Obrazy na stronie

known Journey to Brundisium. He insorms us, that he passed the first night after having left Beneventum at a villa close to Trivicum, a place situated among the mountains separating Samnium from Apulia. Horace, in speaking of Equus Tuticus, pleasantly alludes to the unmanageable nature of the name in verse: “Mansuri oppidulo, quod versu dicere non est.” (Sat., 1, 5, 87.) ERAsistriott's, a physician of Iulis, in the island of Ceos, and grandson of Aristotle by a daughter of this philosopher's. (Straho, 486–Steph. Byzan, s. v. "Iovzug.) After having frequented the schools of Chrysppus, Metrodorus, and Theophrastus, he passed some time at the court of Seleucus Nicator, where he gained great reputation by his discovering the secret malady which preyed upon the young Antiochus, the son of the king, who was in love with his mother-in-law, Queen Stratonice. (Appian, Bell, Syr., c. 126.—Luclan, de Dea Syr, c. 17) It was at Alexandrea, however, that he principally practised. At last he refused altogether to visit the sick, and devoted himself entirely to the study of anatomy. The branches of this study which are indebted to him for new discoveries, are, among others, the doctrine of the functions of the brain, and that of the nervous system. He has immortalized himself by the discovery of the via lactea; and he would seem to have come very near that of the circulation of the blood. Comparative anatomy fur. nished him with the means of describing the brain nuch better than had ever been done before him. He also distinguished and gave names to the auricles of the heart. (Galen, de Dogm. Hopp. et Plat, lib. 7, p. 311, seqq.—Id., de Usu Part., lib. 8, p. 458.-Id, de Administr. Anat, lib. 7, p. 184–1d., an Sanguis, &c., p. 223) A singular doctrine of Erasistratus is that of the Tveijua (pneuma), or the spiritual substance which, according to him, fills the arteries, which we inhale in respiration, which from the lungs makes its way into the arteries, and then becomes the vital principle of the human system. As long as this spirit moves about in the arteries, and the blood in the veins, man enjoys health : but when, from some cause or other, the veins become contracted, the blood then spreads into the arteries and becomes the source of maladies: it produces fever when it enters into some noble part or into the great artery; and inflammations when it is found in the less noble parts or in the extremities of the arteries. (Galen, Comm., 1, in lib. de Nat. Hum., p. 3.) Erasistratus rejected entirely blood-letting, as well as cathartics: he supplied their place with dicting, tepid bathing, vomiting, and exercise. In general, he was attached to simple remedies: he recognised what was subsequently termed Idiosyncrasy, or the peculiar constitution of different individuals, which makes the same remedy act differently on different persons. A few fragments of the writings of Erasistratus have been preserved by Galen. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 3, p. 405, seqq.—Sprengel, Hist. Med., vol. 1, p. 439, seqq.) ERAto, one of the Muses, who presided over lyric, tender, and amorous poetry. She is said to have invented also hymns to the gods, and to have presided likewise over pantomimic dancing. Hence Ausonius says, “Plectra gerens Erato saltat pede, carmine, cultu.” (Idyl, ult., v. 6.) She is represented as crowned with roses and myrtle, holding a lyre in her hand. She appears with a thoughtful, and sometimes with a gay and animated, look. (Compare Müller, Archäol. der Kunst, p. 594, seqq.) EratosthèNes, a distinguished contemporary of Archimedes, born at Cyrene, B.C. 276. He possessed a variety of talents seldom united in the same individual, but not all in the same eminent degree. His mathematical, astronomical, and geographical labours are those which have rescued his name from ob

livion. The Alexandrean school of sciences, which

flourished under the first Ptolemies, had already pro duced Timochares and Aristyllus, whose solstitial observations, made probably by the shadows of a gnomon, and by the armillary circles imitative of those of the celestial vault, retained considerable credit for conturies afterward, though, from these methods of obesrvation, they must have been extremely rude and imperfect. Eratosthenes had not only the advantages arising from the instruments and observations of his predecessors, but the great Alexandrean library, which probably contained all the Phoenician, Chaldaic, Egyptian, and Greek learning of the time, was intrusted to his superintendence by the third Ptolemy (Euergetes) who invited him to Alexandrea ; and we have proof, in the scattered fragments which remain to us of this great man, that these advantages were duly cultivated to his own fame and the progress of infant astronomy. The only work attributed to Eratosthenes which has come down to us entire, is entitled Karaarsplauot (Catasterism), and is merely a catalogue of the names of forty-four constellations, and the situations in each constellation of the principal stars, of which he enumerates nearly five hundred, but without one reference to astronomical measurement. We find Hipparchus quoted in it, and mention made of the motion of the pole, that of the polar star having been recognised by Pytheas. These circumstances, taken in conjunction with the vagueness of the descriptions, render its genuineness extremely doubtful; at all events, it is a work of little value. If Eratosthenes be really the author of the “Catasterismi,” it must have been composed merely as a cade mecum, for we find him engaged in astronomical researches far more exact . more worthy of his genius. By his observations he determined, that the distance between the tropics, that is, twice the obliquity of the ecliptic, was go of an entire circumference, or 47°42' 39", which makes the obliquity to be 23° 51 19.5", nearly the same as that supposed by Hipparchus and Ptolemy. As the means of observation were at that time very imperfect, the instruments divided only to intervals of 10, and corrections for the greater refraction at the winter solstice, for the diameter of the solar disc, &c., were then unknown, we must regard this conclusion as highly creditable to Eratosthenes. His next achievement was to measure the circumference of the earth. He knew that at Syene (the modern Assouan) the sun was vertical at noon in the summer solstice; while at Alexandrea, at the same moment, it was below the zcnith by the fiftieth part of a circumference: the two places are nearly on the same meridian (error 2°). Neglecting the solar parallax, he concluded that the distance from Alexandrea to Syene is the fiftieth part of the circumference of the earth; this distance he estimated at five thousand stadia, which gives two hundred and filty thousand stadia for the circumference. Thus Eratosthenes has the merit of pointing out a method for finding the circumference of the earth. But his data were not sufficiently exact, nor had he the means of measuring the distance from Alexandrea to Syene with sufficient precision.—Eratosthenes has been called a poet, and Scaliger, in his commentary on Manilius, gives some fragments of a poem attributed to him, entitled "Epuń: (Hermes), one of which is a description of the terrestrial zones. It is not improbable that these are authentic.—That Eratosthenes was an excellent geometer we cannot doubt, from his still extant solution of the problem of two mean proportionals, preserved by Theon, and a lost treatisc quoted by Pappus, “De Lucis ad Medietates,” on which Montucla has offered some conjectures. (Hist, des Math., an 7, p. 280.)— Eratosthènes appears to have been one of the first who attempted to form a system of geography. His work on this subject, entitled Teo)paptka (Geographica), was divided into three books. The first contained a history of geography, a critical notice of the authorities used by him, and the elements of physical geography. The second book treated of mathematical geography. The third contained the political or historical geography of the then known world. The whole work was accompanied with a map. The geography of Eratosthenes is lost; the fragments which reinain have been chiefly preserved by Strabo, who was doubtless much indebted to them.—Eratosthenes also busied himself with chronology. Some remarks on his Greek chronology will be found in Clinton's Fast, Hellenic (vol. 1, p. 3–1b., p. 408); and on his list of Theban kings in Rask's work on the Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Altona, 1830)—The properties of numbers attracted the attention of philosophers from the earliest period, and Eratosthenes also distinguished himself in this branch. He wrote a work on the “Duplication of the Cube,” Kotov 6–72 aataa. u%, which we only know by a sketch that Eudoxus has given of it, in his treatise on the Sphere and Cylinder of Archimedes. Eratosthenes composed, also, another work in this department, entitled Kóaktvov, or “the Sieve,” the object of which was to separate prime from composite numbers, a curious memoir on which was published by Horseley, in the “Philosophical Transactions,” 1772.-Eratosthenes arrived at the age of eighty years, and then, becoming weary of life, died by voluntary starvation. (Suid., s. v.) Montucla, with his usual naiveté, says, it would have been more philosophical to have awaited death “de pied ferme.”—The best editions of the Catasterisini are that of Schaubach, with notes by Heyne, Gött., 1795, and that of Matthia, in his Aratus, Francof, 1817, 8vo. The fragments of Eratosthenes have been collected by Bernhardy, Berol., 1822. (Montucla, Hist. des Math., p. 239–Delambre, Hist, de l'Astron. Anc., p. 86.—Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 9, p. 497.) Erbessus, a strongly-fortified town of Sicily, northeast of Agrigentum, which the Romans made their principal place of arms in the siege of the last-mentioned city. It was soon after destroyed. (Polyb., 1, 18.)—When mention is made, in other passages of the ancient writers, of Erbessa, we must, no doubt, refer it to the city of Herbessa, which lay nearer Syracuse. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt.2, p. 441.) Erchia, one of the boroughs of Attica, and be. longing to the tribe AEgels. Its position has not been clearly ascertained. This was the native demus of Xenophon and Isocrates. (Diog. Laert, 2, 48.) EREbus, I. a deity of the lower world, sprung from Chaos. From him and his sister Nox (Night) came AEther and the Day. (Hesiod, Theog., 123, seqq.)— II. A dark and gloomy region in the lower world, where all is dreary and cheerless. According to the Homeric notion, Erebus lay between the earth and Hades, beneath the latter of which was Tartarus. It was therefore not an abode of the departed, but merely a passage from the upper to the lower world. (Heyne, ad Iliad, 8, 368. Passow, Ler. Gr., s. v.) This mode of explaining is opposed, however, by some, though on no sufficient grounds. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 90.) Oriental scholars derive the name Erebus from the Hebrew ereh, evening. EREchth Eis, the well of salt water in the Acropolis at Athens. (Wid. Erechtheus.) EREchtheus, one of the early Attic kings, said to have been the son of Pandion I., and the sixth in the series of monarchs of Attica. He was father of Cecrops II.--We have already given some remarks on the fabulous history of the Attic kings, under the article Cecrops. It may be added here, that Erechtheus in all probability was only a title of Neptune. This appears plainly, as far as such a point can be said to oe plain, both from the etymology of the name and the testimony of ancient writers. Thus we have in Hesychius, 'Epexteto. IIogetöðv čv 'Abovato, and in

the scholia of Tzetzes to Lycophron (v. 158), 'Epextheiç, 6 IIoaetóðv # 6 Zeiç (Tapū to Épérôa, to kiva). Many other writers declare the identity of Neptune and Erechtheus. The Erechthéum of the Acropolis was contiguous to the temple of Minerva Polias, and its principal altar was dedicated to Neptune, “on which,” Pausanias says (1,26), “they also sacrificed to Erechtheus;” a very natural variation of the story, when it was forgotten that Neptune and Erechtheus were the same. 'Epextetic means “the shaker,” and is equivalent to vogta (lov or évvoaiyatoc, the most frequent epithets of the god of the sea. That Erechtheus was really Neptune is farther evident from the circumstance, that the well of salt water in the Acropolis, which was said to be the memorial of the contest of Neptune with Minerva for the honour of being the tutelary deity of Athens, was called Gazaaga 'Epexth/tc. (Philol. Museum, No. 5, p. 360.) EREchthides, a name given to the Athenians, from their king Erechtheus. (Orid, Met, 7,430.) EREssus or Er Esus (on coins the name is always written with one X), a city of Lesbos, situate on a hill, at the distance of twenty-eight stadia from Cape Sigrium. It derives celebrity from having given birth to Theophrastus. Phanias, another disciple of the great Stagirite, was likewise a native of this place. (Strab., 616.—Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Epeaaos.) According to Archestratus, quoted by Athenaeus, Eressus was famous for the excellence of its wheaten flour. The site yet preserves the name of Eresso. (Pococke, vol. 1, b. 3, c. 4.—Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 1, p. 163.) ERETRIA, I. a town of the island of Euboea, situate on the coast of the Euripus, southeast of Chalcis. It was said by some to have been founded by a colony from Triphylia in Peloponnesus: by others its origin was ascribed to a party of Athenians belonging to the demus of Eretria. (Straho, 447.) The latter opinion is far more probable, as this city was doubtless of Ionic origin. (Herodot., 8, 46.) We learn from Strabo, that Eretria was formerly called Melanels and Arotria; and that, at an early period, it had attained to a considerable degree of prosperity and power. The Eretrians had conquered the islands of Ceos, Teos, Tenos, and others. And in their festival of Diana, which was celebrated with great pomp and splendour. three thousand soldiers on foot, with six hundred cavalry, and sixty chariots, were often employed to attend the procession. (Strabo, 448. — Compare, Livy, 35, 38.) Eretria, at this period, was frequently engaged in war with Chalcis; and Thucydides reports (1, 15), that on one occasion most of the Grecian states took part in the contest. The assistance which Eretria then received from the Milesians induced that city to co-operate with the Athenians in sending a fleet and troops to the support of the Ionians, who had revolted from Persia at the instigation of Aristagoras (Herodot., 5, 99); by which measure it became exposed, in conjunction with Athens, to the vengeance of Darius. This monarch accordingly gave orders to his commanders, Datis and Artaphernes, to subdue both Eretria and Athens, and bring the inhabitants captive before him. Eretria was taken after six days' siege, and the captive inhabitants brought to Asia. They are said to have been in number only four hundred, among whom were ten women. The rest of the Eretrians escaped from the Persians among the rocks of the isl: and. Darius treated the prisoners kindly, and settled them at Ardericca, in the district of Cissia. (Herodot, 6, 119.) According to Philostratus, they occupied the same spot at the beginning of the Christian era, Eretria recovered from the effects of this disaster. and was rebuilt soon aster. We find it mentioned by Thucydides, towards the close of his history (8, 94), as revolting from Athens on the approach of a Spartan fleet under Hegesandridas, and mainly contributing to the success obtained by that commander: Ato ths death of Alexander, this city surrendered to Ptolemy, a general in the service of Antigonus (Duod. Sc., 19, 78); and in the Macedonian war, to the combined fleets of the Romans, the Rhodians, and Atalus. (Lat., 32, 16.) It was subsequently declared free, by order of the Roman senate. (Polyb., 18, 28, seqq.). This place, as we learn from Athenaeus, was noted for the excellence of its flour and bread. (Sopat., Com, ap. Athen., 4, 50.) At one time it possessed a distinguished school of philosophy and dialectic, as we learn from Strabo (444.—Compare Diog. Laert., Wit. Arces.—Plun., 4, 12 —Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Epérpta). The ruins of Eretria are still to be observed close to a headland which lies opposite to the mouth of the Asopus in Boeotia. D'Anville gives the modern name as Grapilinals. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 136, seqq.) —II. A demus of Attica. (Suraho, 447)—III. A town of Thessaly, near Pharsalus, and between that city and Pherae. (Polyb., fragm., 18, 3, 5–Lit., 33, 6.) ERETUM, a town of the Sabines, north of Nomentum and northeast of Fidente, and at no great distance from the Tiber. Its name frequently occurs in the Roman historians. The antiquity of the place is attested by Virgil (7,711), who enumerates it in his list of the Sabine towns which sent aid to Turnus. It was subsequently the scene of many a contest between the Romans and Sabines, leagued with the Etruscans. (Lir., 3, 29.-Dion. Hall, 3, 59.) Hannibal, according to Caelius, the historian, when advancing by the Via Salaria towards Rome, to make a diversion in favour of Capua, turned off at Eretum to pillage the temple of Feronia. In Strabo's time Eretum appears to have been little more than a village. (Strab., 228.) The modern Rimane is supposed to occupy the site of the ancient Eretum, and not Monte Ritondo, as was generally believed until the Abbé Chaupy pointed out the error. (Desc. de la maison d’Horace, vol. 3, p. 85–Nibby, delle Vue degli Antichi, p. 89.—Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 308.) Erichthonius, one of the early Attic kings, and the immediate successor of Amphictyon. He was fabled to have been the offspring of Vulcan and Minerva, a legend which we have explained under the article Cecrops. (Vid. remarks at the close of that article.) Not inconsistent with this account is the other tradition, which ascribes to Erichthonius the honour of having been the first to yoke four horses to a car; a remarkable circumstance in the barren land of Attica, where the horse was reared with difficulty, and maintained at a considerable expense, and which was therefore the most expressive indication that could have been adopted, of the greater diffusion of wealth consequent on the successful cultivation of those arts and Inanufactures which began to flourish at this period. (Wordsworth's Greece, p. 95.) • ERicus A, one of the Lipari isles, now Warcusa. (Vid. Afoliae.) ERIDANus, a river of Italy, in Cisalpine Gaul, called also Padus, now the Po. D'Anville states; that the name Eridanus, though a term for the entire river, was specially applied to the Ostium Spineticum, or Spinetic mouth, which last received its name from a very ancient city in its vicinity, founded by the Greeks, and called Spina. Some writers consider the name Eridanus as coming, in fact, from a river in the north of Europe, the modern Radaun, which flows into the Vistula near Dantzic. Here the Phoenicians and Carthaginians traded for amber, and their fear of rivalry in this lucrative trade induced them to keep the source of their traffic involved in so much obscurity, that it became, in time, the subject of poetic embellishment. The Rhodanus, or Rhone, is thought by some to have received its ancient name from this circumstance, being consounded by the Greeks, in the infancy of their geographical knowledge, with the true

stream. This probably arose from amber being sound among the Gallic nations, to whom it imay have come by an over-land trade. In like manner, amber being obtained afterward in large quantities among the Veneti on the Adriatic, induced the Greeks to remove the Eridanus to this quarter, and identify it with the Po, off the mouth of which stream they placed them imaginary amber-islands, the Electrides. The Veneti obtained their amber in a similar way with the Gallic nations. Thus the true Eridanus, and the fable of Phaethon also, both refer to a northern origin; and a curious subject of discussion arises with regard to the earlier climate of the regions bordering on the Baltic. for remarks on which, rid. Phaethon. (Cic, in Arat. 145–Claudian, de Cons. Hon., 6, 175—Orid, Met, 2, 3–Pausan., 1, 3–Lucan, 2, 409–Wurg., G., 1,482.) ErigoNE, daughter of Icarius. Her father having been taught by Bacchus the culture of the grape, and having made wine, gave of it to some shepherds, who, thinking themselves poisoned by the draught, killed him. When they came to their senses, they buried him; and his daughter Erigone, being guided to the spot by her father's faithful hound Mara, hung herself through grief (Apollod., 3, 14, 7–Hygin., fab., 130.) Jupiter translated the father and daughter, along with the faithful Mara, to the skies: Icarius became Boötes; and Erigone, Virgo; while the hound was changed, according to Hyginus (Poet. Astron., 2, 4), into Procyon ; but, according to the scholast on Germanicus (p. 128), into the Canis Major, which is therefore styled by Ovid (Fast., 4, 939), “Canis Icarius.” Propertius (2, 24, 24) calls the stars of the Greater Bear, “Bores Icarii.” (Ideler, Stern namen, p. 48.) ERINNA, I. a poetess, and the friend of Sappho. She flourished about the year 595 B.C. All that is known of her is contained in the following words of Eustathius (ad Il., 2, p. 327). “Erinna was born in Lesbos, or in Rhodes, or in Teos, or in Telos, the little island near Cnidus. She was a poetess, and wrote a poem called “the Distaff' ('HZ axázm) in the AEolic and Doric dialect: it consisted of 300 hexameter lines. She was the friend of Sappho, and died unmarried. It was thought that her verses rivalled those of Homer. She was only 19 years of age when she died.” Chained by her mother to the spinning-wheel, Erinna had as . yet known the charm of existence in imagination alone. She probably expressed in her poem the restless and aspiring thoughts which crowded on her youthful mind, as she pursued her monotonous work. We possess at the present day no fragments of Erinna. (Muller, Hist, Graec. Lit., p. 180)—II. A poetess mentioned by Eusebius under the year 354 B.C. This appears to be the same person who is spoken of by Pliny (34, 8), as having celebrated Myro in her poems. No fragments of her poetry remain. (Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 9, p. 508.) EriNNys, a name applied to the Furies, so that Erinnyes ('Epivotec) is equivalent to Dira, or Furio. Müller makes the Greek term šptyto indicate “a feeling of deep offence, of bitter displeasure, at the impi. ous violation of our sacred rights, by those most bound to respect them.” (Müller, Eumen., p. 186) This perfectly accords with the origin of the Erinnyes in the Theogony, and with those passages of the Homeric poems in which they are mentioned; for they are there invoked to avenge the breach of filial duty, and are named as the punishers of perjury. (Hom., Il., 9, 454, 568–Id. ib., 19, 258.) Even beggars have their Erinnyes, that they may not be insulted with impunity (Od., 17, 475); and when a horse has spoken, in violation of the order of nature, the Erinnyes deprive him of the power of repeating the act. (Il., 19, 418.) The Erinnyes, these personified feelings, may therefore be regarded as the maintainers of order both in the moral and natural world. There is, however, an

he is the son of Kronos.

other view taken of these goddesses, in which they are contained in the legend of Psyche. (Wid. Psycne. — only a form of Ceres and Proserpina, the great god- Keightley's Mythology, p. 146, seqq.)

desses of the earth. For everything in nature having injurious as well as beneficial effects, the bounte

ous earth itself becomes grim, as it were, and displeased in Sicily, where she had a temple.

with mankind, and this is Ceres-Erinnys. In the Arcadian legends of this goddess, and in the concluding choruses of the Eumenides of AEschylus, may be discerned ideas of this nature. (Muller, Eumen., p. 191, seqq.—Keightley's Mythology, p. 196, seq.) ERIPHYLE, a sister of Adrastus, king of Argos, who married Amphiaraus. She was daughter of Talaus and Lysimache. (For an account of the legend connected with her name, consult the article Amphiaraus.) Eris, the Greek name for the goddess of Discord. (Vid Discordia.) ERisichthon, a Thessalian, son of Triops, who derided Ceres, and cut down her sacred grove. This impiety irritated the goddess, who afflicted him with continual hunger. This infliction gave occasion for the exercise of the filial piety and power of self-transformation of the daughter of Erisichthon, who, by her assuming various forms, enabled her father to sell her over and over again, and thus obtain the means of living after all his property was gone. (Nicander, ap. Anton. Lib., 17.) He was driven at last by hunger to feed on his own limbs. (Ovid, Met., 8,738, seqq.— Teetz, ad Lycophr, 1393.—Compare the account of Callimachus, H. in Cer., 32, seqq.)—This legend admits of a very simple explanation. Erisichthon is a name akin to Erusube (opwatton) or “mildew ;” and Hellanicus (ap. Athen., 10, p. 416) said that he was also called Æthon (Aitkov) or “burning,” from his insatiate hunger. The destructive mildew is therefore the enemy of Ceres, to whom, under the title of Erysibia, the Rhodians prayed to avert it. (Muller, Prolegom, 162–Keightley's Mythology, p. 177.) ERos, the god of Love, the same with the Cupido of the Latins. This deity is unnoticed by Homer. In the Theogony (v. 120) he is one of the first of beings, and produced without parents. In the Orphic hymns (Schol. ad Apoll. Rhod., 3, 26.) Sappho made him the offspring of Heaven and Earth (Id. ib.), while Simonides assigned him Venus and Mars for parents. (Id. ib.) In Olen's hymn to Ilithyia (Pausan, 9, 27, 2), this goddess was termed the mother of Love; and Alcaeus said, that “wellsandaled Iris bore Love to Zephyrus of golden locks” (ap. Plut, Amat., 20).-The cosmogonic Eros of Hesiod is apparently a personification of the principle of attraction, on which the coherence of the material world depends. Nothing was more natural than to term Venus the mother of Love; but the reason for so calling Ilthyia, the goddess who presides over childbirth, is not equally apparent: it was possibly meant to express the increase of conjugal affection produced by the birth of children. The making Love the off. spring of the Westwind and the Rainbow would seem to be only a poetic mode of expressing the well-known fact, that the Spring, the season in which they most prevail, is also that of Love. (Theognis, 1275.) In the bucolic and some of the Latin poets, the Loves are spoken of in the plural number, but no distinct offices are assigned them. (Thcocrit , 7, 96.-Bion, 1, passim.–Horat., Od, 1, 19, 1.)—Thespiae in Boeotia was the place in which Eros was most worshipped. The Thespians used to celebrate games in his honour on Mount Helicon. These were called Erotia. Eros had also altars at Athens and elsewhere. The god of love was usually represented as a plump cheeked boy, rosy and naked, with light hair floating on his shoulders. He is always winged, and armed with a bow and arrows. Nonnus (7, 194) seems to represent his arrows as tipped with flowers. The arrows of Cama, the Hindu Eros, are thus pointed—The adventures of Eros are '. numerous. The most celebrated is that Q Q

ERosto ATUs. Vid. Herostratus. Erycina, a surname of Venus, from Mount Eryx The Erycinian Venus appears to have been the same with the Phoenician Astarte, whose worship was brought over by the latter people, and a temple erected to her on Mount Eryx. In confirmation of this, we learn from Diodorus Siculus, that the Carthaginians revered the Erycinian Venus equally as much as the natives themselves. (Diod. Sic., 4, 83.) ERYMANthus, I. a mountain-chain in the northwest angle of Arcadia, celebrated in sable as the haunt of the savage boar destroyed by Hercules. (Apollod, 2, 5, 3.-Pausan., 8, 24.—Homer, Od., 6, 102.) Apol

lonius places the Erymanthian monster in the wilds of .

Mount Lampia; but this mountain, as we learn from Pausanias (8, 24), was that part of the chain where the river Erymanthus took its rise. The modern name of Mount Erymanthus, one of the highest ridges in Greece, is Olonos. (Itin. of the Morca, p. 122.)—II. A river of Arcadia, descending from the mountain of the same name, and flowing near the town of Psophis. After receiving another small stream, called the Aroanius, it joins the Alpheus on the borders of Elis. The modern name of the Erymanthus is the Dogana. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 3, p. 320.)

ERythBA, an island off the coast of Iberia, in the Atlantic. It lay in the Sinus Geditanus, or Bay of Cadiz, and was remarkable for its fertility. It was called by the inhabitants Junonis Insula; and by later writers, Aphrodisias. Here Geryon was said to have reigned ; and the fertility of the island seems to have given rise to the fable of his oxen. Wid. Hercules and Geryon. (Plin, 4, 22–Mela, 3, 6.) Many commentators have agreed to identify with Erythea the Isla de Leon. (Compare Classical Journal, vol. 3, p. 140.)—II. A daughter of Geryon. (Pausanias, 10, 37.

*m. one of the twelve cities of Ionia, situate near the coast, opposite Chios. (Herodot, 1, 142.) Its founder was said to have been Erythrus, the son of Rhadamanthus, who established himself here with a body of Cretans, Carians, and Lycians. At a later period came Cleopus, son of Codrus, with an Ionian colony. (Scylar, p. 37.) The city did not lie exactly on the coast, but some little distance inland ; it had a harbour on the coast named Kissus. (Liv., 36, 43.) Erythrae was famous as the residence of one of the Sibyls at an early period, and in the time of Alexander we find another making her appearance here, with similar claims to prophetic inspiration. (Strabo, 643) According to Pausanias (10, 12), the name of the elder Sibyl was Herophile. The same writer informs us, that there was at Erythrae a very ancient temple of Hercules (7, 5). Either this city had disappeared at the time Hierocles wrote, or else he means it under the name of Satrote (Satparn), which he places near Clazomenae, and which is mentioned by no other writer. (Hi-rocles, p. 660.) According to Tavernier (vol. 2, lett. 22), the modern Gesme (Dschesme) occupies the site of the ancient city: Chandler, however, found the old walls some distance to the north of this, with the name of Rythre still remaining. (Mannert, Geogr., vol 6, pt. 3, p. 321, seqq.)

Erythraeuw Mare, a name applied by the Greeks to the whole ocean, extending from the coast of Ethiopia to the island of Taprobana, when their geographical knowledge of India was in its infancy. (Wincent's Periplus, p. 4.—Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients, vol. 2.) They derived the name srom an ancient monarch who reigned along these coasts, by the name of Erythras, and believed that his gray: was to be found in one of the adjacent islands. (Wahl. Asien, p. 316 and 636–Agatharchidas,* Geogr

Min., ed. Hudson.—Ctesias, ed. Båhr, p. 359.-Curtius, 8, 9, 14.) Afterward, when the Greeks learned the existence of an Indian Ocean, the term Erythraean Sea was applied merely to the sea below Arabia, and to the Arabian and Persian Gulfs. In this latter sense Strabo uses the name. Herodotus follows the old acceptation of the word, according to the opinion prevalent in his age. The appellation was probably derived from Edom (Esau), whose descendants were called Idumaeans, and inhabited the northern parts of Arabia. (Wahl, Asien, p. 316) They navigated upon the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, and also upon the Indian Ocean; and the Oriental name Idumaean signifying red, the sea of the Idumaeans was called the Red Sea and the Erythraean Sea ('Eputpā Jážaaaa). Wid. Arabicus Sinus. (Curtius, 8, 9.-Plin., 6, 23.-Herodot., 1, 180, 189 ; 3, 93; 4, 37.-Mela, 3, 8.) Eryx, I. a son of Butes and Venus, who, relying upon his strength, challenged all strangers to fight with him in the combat of the cestus. Hercules accepted his challenge after many had yielded to his superior dexterity, and Eryx was killed in the combat, and buried on the mountain where he had built a temple to Venus. (Virg., AEn., 5, 402.)—II. A mountain of Sicily, at the western extremity of the island, and near the city of Drepanum. It was fabled to have received its name from Eryx, who was buried there. On its summit stood a famous temple of Venus Erycina (vid. Erycina), and on the western declivity was situated the town of Eryx, the approach to which from the plain was rocky and difficult. At the distance of 30 stadia stood the harbour of the same name. (Polyb., 1, 55.-Diod. , 24., 1.-Cic, in Ver., 2, 8.) The Phoenicians most probably were the sounders of the place, and also of the temple ; and the Erycinian Wenus appears to be identified with the Astarte of the latter people. (Compare Diod., 4, 83.) The native inhabitants in this quarter were called Elymi, and Eryx is said by some to have been their king. (Diod, 4, 83–Virg., AEn., 5, 759–Heyne, Ercurs. 2, ad AEn., 5–Apollod, 1, 9.—Id, 2, 5–Hygin., fab., 260.) Virgil makes AEneas to have founded the temple: in this, however, he is contradicted by other authorities. AEneas, in fact, never was in Sicily, and therefore the whole is a mere fable. The town was destroyed by the Carthaginians in the time of Pyrrhus, who a short time previous had taken it by storm, and the inhabitants were removed to Drepanum. (Diod, 22, 14. —Id., 23, 9.) It soon, however, revived, owing to the celebrity of the adjacent temple. In the first Punic war it fell into the hands of the Romans (Polyb., 1, 58.-Id, 2, 7), but was surprised by Barcas, the Carthaginian commander, and the inhabitants who escaped the slaughter were again removed to Drepanum. (Diod, 24, 2.) The place never recovered from this blow : the sanctity of the temple drew, indeed, new inhabitants around, but the city was never rebuilt. No traces of the temple remain at the present day. On the summit of the mountain, now called St. Giuliano, is an ancient castle, supposed to have been erected by the Saracens. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 2, p. 383, seqq.) Esquili.A. and Esquilinus Mons, one of the seven hills of Rome, added to the city by Servius Tullius, who enclosed the greater part of it within the circuit of his walls, and built his palace upon it, which he continued to inhabit till the day of his death. We are informed by Varro (L. L., 4, 8), that the Esquiline derived its name from the Latin word excultus; in proof of which he mentions, that Servius had planted on its summit several sacred groves, such as the Lucus Querquetulanus, Fagutalis, and Esquilinus. It was the most extensive of the seven hills, and was divided into two principal heights, which were called Cispius and Oppius. The Campus Esquilinus was granted by the senate as a burying-place for the poor, and stood with

out the Esquiline gate. As the vast number of bodies here deposited rendered the places adjoining very unhealthy, Augustus gave part of it to his favourite Maecenas, who built there a magnificent residence, with extensive gardens, whence it became one of the most healthy situations of Rome. (Horat., Sat., 8, 10, seqq.—1d., Epod., 5, 100.) The Esquiline had the honour of giving birth to Julius Cæsar, who was born in that part of the Suburra which was situated on this hill. Here also were the residences of Virgil, of the younger Pliny and here were situate a part of Nero's golden house, and the palace and baths of the Emperor Titus. The Esquiline, at the present day, is said to be the most covered with ruins, and the most deserted of the three eastern hills of Rome. (Rome in the 19th Century, vol. 1, p. 204, Am. ed.) Essedoses, a people of Sarmatia Asiatica, to the east of the Palus Maeotis. Ptolemy, however, places them in Serica, and in Scythia extra Imaum; while Herodotus assigns them to the country of the Massageta, and Pliny to Sarmatia Europaea. (Herod., 1, 201.-1d., 4, 25.-Plin., 6, 7.) Some writers seek to identify them with the Cossacks of the Don. (Wid. Issedones, and consult Bischaff und Moller, Wörterb. der Geograph., p. 485.) Esti Aeotis, according to Strabo (430), that portion of Thessaly which lies near Pindus, and between that mountain and Upper Macedonia. The same writer elsewhere informs us (p. 437), that, according to some authorities, this district was originally the country of the Dorians, who certainly are stated by Herodotus (1,56) and others to have once occupied the regions of Pindus; but that afterward it took the name of Estiarotis, from a district in Euboea, so called, the inhabitants of which were transplanted into Thessaly by the Perrhaebi. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 352.) Eteocles, a son of OEdipus and Jocasta. After his father's death, it was agreed between him and his brother Polynices that they should both share the kingdom, and reign alternately, each a year. Eteocles, by right of seniority, first ascended the throne; but, after the first year of his reign was expired, he refused to give up the crown to his brother according to their mutual agreement. Polynices, resolving to punish so gross a violation of a solemn engagement, fled to the court of Adrastus, king of Argos, where he married Argia the daughter of that monarch; and, having prevailed upon Adrastus to espouse his cause, the latter undertook what was denominated the Theban war, twenty-seven years, as is said, before the Trojan one. Adrastus marched against Thebes with an army, of which he took the command, having with him seven celebrated chiefs, Tydeus, Amphiaraus, Capaneus, Parthenopaeus, Hippomedon, Eteoclus son of Iphis, and Polynices. The Thebans who espoused the cause of Eteocles were, Melanippus and Ismarus, sons of Astacus, Polyphontes, Megareus, Lasthenes, and Hyperbius. All the Argive leaders, with the exception of Adrastus, fell before Thebes, Eteocles also being slain in single combat with Polynices. Ten years after the conclusion of this war arose that of the Epigoni, or the sons of the slain chieftains of Argos, who took up arms to avenge the death of their sires. (Vid. Epigoni) Lists of the seven Argive commanders are given by Aoschylus in his “Seven against Thebes;” by Euripides in his Phoenissa and Supplices; and by Sophocles in his “GEdipus at Colonus.” They all agree, except that in the Phoenissae the name of Adrastos is substituted for that of Eteoclus. The tragic poets vary also in other particulars from each other. Euripides, whom we have followed as to the age of Eteocles, makes him the elder of the two brothers; but Sophocles, on the contrary, calls him the younger. (OEd. Col., 1292.) Eteoclus, one of the seven chiefs of the army of Adrastus, in his expedition against Thebes He was

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