Padda) signifies foot, because the Brahmins, in their fabulous legends, make the river to flow from the foot of Beschan, who is the same with Wischnou, or the preserving deity. This great stream, together with the Burrampooter, whose twin-sister it has not unaptly been denominated, has its source in the vast mountains of Thibet. the plains of Hindustan by the west, and pursues the early part of its course through rugged valleys and defiles. After wandering about eight hundred miles through these mountainous regions, it issues forth a deity to the superstitious yet gladdened Hindu. This river was unknown to Herodotus, as he does not mention it, though it became famous in a century afterward. Its source was for a long period involved in obscurity. A survey, however, has been recently made by the British-Indian government, and it has been found to issue in a small stream, under the name of Bhagirathy, from under a mass of perpetual snow, accumulated on the southern side of the Himmaleh Mountains, between 31° and 32° north latitude, and 78° and 79° east longitude. It is computed to be 1500 miles in length, and at five hundred miles from its mouth is, during the rainy season, four miles broad and sixty feet deep. Its principal tributaries are the Jumna, the Gogra, and the Burrampooter. The whole number of streams which flow into it are eleven. About two hundred miles from the sea, the Delta of the Ganges commences by the dividing of the river. Two branches, the Cossimbazzar and the Iellinghy, are given off to the west. These unite to form the Hoogley, or Bhagirathy, on which the port of Calcutta is situated. It is the only branch commonly navigated by ships, and in some years it is not navigable for two or three months. The only secondary branch which is at all navigable for boats, is the Chandah River. That part of the Delta which borders on the sea is composed of a labyrinth of creeks and rivers, called the Sunderbunds, with numerous islands, covered with the profuse and rank vegetation called jungle, affording haunts to numerous tigers. These branches occupy an extent of two hundred miles along shore.
The Ganges rises fifteen feet by the end of June,
owing to the heavy rains. The remainder of its rise, which is in all thirty-two feet, is occasioned by the rains which fall in Bengal. By the end of July, all the lower parts of the country adjoining the Ganges, as well as the Burrampooter, are overflowed for a width of one hundred miles, nothing appearing but villages, trees, and the sites of some places that have been deserted. The line of the Ganges which
lies between Gangotree, or the source of the leading
stream, and Sagor island, below Calcutta, is held
particularly sacred. The main body, which goes east
to join the Brahmapootra, is not regarded with equal
veneration. Wherever the river happens to run from
south to north, contrary to its usual direction, it is
considered peculiarly holy. The places most superstitiously revered are the junctions of rivers, called Prayags, the principal of which is that of the Jumna with the Ganges at Allahabad. In the British courts of justice, the water of the Ganges is used for swearing Hindus, as the Koran is for Mohammedans, and the Gospel for Christians. (Malte-Brun, Geogr., vol. 3, p. 18, seqq.) §.o. SINUs, now the Bay of Bengal, into which the Ganges falls. GANyMEDEs, son of Tros and of Callirhoe daughter of the Scamander. He was remarkable for his beauty, and on this account, according to the legend, was carried off to Olympus by an eagle, to be the cupbearer of Jove, who gave Tros, as a compensation, some horses of the Olympian breed. (Hom., Il., 5, 265, seq.—Id. ib., 20, 234, seq.-Hom., Hymn, 4, 202.) One of the Cyclic poets (ap. Schol, ad Eurip, Orest, 1390) said, that Jupiter gave Laomedon a golden vine for Ganymede. The son of Tros succeeded Hebe as cup-bearer of the skies. (Vid. Hebe.) They who wish to give an historical aspect to this legend, make Ganymedes to have been carried off by Tantalus. The truth is, however, that the fable of Ganymedes, according to Knight, seems to have arisen from some symbolical composition, representing the act of fructio |fying nature, attended by Power and Wisdom: and this composition would appear to have been at first misunderstood, and afterward misrepresented in poetical fiction. For the lines in the Iliad "...; to it are, as Knight maintains, spurious ; and, according to Pindar, the most orthodox, perhaps, of all the poets, Ganymede was not the son of Tros, but a mighty genius or deity, who regulated or caused the overflowings of the Nile by the motion of his feet. (Schol. in Arat. Phanom., v. 282.) His being, therefore, the cup-bearer of Jupiter, means no more than that he was the distributor of the waters between heaven and earth, and, consequently, a distinct personification of that attribute of Jupiter, which is otherwise signified by the epithet Pluvius. Hence he is only another modification of the same personification as Attis, Adonis, and Bacchus; who are all occasionally represented holding the patera or cup; which is also given, with the cornucopiae, to their subordinate emanations, the local genii; of which many small figures in brass are extant. (Inquiry into the Symb. Lang., &c., § 121. —Class. Journ., vol. 25, p. 42.) GARAMANTEs (sing. Garamas), a people of Africa, south of Fazania, deriving their name from the city of Garama, now Garmes. #. were slightly known to the Romans under Augustus, in whose time some claim was made to a triumph over them, on which account they are mentioned by Virgil. (Virg., AEm., 4, 198; 6,795.—Lucan, 4,334.—Plin., 5,8.—Sil. Ital., 1, 142 ; 11, 181.) GARAMANtis, a nymph, mother of Iarbas, by Jupiter. (Virg., AEn., 4, 198.) GARGANus, a mountain of Apulia, terminating in a bold promontory of the same name (Garganum Promontorium), now Punta di Viesti. Strabo (284) seems to have considered the whole of that extensive neck of land, lying between the bay of Rodi and that of Manfredonia, as the Garganum Promontorium, for he describes it as running out to sea for the space of 300 stadia, or 37 miles. Scylax seems to refer to this mountain under the name of Arion. (Periplus, p. 5.) Frequent allusion is made to this celebrated ridge and headland by the Latin poets, especially on |account of its fine groves of oaks. (Horat., Od., 2, 9.—Id., Ep., 2, 1, 200.-Sil. Ital, 8, 630–Lucan, 5,378.) GARGAphia, a valley near Plataea, with a sountain of the same name, where Actaeon was torn to pieces by his dogs. (Orid, Met., 3, 156.) The fountain of | Gargaphia was situate about a mile and a half distant from Plataea, on Mount Cithaeron, towards the Athenian frontier. (Gell, Itin., p. 112.) Garai Rus (plur. a, orum), one of the summits of Ida, the roots of which formed the promontory of Lectum. It is generally supposed to have been the highest peak of the range, but this honour must be assigned to the ancient Cotylus. (Hobhouse's Travels, Lett. 42.) On Gargarus was a town named Gargara. (Strabo, 621.) Dr. Hunt gives an interesting account of his ascent of Gargarus. He found the summit covered with snow, and mentions the following particular relative to its ancient name. “I have ventured to record a circumstance which proves on how fanciful a foundation etymological reasonings are founded. Our guide, when he pointed expressively to the snow on the top of the mountain, repeated the words Gar, gar, ‘Snow, snow,' in which an enthusiastic topographer of the Iliad would easily have traced the ancient name of Gargarus.” (Walpole's Memoirs, vol. 1, p. 122. —Compare, in relation to Gargarus, Clarke's Travels, Greece, Egypt, &c., vol. 3, p. 166.) ARGEttus, a demus or borough of the tribe AEgeis in Attica, where Eurystheus is said to have been buried. (Steph. Byz., s. v.–Strabo, 377.) It was the irthplace of Epicurus. (Diog. Laert., 10, 1.) The modern Krabato is supposed to occupy its site. (Stuart's Ant. of Ath., 3, p. 16.-Spon., vol. 2, p. 104.— Gell's Itin., p. 75.) GARUMNA, now the Garonne, a river of Gaul, which rises in the valley of Arran, to the south of Bertrand, among the Pyrenees, and falls into the Oceanus Cantabricus, or Bay of Biscay. The general course of this river, which extends to about 250 miles, is northwest. After its junction with the Duranius or Dordogne, below Burdegala or Bourdeaur, it assumes the name of Gironde. According to Julius Caesar's division of Gallia, the Garumna was the boundary of Aqui'ania, and separated that district from Gallia Celtica. This river is navigable to Tolosa or Toulouse, and tommunicates with the Mediterranean by means of the canal of Louis XIV., about 180 miles long, made through Languedoc. (Mela, 3, 2.—Mannert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 117.) GAUGAMELA, a village of Assyria, in the district of Aturia, and about 500 stadia from Arbela. (Arrian, 6, 1) The battle between Alexander and Darius took place near this spot; but, as Arbela was a considerable town, the Greeks chose to distinguish the conflict by the name of the latter. Gaugamela is said to have signified, in Persian, “the house of the camel,” and to have been so called because Darius, the son of Hystaspes, having escaped upon his camel across the deserts of Scythia, when retreating from the latter country, placed the animal here, and appointed the revenue of certain villages for its maintenance. (Plut., Vit. Aler., c. 31.) Gavius, I. a small island adjacent to Melite or Malta, now called Gozo. (Plin., 3, 8)—II. Another below the south shore of Crete, now called Gozo of Candia, for distinction' sake from Gozo of Malta. Gaurus, a ridge of mountains bordering on Lake Avernus, and now called Monte Barbaro. It was famous for its wines. (Lucan, 2,665, scqq.—Sil. Ital, 8, 534.—Stat. Silp., 3, 5, 99.) Gaza, one of the five Philistine satrapies or principalities, situate towards the southern extremity of Canaan, about 16 miles south of Ascalon (Itin. Ant., p. 150), and a small distance from the Mediterranean. Its port was called Gazaeorum Portus. As the name of the city of Gaza appears in the first book of Moses (10, 18), Mela must of course be mistaken, who says it is of Persian origin, and states that Cambyses made this place his chief magazine in the expedition against Egypt. (Mela, 1, 11.) It was, however, an important and strongly-fortified place, as being situate so near the borders of that country. Alexander took
and destroyed it, after it had made a powerful resistance for the space of two months. (Arrian, 2, 27.Quintus Curtius, 4, 6.) Antiochus the Great sacked it, and it was several times taken from the Syrians by the Maccabees. (Polyb., excerpt. Wales.—Maccab., 1, 11, 61.—Josephus, Ant. Jud., 13, 21.) It was afterward subjected to new losses, so that St. Luke states (Acts, 8, 26) that it was, in his time, a desert place. Erasmus Schmid, Beza, and Le Moyne, however, sollowing the Syriac version, refer the word £pmuoc, in the original, not to Gaza, but to the way leading towards it. They are refuted by Reland. Strabo notices “Gaza, the desert,” which agrees with the Acts. The place was called Constantia afterward. It is now termed by the Arabs Rassa, with a strong guttural expression. The ancient name in Hebrew signifies strong. (Compare Mannert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 263.) GEBENNA or CEve NNA, now Cerennes, a chain of mountains in Gaul, which separated the Helvii from the Arverni, in that part of the Roman province corresponding to the modern Languedoc. The Pyrenees join the Cevennes, these last the Vosges, which in their turn unite with Jura to the south, and form the Ardennes to the north. The name Cebenna appears to contain the Celtic radical Pen or Ben, “a summit,” so that the name probably meant “the lofty range.” (Malte-Brun, Geogr., vol. 4, p. 389, Brussels ed.) Gedrosia, a sandy and barren province of Persia, south and southeast of Carmania, and lying along the Mare Erythraeum. It is now called Mekran. In passing through this country, the army of Alexander underwent very great hardships, from want of water and provisions, and from columns of moving sand. Its principal city was Pura, now Fohrea. (Strabo, 720. —Arrian, 6, 23, seqq.) Wahl compares the name Gedrosia with the Persian dshiaaduruscht, “rough,” “stormy,” “boisterous,” from the boisterous and stormy waves that beat upon its coast. (Vorder und Mittel-Asien, p. 585.) GELA, I, a river of Sicily, to the east of the Himera, and falling into the sea on the southeastern coast, near the city of the same name. The appellation Gela is said to have been given to it from the icy coldness of its waters, the term gela (compare the Latin gelu) having the meaning of “ice” in the languages of the Opici and Siculi. (Steph. Byz., s. v.) Virgil applies the epithet immanis to Gela, meaning, according to some, the city, or, as others think, the river. The former opinion is the more correct one. The city was termed by the poet “immanis” (“of monster-symbol"), in allusion to the Minotaur on its coins. Those, however, who refer the epithet to the river, make it signify “cruel,” i. e., perilous, and consider it as alluding to the numerous whirlpools in this stream, whence Ovid remarks, “ Et te corticibus non adeunde Gela.” (Fast., 4, 470.-Virg., En., 3, 702.) The modern name of the Gela is, according to Cluverius, the Ghiozzo, or “Icy river.”—II. A city of Sicily, on the southeastern coast, a short distance from the sea and from the mouth of the river of the same name. (Wid. Gela, I.) It was founded by a Joint colony from Crete and from Lindus in the island of Rhodes, 45 years after the foundation of Syracuse. (Herod., 7, 153.--Thucyd., 6, 4.) Gela became one of the most powerful of the Grecian colonies in Sicily, and, 108 years after its own foundation, it colonized Agrigentum. This state of prosperity continued until the time of Gelon, who removed a large part of its inhabitants to Syracuse. After this it sank in importance, and never recovered its former power, but received another blow at a later period, when Dionysius the elder, being unable to save the place from th: Carthaginians, carried off all the people to his capital (Wid. Dionysius I.) The Geloans subsequently re turned to their city, but only to **, new in , fortunes. Agathocles, suspecting the inhabitants of favouring the Carthaginians, suddenly made himself master of Gela, put to death 4000 of the wealthiest citizens, confiscated their property, and placed a garrison in the city. The final blow was at last received from its own colony Agrigentum. Phintias, tyrant of this latter place, wishing to perpetuate his name, built the small but commodious city of Phintias, called after himself, and transferred to it all the inhabitants of Gela. From this period, therefore, 404 years after its foundation, the city of Gela ceased to exist. On a part of the ancient site stands the modern Terra Nova. The plains around Gela (Camp Geloi) were famed sor their fertility and beauty. (Diod. Suc., 11, 25.-Id, 13, 98. —Id., 19, 108. —Id., 20, 31. —Id., 22, 2. — Strabo, 418.—Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 2, p. 345.) GEllius, Aulus (or, as some manuscripts give the name, Agellius), a Latin grammarian, born at Rome in the early part of the second century, and who died at the beginning of the reign of Marcus Aurelius. We have but few particulars of his life. We know that he studied rhetoric under Cornelius Fronto at Roine, and philosophy under Phavorinus at Athens, and that, on his return to Rome, while still at an early age, he was made one of the centumviri or judges in civil causes. (Noct. Att., 14, 2.) Gellius has left behind him one work entitled Noctes Attica, “Attic Nights.” It was written, as he informs us in the preface, during the winter evenings in Attica, to amuse his children in their hours of relaxation. It appears, from his own account, that he had been accustomed to keep a commonplace book, in which he entered whatever he heard in conversation, or met with in his private reading, that appeared worthy of remembrance. In composing his “Noctes Attica,” he seems merely to have copied the contents of his commonplace book, with a little alteration in the language, but without any attempt at classification or arrangement. The work contains anecdotes and arguments, scraps of history and pieces of poetry, and dissertations on various points in philosophy, geometry, and grammar. Amid much that is trifling and puerile, we obtain information on many subjects relating to antiquity, of which we must otherwise have been ignorant. It is divided into twenty books, which are still extant, excepting the eighth and the beginning of the seventh. He mentions, in the conclusion of his preface, his intention of continuing the work, which he probably, however, never carried into effect.—The style of Aulus Gellius is in general negligent and incorrect. In his eagerness to imitate the old writers, he is often carried too far, and introduces too many forms of expression from the earlier comic poets, whom he seems most anxious to take for his models in this respect. That he invented, however, any new terms himself seems hardly credible. The best editions of Aulus Gellius are, that of Gronovius, Lugd. Bat., 1706, 4to, and that of Lion, Götting., 1824, 2 vols. 8vo. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Rom., vol. 3, p. 310. — Bähr, Gesch. Röm. Lit., vol. 1, p. 718.) . GELoN, a native of Gela in Sicily, who rose from the station of a private citizen to be supreme ruler of Gela and Syracuse. He was descended from an ancient family, which originally came from Telos, an island off the coast of Caria, and settled at Gela, when it was first colonized by the Rhodians. During the time that Hippocrates reigned at Gela (B.C. 498–491), Gelon was appointed commander of the cavalry, and eatly distinguished himself in the various wars which #. carried on against the Grecian cities in Sicily. On the death of Hippocrates, who fell in battle against the Siculi, Gelon seized the supreme power, B.C. 491. Soon afterward a more splendid prize fell in his way. The nobles and landholders (yúuopol) of Syracuse, who had been driven from the city by an insurrection of their slaves, supported by the rest of the rum, to be exposed to the gaze of the multitude. (Wal. Maz., 6, 9–Lip., 38, 59.) GENAbuu, a town of the Aureliani, on the Ligeris or Loire, which ran through it. It was afterward called Aureliani, from the name of the people, and is now Orleans. (Caes., B. C., 7, 3–Lucan, 1,440.) GENAu Ni, a people of Windelicia. (Vid. Brenni.) GENEva, a city of the Allobroges, at the western extremity of the Lacus Lemanus or Lake of Genera, on the south bank of the Rhodanus or Rhone. The modern name is the same as the ancient. (Caes., B. G., 1, 6.) GEsséric (more correctly Geiserich), king of the Vandals, was the illegitimate brother of Gonderic, whom he succeeded A.D. 429. In the same year he left Spain, which had been partly conquered by the Vandals, and crossed over into Africa, at the solicitation of Boniface, governor of that province, who had been induced, by the arts of his rival Aetius, to rebel against Valentinian III., emperor of the West. Boniface soon repented of the step he had taken, and advanced to meet the invader. But his repentance came too late. The Moors joined the standard of Genseric, and the powerful sect of the Donatists, who had been cruelly persecuted by the Catholics, assisted him against their oppressors. Boniface was defeated, and obliged to retire into Hippo Regius, where he remained till he obtained a fresh supply of troops. Having ventured upon a second battle, and being again defeated, he abandoned the province to the barbarians, and sailed away to Italy. A peace was concluded between Genseric and the Emperor of the West, by which all Africa to the west of Carthage was ceded to the Vandals. This, however, did not long continue, and the city of Carthage was taken by the Vandals, by surprise, A.D. 439. The Emperors of the West and East made great preparations for the recovery of the province, but an alliance which Genseric made with Attila, king of the Huns, effectually secured him against their attempts. Genseric's next object was the formation of a naval wer: an immense number of ships were built, and is fleets ravaged the shores of Sicily and Italy. Invited by the Empress Eudoxia, he sailed up the Tiber, A.D. 455, and permitted his soldiers, for the space of fourteen days, to pillage Rome. In A.D. 460 he destroyed the fleet which the Emperor Majorian had collected for the invasion of Africa; and, as his power increased, his ravages became more extensive. The island of Sardinia was conquered, and Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Egypt, and Asia Minor were plundered every year by the Vandal pirates. Leo, the emperor of the East, at last resolved to make a vigorous effort for the recovery of Africa. A great army was assembled, and the command was given to Basilicus. He landed at Bona, and at first met with considerable success, but was at length obliged to retire from the province. After this victory Genseric met with no farther opposition, but remained undisturbed master of the sea till his death, which happened A.D. 477. He was succeeded by his son Hunneric. Genseric was an Arian, and is said to have persecuted the Catholics with great cruelty. (Procop., de Bell. Vand.—Gub. bon, Decline and Fall, c. 33–36.) Grxtius, king of the Illyrians, sold his services to Perses, king of Macedonia, for ten talents, and threw into prison the Roman ambassadors. He was addicted to intemperance, and hated by his subjects. The praetor Anicius conquered him in the space of twenty or thirty days, and led Gentius himself, his wife, brother, and children in triumph at Rome. (Lin , 43, 19, seqq.) GENúa, now Genoa, a celebrated town of Liguria. In the second Punic war, Genua, then a, celebrated emporium, took part with the Romans, and was, in consequence, plundered and burned by Mago the Carthaginian. (Lit., 28, 46.) It was afterward rebuilt by the Romans (Lir, 30, 1), and was made a municip
people, applied to Gelon for assistance. This crafty prince, gladly availing himself of the opportunity of extending his dominions, marched to Syracuse, into which he was admitted by the popular party (B.C. 485), who had not the means of resisting so formidable an opponent. (Herodot, 7, 154, seq.) Having thus become master of Syracuse, he appointed his brother Hiero governor of Gela, and exerted all his endeavours to promote the prosperity of his new acquisition. In order to increase the population of Syracuse, he destroyed Camarina, and removed all its inhabitants, together with a great number of the citizens of Gela, to his favourite city. By his various conquests and his great abilities, he became a very powerful monarch; and therefore, when the Greeks expected the invasion of Xerxes, ambassadors were sent by them to Syracuse, to secure, if possible, his assistance in the war. Gelon promised to send to their aid two hundred triremes, twenty thousand heavy-armed troops, two thousand cavalry, and six thousand light-armed troops, provided the supreme command were given to him. This offer being indignantly rejected by the Lacedæmonian and Athenian ambassadors, Gelon sent, according to Herodotus, an individual named Cadmus to Delphi, with great treasures, and with orders to present them to Xerxes if he proved victorious in the coming war. (Herod., 7, 157–164.) This statement, however, was denied by the Syracusans, who said that Gelon would have assisted the Greeks, if he had not been prevented by an invasion of the Carthaginians, with a force amounting to three hundred thousand men, under the command of Hamilcar. This great army was entirely defeated near Himera by Gelon, and Theron monarch of Agrigentum, on the same day, according to Herodotus, on which the battle of Salamis was fought. (Herod., 7, 165, seqq.) An account of this expedition is also given by Diodorus Siculus (11, 21), who states, that the battle between Gelon and the Carthaginians was sought on the same day as that at Thermopylae. There seems, indeed, to have been a regular understanding between Xerxes and the Carthaginians, in accordance with which the latter were to attack the Greeks in Sicily, while the Persian monarch was to move down upon Attica and the Peloponnesus.-Gelon appears to have used with moderation the power which he had acquired by violence, and to have endeared himself to the Syracusans by the equity of his government, and by the encouragement he gave to commerce and the fine arts. We are informed by Plutarch, that posterity remembered with gratitude the virtues and abilities of Gelon, and that the Syracusans would not allow his statues to be destroyed together with those of the other tyrants, when Timoleon became master of the city. (Plut., Wit. Timol.) He died B.C. 478, and was succeeded by his brother Hiero. (Aristot., Polit., 5, 12.-Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 11, p. 108.) GELö1, the inhabitants of Gela. 701.) GELöNEs and GelöNI, a people of Scythia, included by Herodotus (4, 108) among the Budini. The historian speaks of their wooden city called Gelonus, and makes them to have been originally a Grecian race, who transplanted themselves from the trading ports of Greece and settled among the Budini, where they used a language partly Scythian and partly Grecian. This account, however, appears very unsatisfactory. It is better to refer the Geloni to that curious chain which connects the earlier history of Grecian civilization with the regions of the remote East, by means of sacerdotal colonies scattered throughout the wilds of Scythia. (Compare the remarks of Ritter, Vorhalle, p. 266.) GeMonize ScaLAE, steps at Rome, near the prison called Tullianum, down which the bodies of those who had been executed in prison were thrown into the Fo
ium. A curious fact, illustrative of the 1 istory of Genua, was brought to light by the discovery of a brazen tablet, in 1506, near the city. This monument informs us, that a dispute having arisen between the Genuatae and Veiturii, on the subject of their respective boundaries, commissioners were appointed by the Roman senate, A.U.C. 636, to settle the limits of the two territories; and the tablet gives the result of their labours. In the time of Strabo, Genua seems to have been a place of considerable trade, particularly in timber, which was brought from the mountains, where it grew to a great size. Some of it, being richly veined, was used for making tables, which were thought scarcely inferior to those of cedar-wood. Other com modities were cattle, skins, and honey, which the Ligurians exchanged for oil and Italian wine, none being grown on their coast.—In later times we find the name written Janua, from an idea that it was founded by Janus, which Cluver justly rejects as absurd. (Ital. Ant., vol. 1, p. 70.—Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 1, P. 25, seqq.) GENucia Lex, proposed by the tribune Genucius, A.U.C. 411, that no one should enjoy the same office twice within ten years, nor be invested with two offices in one year. (Liv., 7, 42.) GENúsus, a river of Illyricum. Cellarius places it to the south of the Apsus and north of Apollonia; but Kruse and others make it the same with the Panyasus of Ptolemy, to the south of Dyrrhachium. The modern name, if Cellarius be correct, is the Semno or Siomini. Kruse, however, makes it the Iscumi. (Bischoff und Möller, Worterb., p. 551.) Geopoxica (Teorov.uká), or “a treatise on Agriculture” (from yéa, yì, “the earth,” and Tovéo, “to bestow labour upon”), the title of a compilation, in Greek, of precepts on rural economy, extracted from ancient writers. The compiler, in his procemium, shows that he was living at Constantinople, and dedicated his work to the Emperor Constantine, “a successor of Constantine, the first Christian emperor,” stating that he wrote it in compliance with his desire, and praising him for his zeal for science and philosophy, and also for his philanthropic disposition. The emperor here meant is supposed by some to have been Constantine Porphyrogenitus, and the compilation is generally ascribed to Cassianus Bassus, a native of Bithynia, who, however, is stated by others to have lived some centuries before the time of Porphyrogenitus. The question respecting the authorship of the Geoponica has excited much discussion, and No. in his edition of the work (Cantab., 1704), has treated the subject at great length. The work is divided into twenty books, which are subdivided into short chapters, explaining the various processes of cultivation adapted to various soils and crops, and the rural labours suited to the different seasons of
the year; together with directions for sowing the va
rious kinds of corn and pulse; for training the vine, and the art of wine-making, upon which the author is very diffuse. He also treats of olive-plantations and oil-making, of orchards and fruit-trees, of evergreens, of kitchen-gardens, of the insects and reptiles that are injurious to plants, of the economy of the poultry-yard, of the horse, the ass, and the camel ; of horned cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, &c., and the care they require ; of the method of salting meat; and, lastly, of the various kinds of fishes. Every chapter is inscribed with the name of the author from whom it is taken, and the compiler gives, at the beginning of the first book, a list of the principal authorities. Other authors besides these are quoted in the course of the work. Two or three chapters are inscribed with the name of Cassi: anus, who speaks of himself in them as a native of Maratonymus in Bithynia, where he had an estate (Geopon, 5, 6, et 36.) The work is curious, as giving a course of ancient agriculture, collected from the
most approved authorities then extant. * best edition of the Geoponica is that of Niclas, Lips., 1781,
Scholl, Gesch. Griech. Litt., vol. 3, p. 439.) GEorgic A, the title of Virgil's poem on husbandry. (Vid. Virgilius.) GerAEstus, a promontory of Euboea, terminating the island to the southwest. It is now Cape Mantelo. (Homer, Od., 3, 176.-Eurip., Orest., v. 992.) There was a well-frequented haven near the promontory. (Plin., 4, 12.-Steph. By: , s. v.) GERGIs or GERGITHA, a city of Dardania in Troas, a settlement of the ancient Teucri, and, consequently, a town of very great antiquity. (Herod., 5, 122. —Id., 7, 43.) Cephalo, an early historian, who is cited by Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Athenæus, and others as having written a history of Troy, was a native of this place. (Duon. Hal., A. R., 1, p. 180– Athen., 9, p. 393.—Strab., 589.—Steph. By: , s. v. Apiatom, Tpatkóc.) Gergis, according to Xenophon, was a place of strength, having an acropolis and very losty walls, and one of the chief towns held by Mania, the Dardanian princess. (Xen., Hist. Gr., 3, 1, 12.) It had a temple sacred to Apollo Gergithius, and was said to have given birth to the sibyl, who is sometimes called Erythraea, from Erythrae, a small place on Mount Ida (Dion. Hal., 1, 55), and at others Gergithia. In confirmation of this fact, it was observed that the coins of this city had the effigy of the prophetess impressed upon them. (Phlegon, ap. Steph. Byz., s. v. Topytc.) Some of these coins are still extant, and accord with the testimony of Phlegon. They are thus described by numismatic writers: “Caput miuliebre adversum laureatum cum stola ad collum R. TEP. Sphinx alata sedens F., 3.” (Sestini, Lett. Numism., t. 1, p. 88.) It appears from Strabo that Gergitha having been taken by Attalus, king of Pergamus, he removed the inhabtants to the sources of the Caicus, where he founded a new town of the same name. (Strab., 616.) The Romans, according to Livy, made over the territory of the old town to the Ilienses (38, 39). Herodotus, in describing Xerxes' march along the Hellespont, states that he had the town of Dardanus on his left, and Gergitha on the right; it is evident, therefore, that the latter must have been situated inland, and towards Mount Ida. (Herod., 7, 43.-Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 1, p. 84, seqq.) Gergovia, a strong town and fortress of Gaul, belonging to the Arverni. It was situate on a very high mountain, and of difficult access on all sides. It is now Gergorie. (Cas., B. G., 7, 9.) GERMANIA. The word Germania was employed by the Romans to designate a country of greater extent than modern Germany. They included under this name all the nations of Europe east of the Rhine and north of the Danube, bounded on the north by the German Ocean and the Baltic, including Denmark and the neighbouring islands, and on the east by the Sarmatians and Dacians. It is difficult, however, to ascertain how far Germany stretched to the East. Accord. ing to Strabo (289), Germanic tribes dwelt nearly as far as the mouths of the Borysthenes (or Dnieper). The northern and northeastern parts of Gaul were also known under the name of Germany in the time of the Roman emperors, after the province of Belgica had been subdivided into Germania Prima and Germania Secunda.
1. Origin of the Germanic nations. The origin of the Germanic nations is involved in uncertainty. The inhabitants of the beautiful regions of Italy, who had never known a rougher country, could hardly believe that any nation had deserted its native soil to dwell in the forests of Germany, where severe cold prevailed for the greater part of the year, and where, even in summer, impenetrable forests prevented the genial rays of the sun from reach
ing the ground. They thought that the Germans must have lived there from the beginning, and therefore called them indigena, or “natives of the soil.” (Tacit., de Mor. Germ., 2.) Modern inquiries, however, have traced the descent of the Germanic race from the inhabitants of Asia; since it is now indisputably established that the Teutonic dialects belong to one great family with the Latin, the Greek, the Sanscrit, and the other languages of the Indo-Germanic chain. Von Hammer calls the Germans a BactrianoMedian nation. He makes the name Germani or Ser
mani, in its primitive import, to have meant those who followed the worship of Buddha, and hence the Germans, according to him, are that ancient and primitive
race who came down from the mountains of Upper Asia, the cradle of the human species, and, spreading
themselves over the low country more to the south,
gave origin to the Persian and other early nations.
Hence the name Dschermania applied in early times
to all that tract of country which lay to the north of the Oxus. The land of Erman, therefore, which was
situate beyond this river, and which corresponds to
the modern Chorasin, is made by Von Hammer the
native home of the Germanic race, and the Germans themselves are, as he informs us, called Dscherman, their primitive name, by the Oriental writers down to the fourteenth century. (Von Hammer, Wien.
Jahrb., vol. 2, p. 319.-Compare vol. 9, p. 39.) Another remarkable circumstance is, that, besides the name referred to, that of the modern Prussians may be
found under its primitive form in the Persian tongue.
We have there the term Pruschan or Peruschan, in
the sense of “a people.”. In Meninski (1, p. 533) we have Berussan and Beruschan, in the sense of “comimunitas ejusdem religionis,” while, in Ferghengi Schuuri, Peruschan or Poruschan more than once occurs.
(Vol. 1, B. 182, V. l. Z. and S. 183, e. Z.) Even the name Sachsen or Sassen (Saxons) is to be found in the Persian tongue, under the form Sassan, as indicating not only the last dynasty of the Persian empire (the Sassanides), but also those acquainted with the doctrines of the Dessatin, the old Persian dialect of which is far more nearly related to the Gothic than the modern Persian to the German. In the Oriental histories, moreover, mention is made of the dynasty of the sons of Boia, in whom we may easily recognise the progenitors of the Boii; while traces of the name of
the Catti may be found in that of Kat, in Chorasin.
(Fergh. Schuuri, B, 231.) The Getae, too, frequently
appear under the appellation of the Dschete in the history of Timour; and finally, the name of the Franks has been traced to the Persian Ferheng, “reason” or “understanding.” (Von Hammer, in Kruse's Archir.
der Germanischen Völkerstamme, hst. 2, p. 124, seqq.) Even as early as the time of Herodotus, the name of the Tepuavuot (Germanii) appears among the ancient Per
sian tribes (Herod., 1, 125), while the analogies between the Persian and German are so striking as to have excited the attention of every intelligent scholar.
Von Hammer has promised to show remarkable attinities between upward of 4000 German and Persian words. (Archiv., p. 126, not.) And, besides all this, an ancient Georgian MS. of laws, recently brought to
light, proves conclusively, that the Georgian nation had
among them ordeals precisely similar to those of the early Germans, and also the same judicial forms of proceeding, and the same system of satisfactions to be paid in cases of homicide, according to the rank of the party slain. (Annal. de legislat. et de Jurisprudence, Nro. 40, Paris, 1829. — Compare, on the general question of German and Persian affinities, Adelang, Mithradates, vol. 1, p. 278, seqq. —Id. ib., vol. 2 p. 170, seqq.-Ritter, Erdkunde, vol. 2, p. 674. —Id, Vorhale, p. 307.—Norberg, de Orig. Germ., p. 591.Link, Urwelt, p. 170. — Pfister, Gesch. der Deutsch, vol. 1, p. 24, seqq., p. 519, seqq.) Now, if these prem