Obrazy na stronie

1. *

ace has addressed two of his epistles. It is true that some manuscripts give the historian the name of Julius; in order, however, to admit the hypothesis of Titze, we must regard as interpolated a passage of the Prooemium of Florus, where mention is made of Trajan. (Consult the work of Titze, “De Epitome rerum Romanarum, quae sub nomine Lucii Annati, sive Flori, Seneca, fertur, actate probabilissima, rero auctore, operis antiqui forma,” Lincii, 1804, 8vo.) Florus has left us an abridgment of Roman History, entitled “Epitome de gestis Romanorum,” divided into four books. It commences with the origin of Rome, and extends to A.U.C. 725, when Augustus closed the temple of Janus, a ceremony which had not taken place for 206 years previous. This work is an extract not merely from Livy, but from many other ancient historians, no part of whose works any longer remain. It is less a history than an eulogium on the Roman people, written with elegance, but, at the same time, in an oratorical style, and not without affectation. Oftentimes facts are merely hinted at, events are passed over with a flourish of rhetoric; while the declamatory tone which everywhere prevails, and the concise and sententious phrases in which he is fond of indulging, impart an air of coldness to his writings, and render them monotonous, and sometimes obscure. Florus likewise commits many errors of a geographical nature, and on many occasions is defective in point of chronology. His text has reached us in a very corrupt state, and abounds with interpolations.—Some manuscripts give to the author of this work the name of Seneca : in fact, a branch of the Annæan family bore the name of Seneca; and there is even reason to believe that this family took indiscriminately the surname of Seneca or Florus. (Consult Wernsdorff, Poét. Lat. Min., vol. 3, p. 452.) From this title, as given by certain manuscripts, and from a passage of Lactantius, some critics have concluded that the Epitome is the work of Seneca the philosopher. Lactantius (Inst. divin. 7, 15) says, that Seneca divided the history of the Roman people into four periods; that of infancy, youth, manhood, and old age. This division occurs also in Florus, but in no other writer of antiquity, which would tend to strengthen the opinion that Lactantius has cited Florus under the name of Seneca. To this, however, it may be objected, that, though Florus adopts four periods or divisions in his work, his o is not exactly the same with that mentioned by Lactantius; besides, Florus might have borrowed from Seneca. The best edition of Florus is that of Duker, Lugd Bat, 1722, and 1744, 2 vols. 8vo. The edition of Fischer is also valuable, Lips., 1760, 8vo. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Rom., vol. 2, p. 389, seqq.—Bähr, Gesch. Röm. Lit., vol. 1, p. 452, seqq.)—II. A young Roman, the friend of Horace, who accompanied Tiberius in his expedition into Dalmatia (A.U.C. 731), and subsequently into Armenia (A.U.C. 734). Horace addresses two epistles to him (1, 3, and 2, 2). Some make him the same with Florus the historian. (Consult preceding article.) Fons Solis. Vid. Ammon. FoxtEius, Capito, I. an intimate friend of Horace, and who, in the conference at Brundisium, acted for Antony, while Macenas had charge of the interests of Octavius. (Horat., Sat., 1, 5, 32.)—II. A Roman who raised commotions in Germany during the reign of Galba. He was put to death by the lieutenants stationed there, before even orders reached them from home. (Tacit., Hist, 1, 7.) Forwise, a town of Latium, to the northeast of Caieta. It was a place of great antiquity, and is looked upon by the most ancient writers as the abode and capital of the Laestrygones, of which Homer speaks in the Odyssey, and where his hero met with so inhospitable a reception. The description of the place, however, is soonio, though it may agree in the prinu u

cipal features, that, unless the consenting voice of antiquity had fixed upon this spot as the scene of Ulys*ses' disaster, we could have had no clew for discovering in Formiae the seat of these savage cannibals. Every one, however, is at liberty to indulge his fancy with the supposition that the harbour which Homer describes was actually that of Gaeta (the ancient Formia), and he may there recognise in it the towering rocks, the prominent shores, and the narrow entrance. (Odyss., 10, 80.—Eustace's Classical Tour, vol. 2, p. 367.) According to Strabo (233), Formiae was a Laconian colony, and its first appellation was Hormiae, in allusion to the excellent anchorage which its port asforded to vessels. (Compare Plin., 3, 5.) This place, however, is chiefly interesting from having been long a favourite residence of Cicero, and finally the scene of the tragical event which terminated his existence. He sometimes talks of his retreat here as his Caietan villa (Ep. ad Att., 1, 2, and 3), but more commonly terms it his Formianum. He appears to have resided there during the most turbulent part of the civil war between Caesar and Pompey; for, in one of his letters to Atticus (7,8), he mentions a long conference he held with the latter at this place, and from which he inferred that no alternative was left but that of war. In the reign of Augustus we find Formiae distinguished as the birthplace and residence of Mamurra, a Roman senator of enormous wealth: hence the appellation by which Horace designates it in the narrative of his journey to Brundisium, “In Mamurrarum lassi deinde urbe manemus,” &c. (Sat., 1, 5, 37.) The retirement and ease which this delightful spot afforded is well described by Martial (Ep., 10, 30). The Formian hills are often extolled for the superior wine which they produced. (Horat., Od., 1, 20.-Id, ibid., 3, 16.) #. modern name of Formiae is Mola di Gaeta. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 125.) or MIANUM, a villa of Cicero near Formiae, near

which the orator was assassinated. (Vid. Formiae.)

For Mio, a small river of Venetia, now the Risano, considered before the reign of Augustus as the boundary of Italy towards its northeastern extremity; but, when Histria was included in Cisalpine Gaul, this limit was removed to the little river Arsia. (Plin , 3, 18.)

FortúNA (in Greek Türm), the Goddess of Fortune, or that unseen power which was believed to exercise such arbitrary dominion over human affairs. By Hesiod and by one of the Homeridae (Theog., 260–Hom., Hymn. ad Cer.,420) she is classed among the Oceannymphs. Pindar in one place (Ol., 13, 1) calls her “the child of Jupiter Fleutherius;” elsewhere he says that she is one of the Destinies. (Frag., Incert., 75.) Alcman called her the sister of Law and Persuasion, and daughter of Forethought (IIpointeta.-Ap. Plut. de Fort. Rom., 4). In her temple at Thebes Fortune held Wealth (IIAoûroc) in her arms, whether as mother or nurse was uncertain. (Pausan., 9, 16.) The image of this goddess made by Bupalus for the people of Smyrna had a hemisphere (Tóżoc) on its head, and a horn of Amalthaea in its hand. (Pausan., 4, 30, 6.—Compare Siebelis, ad Pausan., 2, 10, 4.) The Goddess Fortune was, however, of much greater importance in the eyes of the Italians than in those of the Greeks. Under the name of Nortia she was adored in Etruria. She was also worshipped at Antium, where she had a splendid temple, at Præneste, and elsewhere. At Rome there were two temples to her, both ascribed to Servius Tullius, the one of Bona or Virgo Fortuna, the other of Fors Fortuna. (Orid, Fast., 6, 569, seqq.—Keightley, ad loc.—Id, Mythology, p. 202, 533.

*w- Insulae, islands lying off the western coast of Africa, and deriving their name from their remarkable beauty, and the abundance of all things desirable which they were supposed to contain. Their

climate was one continual spring, their * covered with eternal verdure, and bloomed with the richest flowers; while the productions of earth were poured forth spontaneously in the utmost profusion. The legend of the Island of the Blessed in the Western Ocean may possibly have given rise to the tale of the Fortunate Islands. (Wid. Elysium.)—Many at the present day regard the Fortunate Islands of antiquity as geographical realities. Some make them identical with the Canaries, and this opinion is grounded upon the situation and temperature of those islands, and the delicious fruits which they produce. (Plin., 6, 32.Diod. Sic, 5, 19.) Fórum RomâNum, Vetus vel Magnum, a large open space between the Capitoline and Palatine Hills, called until lately Campo Vaccino, or the Cow-field, or market. The Italians, however, have grown ashamed of so vulgar a name, and have restored to the place its ancient appellation of Forum Romanum. It is now a mere open space, strewed for the most part with ruins. It is.collected from Livy (1, 12) and Dionysius of Halicarnassus (2,66), that the Forum was situate between the Capitoline and Palatine Hills; and from Vitruvius we learn that its shape was that of a rectangle, the length of which exceeded the breadth by one third. From these data, which agree with other incidental circumstances, it is generally thought that the four angles of the Roman forum were formed by the arch of Severus at the foot of the Capitol; the Fabian arch, at the termination of the Via Sacra; the church of St. Theodore, at the foot of the Palatine ; and that of the Consolazione, below the Capitol. Here the assemblies of the people used generally to be held, and here also justice was administered, and public business transacted. It was formed by Romulus, and surrounded with porticoes, shops, and buildings by Tarquinius Priscus. (Liv., 1, 35.—Dion. Hal, 3, 67.) Around the Forum were built spacious halls, called Basilica, where courts of justice might sit, and other public business be transacted. The present surface of the Forum is from fisteen to twenty feet above its ancient level.—There was only one Forum under the republic; Caesar added another; Augustus a third; a fourth was begun by Domitian, and finished by Nerva, after whom it was named. But the most splendid was that of Trajan, adorned with the spoils he had taken in war. Besides these, there were various fora or places where commodities were sold. ForUM, a name given in Roman geography to many places where there was either a public market, or where the praetor held his court (Forum sive Conventus); of these the most important were : I. Forum, a town of Latium, on the Appian Way, about twentythree miles from Aricia, and sixteen from Tres Taberhae. It is mentioned by St. Paul in the account of his journey to Rome (Acts, 28, 15), and is also well known as Horace's second resting-place in his journey to Brundisium. Holstenius and Corradini agree in fixing the position of Forum Appii at Casarillo di Santa Maria. But D'Anville, from an exact computation of distances and relative positions, inclines to place it at Borgo Lungo, near Treponti, on the present road (Anal. Geogr. de l'Italie, p. 186); and he would seem to be correct, especially as it appears clear from Horace, that here it was usual to embark on a canal, which ran parallel to the Via Appia, and which was called Decennovium, its length being nineteen miles. (Procop., Rer. Got., 1, 2.) Westiges of this canal may still be traced a little beyond Borgo Lungo. It must be observed, too, that the name of this modern place agrees very well with the idea which Horace gives us of Forum Appii. - II. Allieni, a town of Gallia Cisalpina, mentioned by Tacitus (Hist, 3, 6). Cluverius conceives, with considerable probability, that this ancient town occupied the present site of Ferrara, that modern name being evidently a corruption of Forum Allieni, contracted to Forum Arrii.—


III. Aurelii, a town of Etruria, now Montalto (Cit., Cat., 1,9.)—IV. Claudii, another in Etruria, now Oriolo.—W. Cornelii, another, now Imola, in the Pope's dominions. (Pliny, 3, 16–Cic, Ep. ad Fam., 12, 5.)—VI. Domitii, a town of Gaul, now Frontignan, in Languedoc.—WII. Flaminii, a town of Umbria, now San Giorane. (Plin., 3, 14.)—VIII. Gallorum, a town of Gallia Togata, now Castel Franco, in the Bolognese. (Cic., Ep. ad Fam., 10, 30.)—IX. Juli. a town of Venetia, called Forajuliensis urbs, now Friuli. -— X. Julii, a town of Gallia Narbonensis, now Frejus, in Provence. (Cic., Ep. ad Fam., 10, 17.) Fost, a people of Germany, lying north of the Cherusci, along the Visurgis or Weser. They shared the fate of the Cherusci when the Langobard: conquered the latter people. They are supposed to have been a branch of the Cherusci. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 3, p. 175, 208.) Fossa, I. the straits of Bonifacio, between Corsica and Sardinia, called also Taphros. (Plin., 3, 6.)—II. Drusi, a canal eight miles in length, opened by Drusus from the Rhine to the Yssel. (Wid. Drusus, I.)—III. Philistina, one of the mouths of the Po, now the Po grande. It is spoken of as a very considerable canal, having seven arms or cuts, called Septem Maria, or Fossiones Philistinae. These were drawn off from it to the sea. The works in question were undertaken by the Tuscans, for the purpose of draining the marshy grounds about Hadria. Mazocchi sees in the term Philistinae traces of a reference to Phoenicia. (Mazocch., Dissert. Corton., vol. 3, diss. 1, diatr. 1, de sette Mari.) Fossiones PhilistiNAE. Wid. Fossa, III. FRANci, a confederation of Germanic tribes, which first appeared on the stage of history in the last quarter of the second century of our era. As the Franks are first mentioned during the reign of the philosophic and pacific Antonine, Mannert concludes that their confederation was not the result of hostile aggression from Rome, but of internal wars; and these wars he col ceives to have been chiefly of self-defence against the Saxon confederation, which, occupying the north of Germany, sought to extend itself westward to the Rhine. The Germans lying between the Saxons and that river found it necessary to unite in order to resist their northen invaders, and did so successfully under their new name of Franks. (Geschichte der alten Deutschen, besonders der Franken, p. 79, seqq.) Various etymologies have been assigned to this appellation: some deduce it from the German term frank, meaning “free,” and indicating a race of Freemen; others from the francisca, a favourite weapon of this people; but Luden, in his Geschichte des Teutschen Wolkes (Gotha, 1825–30), derives the name from the word wrangen, still used in Lower Saxony for “to fight” or “brawl" (compare the English “wrangle”); whence the epithet might mean quarrelsome, or, perhaps, bold warriors. The Franks soon became powerful enough to act on the offensive, and, crossing the Rhine to meet other foes, they spread their devastations from the banks of that river to the soot of the Pyrenees: nor were they stopped by these mountains. Spain, in turn, was overrun; and, when the exhausted country no longer supplied a variety of plun: der, the Franks seized on some vessels and transported themselves into Mauritania. They were afterward driven out of Gaul by the Roman arms, and from the reign of Probus (A.D. 277) to that of Honorius, seein to have contented themselves with occasional irruptions. They obtained a permanent footing in Gaul during the last years of the reign of Honorius. About the year 500, Clovis, or Chlodwig (his proper Teutonic name), by reducing the several Frank principalitics under his own sceptre, and conquering the last remnant of the western Roman empire in Gaul, is held to have founded the French monarchy. His Frank kingdom was, nevertheless, by no means commensurate with modern France, consisting of merely the northern German provinces on probably both banks of the Rhine, of the present kingdom of the Netherlands, and of so much of France as lies north of the Loire, with the exception of Brittany, where large bodies of Britons, expelled from their insular home by the Saxons, had established themselves, and long maintained their independence. Of the southern half of France, the larger part, situated to the west of the Rhone, was included in the Visigothic kingdom of Spain; while the provinces to the east of that river were held, together with Savoy and Switzerland, by the Burgundians. Chlodwig attacked both. Against the Burgundians he effected little or nothing, but he was more successful against their western neighbours. Assisted by the hatred which the Catholic natives entertained towards their Arian master, he, before his death, reduced the Visigothic dominions in Gaul to the single province of Languedoc, incorporating all the rest in his Frank realm. His sons and grandsons, in time, not only subdued Burgundy, but brought many German states, as the Thuringians, Allemans, and Bavarians, into complete feudal subjection. (Foreign Quarterly Review, No. 13, p. 169, seqq.) FREgellae, a city of Latium, situate near the Liris, and close to the Via Latina, as appears from the mention of a station called Fregellanum in the Itineraries which describe that route. Fregella is stated by Strabo (238) to have been once a place of some consequence, and the capital of a considerable district. It was taken by the Romans A.U.C. 427. After suffering from Pyrrhus, and subsequently from Hannibal, this place attained to so considerable a degree of importance and prosperity as to suppose that it could compete even with Rome; its inhabitants revolted, and probably under circumstances peculiarly offensive to the Romans. L. Opimius was ordered to reduce the Fregellani. Their town was immediately besieged, and, after a vigorous resistance, was taken through the treachery of Numitorius Pullus, one of their own citizens, whose name has been handed down to us by Cicero. (De Fin., 5, 22.—Phil., 3, 6.) Fregella was on this occasion destroyed, the discontented state of the allies of Rome at that period probably rendering such severe measures necessary. (Liv., Epit, 60. — Rhet, ad Her., 4, 9.- Well. Paterc., 2, 6.Wal. Max., 2, 8.) In Strabo's time the condition of this city was little better than that of a village, to which the neighbouring population resorted at certain periods for religious purposes. Its ruins, according to Cluverius, are to be seen at Ceperano, a small town on the right of the Garigliano. (Ital. Ant., vol. 1, p. 1036.-Compare Holst, ad Steph. Byz., p. 220, and De Chaupy, vol. 3, p. 474). A more modern writer, however, fixes this ancient site at S. Giovanni Incarico, about three miles farther down the river. (Pasquale Cayro, Citta del Lazio, vol. 1.-Romanelli, vol. 3, p. 380.-Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 111.) FRENTAN1, a people of Italy, on the Adriatic coast, east of Samnium and northwest of Apulia, who received their name from the river Frento, now Fortore, which runs through the eastern part of their country, and falls into the Adriatic opposite the islands of Diomede. The Frentani appear to have possessed a separate political existence, independent of the Samnitic confederacy, though we are assured that they derived their descent from that warlike and populous race. (Strabo, 241.) Their history, in other respects, bears a close resemblance to that of the neighbouring tribes, the Westini, Peligni, and Marrucini. Together with these, the Frentani, as Livy reports, voluntarily submitted to the Romans, and sent deputies to obtain a treaty from that power, which was readily granted. (Liv., 9, 45.) We find the Frentani also numbered with the Marsi, Marrucini, and Westini, by Polybius,

as the allies of Rome before the invasion of Hannibal (2,24). From Plutarch we learn, that they distin guished themselves in the war against Pyrrhus (Wit. Pyrrh.-Compare Florus, 1, 18), and it appears that they faithfully adhered to the Roman cause throughout the whole of the second Punic war. Appian is the only author who has particularly mentioned the Frentani, as having joined the coalition of the petty states of central Italy against Rome (Civ. Bell., 1, 39), but even without the authority of this writer we could not doubt that this people would unite in support of the common cause with the surrounding states, to whom they were bound by consanguinity and other political ties. Whatever may have been their former extent of territory, we find it restricted by the geographers of the Augustan age to the tract of country lying between the mouths of the Aternus and Tifernus, which separated it from the Marrucini to the north, and from Apulia to the south. (Mela, 2, 4.—Plin., 3, 11, seqq.— Ptol., p. 66.) Though it extended also into the interior towards Samnium, and the sources of the rivers just mentioned, the few cities of the Frentani with which we are acquainted appear to have been situated on the coast. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 254, seqq.)

oil, a people of Germany, having for their boundaries the eastern mouth of the Rhine on the west, the ocean on the north, the Amisia or Ems on the east, and the Wechta or Wecht on the south. They occupied, consequently, what answers at the present day to West Friesland, Groningen, and the northern angle of Ober-Yssel, together with the islands which lie partly to the north in the ocean, and partly to the eastern mouth of the Rhine. Pliny and Tacitus (Ann., 1, 60.—Ib., 4, 72, &c.) name this people Frisii; Ptolemy and Dio Cassius, opiaquot and opeiatot (Ptol., 2. 11.-Dio Cass., 54, 32); but by later writers they are styled optagovec (Procop., 4, 20), Frisiones (Chronic. Moisiac., 797), Frisones (Paul. Warnefr., de Gest. Longob., 6, 37), &c. From a very early period the Frisii appear to have been on friendly terms with the Romans. Drusus not only marched unimpeded through their territory and entered their harbour with his fleet, but also received from them the most active assistance, not as from a conquered people, but allies. They aided also Germanicus. Their enmity to the Cherusci would seem to have been the real motive of their friendship with the Romans. At a subsequent period, however, they discovered the true nature of the alliance which the latter had formed with them, and fell an easy prey to their conquering arms. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 3, p. 272.)

Frontinus, Sex. Jul, a Latin writer, born of a plebeian family (Poleni, Vit. Front., 1, seqq.), but who attained, by his integrity, valour, and intelligence, to some of the highest offices of the state. In A.D. 70 he was praetor, but abdicated this office to please Domitian, who wished to add it to the dignity of consul, with which he himself was already invested. (Compare Tacitus, Hist., 4, 39. —Suetonius, Domit., 1.) Five years after Frontinus obtained the command of Britain, and was intrusted with the subjugation of the Silures; which would seem to indicate that he had been consul in A.D. 74, though the Fasti Consulares, which are not, however, very complete as regards the consules suffecti, make no mention of him. He accomplished the object of his mission, notwithstanding the difficulties of the enterprise. Agricola, the fatherin-law of Tacitus, was appointed his successor. Under Nerva he received the consulship a second time, A.D. 97, and was appointed the same year Curator Aqua, rum, or general superintendent of the waters and aqueducts of the capital, and in this capacity brought the waters of the Anio to Rome by means of a splen: did aqueduct. He died about A.D. 106, and filled, at the time of his death, the office of augur, in which he was succeeded by Pliny. Frontinus wrote a work on the Roman aqueducts, and another on military stratagems. The former of these, to which the copyists of the middle ages have given the barbarous title of “De aquaeductibus urbis Roma Commentarius,” is written in an easy style, but without the least elegance. It is important, however, for archaeology, since we find in it a detailed history of those remarkable monuments, the aqueducts of Rome. As regards the title of the work, it may be remarked, that the term aquarductus does not appear in the treatise itself; and an old edition gives as the superscription, “De Aquis, qua, in Urben influunt, libellus mirabilis.” The other work, entitled “Stratagematicon libri IV.,” is partly of a military and partly of an historical character; it is a mere compilation, sometimes written with great megligence, especially in the historical part. Still, even in an historical point of view, the work is not without interest, since it contains some particulars which are not to be found in the other historians that have come down to us. To Frontinus are ascribed other productions, which are, however, of a later age. One is entitled “De Re Agraria,” or “De Agrorum Qualitate;” the others, “De Limitibus” and “De Coloniis.” The last two are merely fragments, and their authors lived after the time of the Antonines, who are mentioned in them. The best edition of Frontinus is that of Oudendorp, Lugd. Bat., 1779, 8vo. (Bähr, Gesch. Röm. Lit., vol. 1, p. 671, seqq.) Fronto, I, a Latin writer, born at Cirta, in Africa, of an Italian family. After studying in his own country, he came to Rome in the reign of Hadrian, and acquired great reputation as a rhetorician and grammarian. Antoninus Pius appointed him preceptor to his two adopted sons Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, whose confidence and affection he gained, as is proved by their letters. After being consul, Fronto was appointed to a government in Asia, which his bad health prevented him from filling. His learning and his instructive conversation are mentioned with praise by Aulus Gellius, the historian Appian, and others of his contemporaries. He died in the reign of Marcus Aurelius, at an advanced age. (Klügling, Suppl. ad. Harles. Notit. Brev., p. 320-Mai, Comment. praor., § iv., seqq.—Bühr, Gesch. Röm. Lit., vol. 1, p. 595.) —Until of late years we had nothing of Fronto's works, except sragments of his treatise “De Differentia Verborum,” being a vocabulary of the so-called synonyms. But in 1815, Angelo Mai having discovered in the Ambrosian Library at Milan a palimpsest MS., on which had been originally written some letters of Fronto to his two pupils, deciphered the text wherever the writing was not entirely obliterated, and published it with notes. It happened, by singular good fortune, that Mai, being some years after appointed librarian of the Vatican, discovered in another palimpsest vol. ume another part of Fronto's letters, with the answers of Marcus Aurelius and Verus. Both the volumes came originally from the monastery of St. Columbanus, at Bobbio, the monks having written them over with the Acts of the First Council of Chalcedon. It happened, that one of the volumes was transferred to Milan, and the other to Rome. Mai published the whole in a new edition, cntitled, “M. Cornelii Frontonis et M. Aurelii imperatoris epistula: ; L. Veri et Antonini Pii et Appiani epistularum reliquiae : Fragmenta Frontonis et Scripta Grammatica, 8vo, Rom., 1823.” These letters are very valuable, as throwing additional light on the age of the Antonines, confirming what we know of the excellent character of Marcus Aurelius, and also showing his colleague Verus in a more savourable light than he had been viewed in before. The affectionate manner in which both emperors continue to address their former preceptor is very touching. Two or three short epistles of Antoninus Pius are also interesting. There are, besides, many letters


of Fronto to various friends, a few of which are m Greek. (Encycl. Us. Knowl, vol. 10, p. 498.)—II. A native of Emesa, a rhetorician, who lived at Rome in the time of Alexander Severus. He taught eloquence also at Athens, and was the rival of the first Philostratus. The critic Longinus was his nephew. He wrote various works, of which only a few fragments remain. (Suid.—Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 7, p. 204.) FRUsino, a city of Latium, now Frosinone, situate on the river Cosa. (Strabo, 238.) This place was deprived by Rome of its territory for having incited the Hernici to war, A.U.C. 450. Frontinus names it among the colonies, and Festus among the praefecture. Fucinus, a lake of Italy, in the country of the Marsi, now sometimes called Lago Fucino, but more commonly Lago di Celano. It is of considerable extent, being not less than forty miles in circumference. As it was subject to inundation (Strabo, 241), Julius Caesar, it appears, had intended to find a vent for its waters (Sueton., Wit. Caes., 44), but this design was not carried into execution till the reign of Claudius. After a continued labour of three years, during which 30,000 men were constantly employed, a canal of three miles in length was carried through a mountain from the lake to the river Liris. On its completion, the splendid but sanguinary show of a real naumachia was exhibited on the lake in the presence of Claudius and Agrippina, and a numerous retinue, while the surrounding hills were thronged with the population of the neighbouring country. The reader will find these events fully detailed in Suetonius (Wit. Claud., 20), Tacitus (Annal., 12, 56), and Dio Cassius (60, 11). Hadrian afterward is said to have repaired this work of Claudius. (AEI., Spart, Wit. Hadr.) Considerable remains of this undertaking of Claudius are yet to be seen between Arezzano and Lugo. (Consult Fabretti, Dissert. de Emissario Lacus Fucini.-Romanelli, vol. 3, p. 194—Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 1, p. 328.) Fulvia GENs, an illustrious family at Rome, the branches of which were those of Curvus, Nobilior, Flaccus, Paetinus, Maximus, Centumalus, &c. Fulvia, I. a female of good family, but licentious principles, She disclosed to Cicero the details of the conspiracy of Catiline, which she had learned from Quintus Curius. (Sall., Cat., c. 23.)—II. A bold, ambitious woman, at first the wife of Clodius the turbulent tribune, and, after his death, of Marcus Antonius the triumvir. She first came into notice on the assassination of Clodius, when, having caused the corpse to be brought into the vestibule of her dwelling, and having assembled the populace, she caused, by her tears and language, a violent sedition. Some years after this, on having become the spouse of Antony, she took an active part in the proscriptions of her husband, and is said to have even sacrificed to her own vengeance several individuals who had given her offence. After the head of Cicero was brought to Antony, she took it on her knees, broke forth into cowardly insult of the character of the deceased, and then, with fiendish malice, pierced the tongue with her golden bodkin. Having been left at Rome by Antony during the war against Brutus and Cassius, she became all powerful in that city, named the prators at her own pleasure, sold the government of the provinces, and even decreed a triumph to Lucius, the brother of Antony, who had no claim whatever to one. When, after the battle of Philippi, Antony had passed into the East to regulate affairs in that quarter, Fulvia, irritated by his intercourse with Cleopatra, tried to induce Octavius to take up arms against him. Not succeeding in this, she took them up against Octavius himself, in conjunction with her brother-in-law Lucius, who now professed open opposition to the illegal power of the Triumvirate. After very bold and

spirited efforts, however, on her part, she was besieged with her brother-in-law at Perusia, and compelled to surrender to the power of Octavius. Fulvia, after this, retired to Greece, and rejoined her husband, but was coldly received by him. She died at Sicyon, A.U.C. 712, through chagrin and wounded pride, as was believed, at her husband's attachment to Cleopatra. (Well. Paterc., 2, 74.—Plut., Wit. Ant.—Id., Wit. Cic.)

Fulvius, I. L. Curvus, was consul A.U.C. 432, B.C. 320, and six years after master of the horse to the dictator L. AEmilius, (Liv., 8, 38.-Id., 9, 21.) —II. M. Curvus Patinus, was consul in place of T. Minucius, A.U.C. 449, B.C. 305. He took the city of Bovianum, in the country of the Samnites. (Liv., 9, 44.)—III. Cn. Patinus, was consul A.U.C. 454, B.C. 300. He gained a memorable victory over the Samnites near Bovianum, and enjoyed a triumph. Three years after he carried on successful operations in Etruria in quality of propraetor. (Liv., 9,44.—ld., 15, 91.)—IV. S. Paetinus Nobilior, was consul A.U.C. 499, B.C. 255, along with Æmilius Paulus Lepidus. These two commanders sailed for Africa after the overthrow of Regulus by the Carthaginians, gained a naval victory, compelled the foe to raise the siege of Clypea, and carried off an immense booty from the Carthaginian territories. They were shipwrecked, however, on their return to Italy, and of 200 vessels only 80 were saved.—W. Q. Flaccus, was consul A.U.C. 517, 530, 542, and 545 (B.C. 237,224, 212, and 209.) He defeated Hanno near Bovianum, and laid siege to Capua, which surrendered to him after the lapse of a year. The conquered were treated with great cruelty. (Wid. Capua.) Some time subsequent to this, he marched against the Hirpini, Lucanians, and other nations of Italy, who, alarmed at the severities inflicted on Capua, surrendered to him the garrisons which had been placed in their cities by Hannibal. (Livy, 23, 21.—Id., 24, 29.-Id., 25, 2.)—VI. M. Nobilior, was praetor in Spain A.U.C. 588, B.C. 196, and carried the Roman arms to the Tagus, making himself master also of Toletum (Toledo), up to that period deemed impregnable. Having obtained the consulship, A.U.C. 565, he was intrusted with the war in Greece, during which he took Ambracia, traversed Epirus as conqueror, and reduced to submission the island of Cephallenia. Two years after this he was accused before the senate of having maltreated the allies of the Roman people, but was acquitted of the charge, and received the honour of a triumph. In the year 573 he was elected censor along with AEmilius Lepidus, his bitter foe. Apprehending injury to the state from their known enmity, the leading men of the senate adjured both individuals to lay aside their differences for the good of their country. A reconciliation accordingly took place, and nothing occurred to disturb these friendly feelings during the rest of their joint magistracy. Fulvius raised many public structures, a basilica, a forum, &c. He also constructed a port at the mouth of the Tiber. (Lir., 33, 42.—Id, 35, 7.—ld., 20, 22, &c.)—VII. Q. Flaccus, was praetor A.U.C. 573, B.C. 181. He took, in this capacity, the city of Urbicua in Farther Spain, and defeated the Celtiberi in the battle of Ebura, killing in this and in another encounter 35,000 men. On his return to Rome he received a triumph, and in the same year (575) the consulship. In A.U.C. 580 he was elected censor along with Posthumius Albinus. These two censors were the first that paved the streets of Rome, B.C. 174. The next year he built a temple to Fortune, and, to adorn it, carried off a large portion of the marble tiles from the temple of the Lacinian Juno in Lower Italy. (Wid. Lacinium.) The senate compelled him to restore these. The popular account made him to have been deprived of reason for this act of sacrilege. (liv., 39, 56 et 40.—ld., 40, 16.-Well.

Paterc., 1, 10.)—VIII. M. Flaccus, was consul A.U.C. 629, B.C. 125. He seconded the projects of Tibe rius Gracchus to obtain for the states of Italy the rights of citizenship. Being afterward sent against the Gauls, he defeated them, and obtained a triumph. Four years subsequently he became involved in the seditious movements of the Gracchi relative to the agrarian law, and perished in an affray which arose. (Wid. Gracchus.) Fund KNUs, a lake near Fundi in Italy, which discharges itself into the Mediterranean. (Tacit., Hist., 3, 69.) According to Pliny, the Lacus Fundanus was originally called Amyclanus, from the city of Amycla: in its vicinity. (Plin., 14, 6.) Fundi, a town of Latium, on the Appian Way, near the Lacus Fundanus, and not far from Caieta. It is now Fondi. The first mention of this place in history occurs at the end of the Latin war, A.U.C. 417, when, with the exception of the right of voting, it obtained the privileges of a Roman city, for having allowed a free passage to the Roman troops in their march into Campania. (Liv., 8, 14.) Not long after, however, the Fundani incurred the displeasure of the senate for having secretly aided the city of Privernum in a hostile incursion into the Roman territory, but, by a timely submission, they escaped the threatened vengeance Fundi received the right of voting A.U.C. 564, and its citizens were enrolled in the AEmilian tribe. (Liv., 38, 36.) It was subsequently colonized by the veteran soldiers of Augustus. Horace's description of the ridiculous importance assumed by the praetor of Fundi will be in the recollection of most readers. (Sat., 1, 5, 34, seqq.—Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 122.) FuRIA Lex, de Testamentis, by C. Furius the tribune. It forbade any person to leave, as a legacy more than a thousand asses, and that he who took more should pay fourfold. By the laws of the twelve tables, one might leave what legacies he pleased. (Cic., Verr., 1, 42.) FURIAE, the Furies, called also Dirae and Eumenides. These goddesses are frequently named by Homer, but he says nothing of their origin. In the Theogony, they spring from the blood of Uranus, when mutilated by his son Saturn, whose own children they are according to Empedocles; while Æschylus and Sophocles call them the children of Night. (AEsch., Eumen., 317,413.-Soph., QEd. Col., 40, 106.) The Orphic Hymns assign them the rulers of Erebus for parents. (Hymn., 70.) In the time of the Alexandlean writers, the Furies, like the Fates, were three in number, and were named Alecto (Unceasing), Megaera (Enrier or Denier), and Tisiphone (Blood-avenger). The Furies were worshipped at Athens as the revered (asuvat) goddesses; and at Sicyon as the kind (Evuevideo) deities. It is generally thought that both of these appellations were propitiatory ones, and meant to appease. Müller, however, is of opinion, that the term Eumenides, as applied to the Furies, is connected with old religious ideas, according to which, death and ruin, as well as life and welfare, were supposed to emanate from one and the same source. (Muller, Eumenid., p. 204.)—The external representation of these goddesses, in the play of AEschylus called after them, is founded entirely on the fearful aspect of their ideal nature. In their exterior configuration the poet seems to have drawn a good deal on his own invention; for the earlier bards had no definite image of these goddesses before their eyes; and though there were in their temple at Athens old carved images of the Scmna, still their figure could not be adapted to dramatic purposes. From the Gorgons AEschylus borrowed the shaky hair of the Furies. He took, no doubt, from these also the pendent tongue, red with the lapped gore, and the grinning mouth, which regularly characterizes the Gorgon head in ancient works of art. The long pendent tongue, moreover, is most likely omain type o

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