Obrazy na stronie

dissension and faction, that bane of the Grecian states, entailed upon the city their attendant evils, and so impaired its strength that it was forced to seek from the Corcyreans that aid against foreign as well as domestic enemies which its necessities required. The refusal of Corcyra compelled the Epidamnians to apply to Corinth, which gladly sought this opportunity of increasing its influence at the expense of that of Corcyra. A Corinthian force, together with a fresh supply of colonists, was accordingly despatched by land to the aid of Epidamnus, and contributed greatly to restore order and tranquillity. The Corcyreans, however, who were on no friendly terms with the Corinthians, could not brook this interference in the affairs of their colony; they also equipped a fleet, which, on its arrival at Epi"damnus, summoned that town to receive back those citizens who had been banished, and to send away the Corinthian reinforcement. On the rejection of this proposal by the Epidamnians, the Corcyreans, in conjunction with the neighbouring Illyrians, besieged the town, and, after some days, compelled it to surrender. These are the events which Thucydides has related at length, from their intimate connexion with the origin of the Peloponnesian war. We know but little of the fortunes of Epidamnus from this period to its conquest by the Romans. Aristotle, in his Politics (5, 1), notices a change which took place in its constitution, from the government of magistrates called phylarchs to that of a senate. The character of its inhabitants, which was once virtuous and just, was also impaired by luxury and vice, if we may credit Plautus, who portrays them in his Menaechmi. (Act. 2, Sc. 1.) That Venus was particularly worshipped here we learn from Catullus (36, 11). — Dyrrachium became the scene of the contest between Caesar and Pompey. The latter general, having been compelled to withdraw from Italy by his enterprising adversary, retired to Dyrrachium on the opposite coast of Illyria, and having collected all his forces round that city, determined to make a stand against the enemy. Caesar soon followed him thither, having formed the bold design of blockading his adversary in his intrenched camp close to the town. This led to a series of operations, which are detailed at length by Cæsar himself; the success of which continued doubtful until Pompey at length forced his enemy to retire, and was thus enabled to transfer the seat of war into Thessaly. (Caes., B. C., 3, 41, seqq.—Appian, B. C., 2, 40.) In addition to the strength of its situation, Dyrrachium was of importance to the Romans from its vicinity to Brundisium. Cicero landed there on his banishment from Italy, and speaks of the kindness he experienced from the inhabitants. (Ep. ad Farm., 14, 1.) We learn, indeed, from AElian (W. H., 13, 16), that the laws of this city were particularly favourable to strangers. Dio Cassius observes, that Dyrrachium sided with Antony during the last civil wars of the republic; and thence it was that Augustus, aster his victory, rewarded his soldiers with estates in its territory. The Byzantine historians speak of it as being still a considerable place in their time. (Ann. Commen., 1, 41. Cedren. Basil. Imp., p. 703–Niceph., Callist, 17, 3.) But it is now scarcely more than a village, which is rendered unhealthy by its proximity to some marshes. Its modern name is Durazzo. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 49, seqq) Epid suki A, a festival at Athens in honour of Æsculapius. Epinar Rus, I. a city of Argolis, on the shores of the Saronic Gulf, opposite the island of Ægina. Its territory extended along the coast for the space of fifteen stadia, while towards the land it was encircled by losty mountains, which contributed to its security. (StraJo, 374.) The more ancient appellation of this city was Epicarus; its founders having been Carians, as Aristotle reported, who were afterward joined by an P P P

sonian colony from Attica (ap. Strab., l.c.). On the arrival of the Heraclidae and Dorians, Epidaurus submitted to their arms, and received a colony from Argos under Deiphontes. (Pausan., 2, 34.) It afterward contributed, as Herodotus informs us (1,146, and 7, 99), to the foundation of several Dorian cities in Asia Minor. The constitution of Epidaurus was originally monarchical ; in the time of Periander of Corinth, his father-in-law, Procles, was tyrant of Epidaurus. (Herod., 3, 53.) Afterward the government was aristocratical; the chief magistrates being called Artynae or Artyni, as at Argos (Thucyd., 5, 47), and being the presidents of a council of one hundred and eighty. The common people were termed Konipedes (KováToog) or dusty-feet, in allusion to their agricultural pursuits. (Plut., Quaest. Gr., 1.) Epidaurus was the mother-city of Ægina and Cos, the former of which was once dependant upon it; afterward, however, the Afginete emancipated themselves from this state of vassalage, and, by means of their navy, did much injury to the Epidaurian territory. (Herod., 5, 83.) The Epidaurians sent ten ships to Salamis, and 800 heavyarmed soldiers to Plataea. (Herodot., 8, 1, and 9, 102) They were the allies of Sparta during the Peloponnesian war (Thucyd., 1, 105, and 2,56), and successfully resisted the Argives, who besieged their city aster the battle of Amphipolis. (Thucyd., 5, 53, seqq.) During the Boeotian war they were still in alliance with Lacedæmon (Xen., Hist. Gr., 4, 2, 16–1d., 7, 2, 2), but in the time of Aratus we find them united with the Achaean league. (Polyb., 2, 5.) Epidaurus was still a flourishing city when Paulus AEmilius made the tour of Greece (Lic., 45, 28.-Polyb. 30, 15, 1); and Pausanias informs us, that many of its buildings were in good preservation when he visited Argolis, more than three centuries later—Epidaurus was famed for having been, in the mythological legends of Greece, the natal place of Æsculapius ; and it derived its greatest celebrity from a neighbouring temple to that god, which was the resort of all who needed his assistance. The temple of Æsculapius was situate at the upper end of a valley, about five miles from the city. In 293 B.C., it was so celebrated that, during a pestilence at Rome, a deputation was sent from this city to implore the aid of the Epidaurian god. (Liv., 10, 47.) The temple was always crowded with invalids, and the priests, who were also physicians, contrived to keep up its reputation, for the walls were covered with tablets describing the cures which they had wrought, even in the time of Strabo. This sacred edifice had been raised on the spot where Æsculapius was supposed to have been born and educated. It was once richly decorated with offerings, but these had for the most part disappeared, either by open theft or secret plunder. The greatest depredator was Sylla, who appropriated the wealth deposited in this shrine to the purpose of defraying the expenses of his army in the war against Mithradates. (Plue, Vit. Syll.—Diod. Sic, Ercerpt., 406.)—Chandler states, that the site of this ancient city is now called Epithauro; but the traces are indistinct, and it has probably long been deserted. (Trarels, vol. 2, p. 272.) Dodwell observed “several masses of ruin at the foot of a promontory, which are covered by the sea; also some Doric remains and Roman fragments, on that side which is towards the plain.” (Class. Tour, vol. 2, p. 263.) The ruins of the temple ts AEsculapius are to be seen on the spot now called Gerao, probably a corruption of Hieron. Near the temple was a remarkably beautiful theatre, built by Polyclitus. (Pausan, 2, 27, 5.) This is now in better preservation than any other theatre in Greece, excep: that at Trametzus, near Ioannina, and was capable of containing 12,000 spectators. (Leake's Morea, yo, 2, p. 423–Cramer's Ancient Greece, yol. 3, p. 27") —ii. A town of Laconia, surnamed Limera, on the

castern coast, about 300 stadia from Fo It

had been sounded by the Argives, to whom, indeed, according to Herodotus, the whole of this coast, as far as the Malean promontory, once belonged. Apollodorus (ap. Strab, 368) pretended, that Limera was only a contraction for Limenera, by which allusion was made to the convenience of the harbour. The town was situate on an eminence near the sea, and contained, among other buildings, a celebrated temple of -Esculapius. The ruins of Epidaurus Limera are to be seen a little to the north of the modern Monembasia. (Itin. of Morea, p. 235.) Its site is now known by the name of Palaio Embasia. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 3, p. 20.1.)—III. A maritime city of Illyria, south of the river Naro. Mannert identifies it with the Arbona of Polybius (2, 11.-Munnert, Geogr., vol. 7, p. 350).

Epipium, I. one of the Ebudæ Insula, supposed by Mannert to be the same with the modern Ila. (Geogr., vol. 2, p. 231.)—II. A promontory of Caledonia, corresponding to the southern extremity of the peninsula of Cantyre. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 204.)

Epigo Ni ('Esriyovot, descendants), the sons of the Grecian heroes who were killed in the first Theban war. (Wid. Polynices.) The war of the Epigoni is famous in ancient history. It was undertaken ten years after the first. The sons of those who had perished in the first war resolved to avenge the death of their fathers. The god, when consulted, promised them victory, if led by Alcmaeon, the son of Amphiaraus. AlcInteon accordingly took the command. Another account, however, given by Pausanias (9, 9, 2), makes Thersander, son of Polynices, to have been at the head of the expedition. The other leaders were Amphilochois, brother of Alcmaeon; AEgaleus, son of Adrastus; Diomedes, of Tydeus; Promachus, of Parthenopaeus; Sthenelus, of Capaneus; and Eurypylus, of Mecisteus. The Argives were assisted by the Messenians, Arcadians, Corinthians, and Megarians. The Thebans obtained aid from the neighbouring states. The invaders ravaged the villages about Thebes. A battle ensued, in which Laodamas, the son of Eteocles, slew 4.gialeus, and fell himself by the spear of Alcmason. The Thebans then fled; and, by the advice of Tiresias, they secretly left their city, which was entered and plundered by the Argives, and Thersander was placed on the throne.—With the exception of the events of the Trojan war and the return of the Greeks, nothing was so closely connected with the Iliad and Odyssey as the war of the Argives against Thebes, since many of the principal heroes of Greece, particularly Diomede and Sthenelus, were themselves among the conquerors of Thebes, and their fathers before them, a bolder and wilder race, had fought on the same spot, in a contest which, although unattended with victory, was still far from inglorious. Hence, also, reputed Homeric poems on the subject of this war were extant, which perhaps really bore a great affinity to the Homeric time and school. For we do not find, as in the other poems of the cycle, the name of one, or those of several later poets, placed in connexion with these compositions, but they are either attributed to Homer, as the earlier Greeks in general appear to have done; or if the authorship of Homer is doubted, they are usually attributed to no author at all. Thus the second part of the Thebais, which related to the exploits of the Epigoni, was, according to Pausanias (9, 9, 2), ascribed by some to Homer. The true reading in Pausanias, in the passage just referred to, is undoubtedly Ka2%ivos, and neither Kažaivoc (more correctly Kážatvog), as the common text has it, nor Ka2Żuaroc, as Ruhnken conjectures (ad Callim., vol. 1, p. 439, ed. Ernest.). This ancient elegiac poet, therefore, about the twentieth Olympiad, quoted the Thebaid as Homeric. The Epigoni was still commonly ascribed to Homer in the time of Herodotus (4, 32Müller, Hist. Lit. Gr., p. 70, seq.).

Erime Nipes, a Cretan, contemporary with Solon, born in the year 659 B.C., at Phaestus, in the island of Crete, according to some accounts, or at Consus according to others. Many marvellous tales are related of him. It is said, that going, by his father's order, in search of a sheep, he laid himself down in a cave, where he fell asleep, and slept for fifty years. He then made his appearance among his fellow-citizens with long hair and a flowing beard, and with a knowledge of medicine and natural history which then appeared more than human. Another idle story told of this Cretan is, that he had a power of sending his soul out of his body and recalling it at pleasure. It is added, that he had familiar intercourse with the gods, and possessed the power of prophecy. The event of his life for which he is best known, was his visit to Athens at the request of the inhabitants, in order to pave the way for the legislation of Solon by purifications and propitiatory sacrifices. These rites were calculated, according to the spirit of the age, to allay the feuds and party dissensions which prevailed there; and, although what he enjoined was mostly of a religious nature (for instance, the sacrifice of a human victim, the consecration of a temple to the Eumenides, and of two altars to Hybris and Anaideia, the two evil powers which were exerting their influence on the Athenians), there can be little doubt but that his object was political, and that Solon's constitution would hardly have been accepted, had it not been recommended and sanctioned by some person, who, like Epimenides, claimed from men little less than the veneration due to a superior being. The Athenians wished to reward Epimenides with wealth and public honours, but he refused to accept any remuneration, and only demanded a branch of the sacred olive-tree, and a decree of perpetual friendship between Athens and his native city.—We probably owe most of the wonderful tales, relative to Epimenides. to the Cretans, who were, to a proverb, famous for their powers of invention. All that is credible concerning him is, that he was a man of superior talents, who pretended to have intercourse with the gods; and, to support his pretensions, lived in retirement upon the spontaneous productions of the earth, and practised various arts of imposture. Perhaps, in his hours of pretended inspiration, he had the art of appearing totally insensible and entranced, which would easily be mistaken, by ignorant spectators, for a power of dismissing and recalling his spirit. Epimenides is said to have lived, after his return to Crete, to the age of 157 years. Divine honours were paid him after his death by the superstitious Cretans. He has no other claims to be mentioned among philosophers, except that he composed a theogony, and other poems concerning religious mysteries. He wrote also a poem on the Argonautic expedition, and other works, which are entirely lost. His treatise on oracles and responses, mentioned by St. Jerome, is said to have been the work from which St. Paul quotes in the epistle to Titus (1, 12.-Consult Heinrich, Epimenides aus Kresa, Leipz., 1801–Encycl. Us. Knowl., vol. 9, p. 476–Dióg. Laert., 1, 109.-Val. Mar, S. 13. ––Plin., 7, 52–Aristot., Rhet., 3, 9.-Enfield's His*:::s Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 132, seqq.)

PyMETHEus, a son of Iapetus and Clymere, one

of the Oceanides. He inconsiderately married Pandora, by whom he had Pyrrha, the wife of Deucalion. The legend connected with his name will be found under the article Pandora.

Epix Ethis, a patronymic of Pyrrha, the daughter of Epimetheus. (Orid, Met., 1,390.)

Epiphan EA, I. a town of Cilicia Campestris, southeast of Anazarbus, and situate on the small river Carsus, near the range of Mount Amanus. It is now Surfendkar. (Plin., 5, 27.)—II. A city of Syria, on the Orontes, below Apamea. Its Oriental and true name was Hamath, and it was reckoned by the people of the East one of the most magnificent cities in the world, having been founded, as they itnagined. by Hamath, one of the sons of Canaan. Allusion is frequently made to Hamath in the Old Testament. (Compare Genesis, 10, 18.-2 Samuel, 8, 9.-2 Kings, 48, 34. —Jerem., 49, 23.—Amos, 6, 2.) Its maine was chani. to Epiphanea, in honour of Antiochus Epiphanes. t is now Hama, and was in modern times the seat of an Arabian dynasty, to which the geographer Abulfeda belonged. (Abulfeda, Tab. Syr., p. 10S.–Pococke, vol. 2, p. 210.-Mannert, vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 461) Epiph ANEs (illustrious), I. a surname of Antiochus IV., King of Syria.-II. A surname of Ptolemy V., King of Egypt. Epiph A.Nius, a bishop of Salamis in Cyprus, in the fourth century. He was born of Jewish parents, at a village called Besanducan, near Eleutheropolis, in Palestine, about A.D. 320, and appears to have been educated in Egypt, where he imbibed the principles of the Gnostics. At length he left those heretics, and, be: coining an ascetic, returned to Palestine and adopted the discipline of St. Hilarion, the founder of monachism in that country. Epiphanius erected a monastery near the place of his birth, over which he presided till he was made bishop of Salamis in 367. Here he remained about 36 years, and composed most of his writings. In 391 he commenced a controversy with John, bishop of Jerusalem, relative to the Platonic doctrines of the learned and laborious Origen, against which he wrote and preached with implacable bitterness. John favourcd Origen's views, but Epiphanius found in Theophilus, the violent bishop of Alexandrea, a worthy coadjutor, who, in 399, convened a council, and condemned all the works of Origen. Epiphanius himself then called a council in Cyprus, A.D. 401, and reiterated this condemnation, after which he wrote to St. Chrysostom, then bishop of Constantinople, requesting him to do the same. On finding this prelate disinclined to sanction his violent proceedings, he forthwith repaired to Constantinople, for the purpose of exciting the bishops of that diocese to join in executing the decrees which his Cyprian council had issued; but, having entered a church in the city in order to repeat his anathemas, he was forewarned by Chrysostom of the illegality of his conduct, and was obliged to desist. Exasperated at this disappointment, he applied to the imperial court for assistance, where he soon embroiled himself with the Empress Eudoxia; for, on the occasion of her asking him to pray for the young Theodosius, who was dangerously ill, he replied that her son should not die, provided she would not patronise the defenders of Origen. To this presumptuous message the empress indignantly answered, that her son's life was not in the power of Epiphanius, whose prayers were unable to save that of his own archdeacon, who had recently died. After thus vainly endeavouring to gratify his sectarian animosity, he resolved to return to Cyprus; but he died at sea on the passage, A.D. 403. The principal works of Epiphanius are, l. IIa1-diptov, or a Treatise on Heresies, that is, peculiar sects (esponsic). This is the most important of his writings. It treats of eighty sects, from the time of Adam to the latter part of the 4th century. 2. 'Avakopažaiwatc. or an Epitome of the Panarion. 3. 'Aykupatów, or a Discourse on the Faith, explaining the doctrine of the Trinity, Resurrection, &c. 4. A treatise on the ; neient weights, measures, and coins of the Jews.Epiphanius was an austere and superstitious ascetic, and, as a bitter controversialist, he often resorts to very false arguments for the refutation of heretics. That his inaccuracy and credulity were equal to his religious zeal, is apparent from his numerous mistakes in important historical facts, and his reliance on any false and foolish reports. Jerome, however, admires Epihanius for his skill in the Hebrew, Syriac, Egyptian, Greck, and Latin languages, and accordingly styles him

“Pentaglottus” (IIevráyżorroc), or the Five-tongued. But Scaliger calls him an ignorant man, who committted the greatest blunders, told the greatest falsehovds, and knew next to nothing about either Hebrew or Greek. Still his writings are of great value, as containing numerous citations from curious works which are no longer extant. The best edition of his works is that of Petavius, Paris, 2 vols. fol., 1622, and Col., 1682. (Du Pan, Bibl. Eccl., vol. 2.-Care's Lut. Hist.—Bayle, Dict., s. v.–Clarke's Succession of Sacred Literature.—Encyc. Useful Knowledge, vol. 9, p. 477.) Epipólar, a piece of elevated and broken ground, sloping down towards the city of Syracuse, but precipitous on the other side. It received its name from the circumstance of its overlooking Syracuse. Isence Thucydides (6,96) remarks, ováuadrat iro Töv ×vpanovatov, dud to $71702;g Toi d'Aov fival, 'EttroŽat. (Consult Göller, de Situ et Origine Syracusarum, p. 53, seqq.) Epirus, a country to the west of Thessaly, lying along the Hadriatic. The Greek term #7 poc, which answers to the English word mainland, appears to have been applied at a very early period to that northwestern portion of Greece which is situated between the chain of Pindus and the Ionian Gulf, and between the Ceraunian Mountains and the river Achelois ; this name being probably used to distinguish it from the large, populous, and wealthy island of Corcyra, which lay opposite to the coast. It appears that, in very ancient times, Acarnania was also included in the term, and in that case the name must have been used in opposition to all the islands lying alono the coast. (Strab., 453–Hom, Od., 14, 100) The ancient geography of Epirus was attended with great difficultics even in the time of Strabo. The country had not then recovered from the effects of the destruction caused by Paulus AEmilius in 167 B.C., who destroyed seventy towns, and reduced to slavery 150,000 of the inhabitants. (Polyb., ap. Strab., p. 322–Lir, 45, 34.— Plut, Vit. Paul. AEmil, c. 29.) After this the greater part of the country remained in a state of absolute desolation, and, where there were any inhabitants, they had nothing but villages and ruins to dwell in. (Strab., 327)—The inhabitants of Epirus were scarcely considered Hellenic. The population in early times had been Pelasgic. (Strab., 221.)—The oracle at Dodona was always called Pelasgic, and many names of places in Epirus were also borne by the Pelasgic cities of the opposite coast of Italy. (Niebuhr, Hist, Rom., vol. 1, p. 34.) But irruptions of Illyrians had barbarized the whole nation ; and though Herodotus speaks of Thesprotia as a part of Hellas, he refers rather to its old condition, when it was a celebrated seat of the Pelasgians, than to its state at the time when he wrote his history. In their mode of cutting the hair, in their costume, and in their language, the Epirotes resembled the Macedonians, who were an Illyrian race. (Strab., 327.) Theopompus (ap. Strab., 323) divided the inhabitants of Epirus into fourteen different tribes, of which the most renowned were the Chaonians and Molossians, who successively maintained a preponderance in this country. The Molossians claimed descent from Molossus, son of Neoptolemus and Andromache. Tradition reported, that the son of Achilles, Neoptolemus, or Pyrrhus, as he is also called, having crossed from Thessaly into Epirus on his return from the siege of Troy, was induced, by the advice of an oracle, to settle in the latter country, where, having subjugated a considerable extent of territory, he transmitted his newly-formed kingdom to Molossus, his son by Andromache, from whom his subjects derived the name of Molossi. (Pond, Nem., 7, 56.) Scymnus of Chios conceives Pyrrhus to have been the son of Neoptolemus (v. 446). The history of Molossia is involved in great obscurity until the Food of the Persian invasion, when the name of Admetus, king of the Molossi, occurs from the circumstance of his having generously afforded shelter to Themistocles when in exile and pursued by his enemies, although the influence of that celebrated statesman had previously been exerted against him in some negotiations which he had carried on at Athens. The details of this interesting anecdote, as they are furnished by Thucydides, serve to prove the weakness as well as poverty of the Molossian chiess compared with the leading powers of Greece at that time. (Thucyd., 1, 136.) Admetus was succeeded by his son Tharypas or Tharymbas, who appears to have been a minor towards the beginning of the Peloponnesian war, when we find his subjects assisting the Ambraciots in their invasion of Acarnania. Thucydides, on that occasion, reports, that Sabylinthus, prince of Atintania, was guardian to Tharybas (2,80). Tharybasis represented by Plutarch (Wit. Pyrrh.) as a wise and able monarch, and as encouraging science and literature. His successor is not known; but some years after we hear of a prince called Alcetas, who was dethroned by his subjects, but restored by Dionysius of Syracuse. (Diod. Sic, 15, 13. —Pausan. , 1, 11.) Neoptolemus, his son, reigned but for a short time, and left the crown to his brother Arybas, together with the care of his children. Alexander, the eldest of these, succeeded his uncle, and was the first sovereign of Epirus who raised the character and fame of that country among foreign nations by his talents and valour. His sister Olympias had been married to Philip of Macedon, before his accession to the throne of Epirus; and the friendshie, thus cemented between the two mon

archs was still farther strengthened by the union of

Alexander with Cleopatra, the daughter of Philip. It was during the celebration of these nuptials at Edessa that the King of Macedon was assassinated. Alexander of Epirus seems to have been an ambitious prince, desirous of conquest and renown ; and, though we have no certain information of the events which occurred during his reign, there is good reason for believing that he united the Chaonians, Thesprotians, and other Epirotic clans, together with the Molossians, under his sway; as we find the title of King of Epirus first assumed by him. (Diod. Sic., 16, 72-Strabo, 280.) Having been applied to by the Tarentines to aid them against the attacks of the Lucani and Bruti, he eagerly seized this opportunity of adding to his fame and enlarging his dominions. He therefore crossed over into Italy with a considerable force, and, had he been properly seconded by the Tarentines and the other colonies of Magna Græcia, the barbarians, after being defeated in several engagements, must have been conquered. But Alexander, being left to his own resources and exertions, was at length sur. rounded by the enemy, and slain near the fated walls of Pandosia, in the Brutian territory. (Lir., 8, 24.— Straho, 255.) On the death of Alexander the crown devolved on his cousin Æacides, the son of Arybas the formier king, of whom little is known, except that, having raised an army to assist Olympias against Cassander, his soldiers mutinied and deposed him; not long after, however, he appears to have been reinstated. (Diod. Sic., 19, 36) His brother Alcetas, who succeeded him, was engaged in a war with Cassander, which proved unfortunate; for, being defeated, his dominions were overrun by the forces of his victorious enemy, and he himself was put to death by his rebellious subjects. (Diod, Sic, 19, 36.). The name of Pyrrhus, who now ascended the throne, sheds a lustre on the anne's of Epirus, and gives to its history an importance it never would otherwise have possessed. (Wid. Pyr. rhus.) Alexander, the eldest son of Pyrrhus, succeeded his father, whom he sought to emulate by attempting afresh the conquest of Macedon. On this occasion Antigonus Gonatas was again vanquished and driven from

his dominions. But Demetrius, his son, naving raised another army, attacked Alexander, and presently compelled him to evacuate the Macedonian territory. (Justin, 26, 3–Frontin., Strat., 3.) At the expiration of two other insignificant reigns, the royal line of the -Eacidae becoming extinct, the Epirots determined to adopt a republican form of government, which prevalled until the subjugation of Macedon by the Romans. Having been accused of favouring Perseus in the last o. war, they became the objects of the bitterest vengeance of the Romans, who treated this unfortunate nation, as we have already remarked, with unexampled and detestable severity. Epirus, having lost its independence, was thenceforth annexed as a province to the Roman empire.—We may consider Epirus as bounded on the north by Illyria and part of Macedonia, from the Acroceraunian mountains to the central chain of Pindus. In this direction the river Aous would be the natural line of separation between these two countries. The Perava'i and Tymphaei, who occupied the upper valleys of that river, being generally looked upon as Epirotic tribes, while the Oresta and Elymiota, contiguous to them on the north, were certainly included within the limits of Macedonia. On the side of Thessaly, Pindus formed another natural barrier, as far as the source of the river Arachthus, which served to part the Cassopaei and other Molossian clans from the country of the Athamanes. But as the republic of Ambracia, which occupied both banks of this river near its entrance into the Ambracian gulf, became a portion of Epirus after it ceased to enjoy a separate political existence, we must remove the southern boundary of this province to the vicinity of Argos and the territory of the Amphilochians. Epirus, though in many respects wild and mountainous, was esteemed a rich and fertile country. Its pastures produced the finest oxen, and horses unrivalled for their speed. It was also famous for a large breed of dogs, thence called Molossi; and modern travellers have noticed the size and ferocity of these dogs at the present day. Epirus corresponds to the Lower Albania of modern times. The following is the account given of the present aspect of the country by Malte-Brun. “ The climate of Lower Albania is colder than that of Greece; the spring does not set in before the middle of March, and the heat of summer is oppressive in July and August : in these months many streams and rivers are drained, the grass and plants are withered. The vintage begins in September, and the heavy rains during December are succeeded in January by some days of frosty weather. (Pouquerille, vol. 2, p. 263, seqq.) The oak-trees, and there is almost every kind of them, arrive at great perfection: the plane, the cypress, and manniserous ash appear near the seacoast, beside the laurel and the lentisk; but the forests on Pindus consist chiefly of cedars, pine, larch, and chestnut-trees. (Pouquerille, vol. 2, p. 1S6 and 274.—Id, vol. 4, p. 412.) Many of the mountains are arid and steril; such as are sufficiently watered are verdant, or covered with the wild vine and thick groups of elders; in spring their sides are covered with flowers; the violet, the narcissus, and hyacinth appear in the same profusion as in the mild districts of Italy. The inhabitants cultivate cotton and silk; but the olive, for want of proper care, does not yield an abundant harvest; the Amphilochian peach, the Arta nut, and the quince, grow in a wild state in he woods and uncultivated land. Epirus was once famous for its oxen; the breed was improved by Kin Pyrrhus (Plin., 7, 44.—Aristot., Hist. An, 3, 16): it has now degenerated ; they are small, stunted, and ill-shaped. The horses of the same country are still excellent.” (Malte-Brun, Geogr., vol. 6, p. 179, Am. ed.) EpoREDöRix, I. a leading chieftain among the Edui in Gaul He commanded the forces of his countrymen in their war with the Sequani, before Caesar's ar. rival in Gaul. (B. G., 7, 67.) He afterward went over to the side of Vercingetorix, in the great insurrection against the Roman power, but was taken prisoner by Caesar. (B. G., 7, 55–Ib., 63.-Ib, 67.) —II. Another Æduan leader, mentioned by Caesar. (B. G., 7, 76.) Erytines, a patronymic given to Periphantes, the son of Epytus, and the companion of Ascantus. (Virg., AEn. 5, 547.) Eco Ria, a festival established at Rome by Romulus in honour of Mars, when horse-races and games were exhibited in the Campus Martius. It took place on the 27th of February. (Varro, de L. L., 5, 3– Orid, Fast., 2,859.) Equites, the name of an order in the Roman state. Their origin, according to the old tradition, was this: Rounulus, having divided his subjects into three tribes, chose from each 100 young men, whom he destined to serve on horseback, and act as his body-guard. This body of cavalry was called the Celercs, and afterward the Equites. (Dion. Hal., 2, 13) Niebuhr supposes (Rom. Hist., vol. 1, p. 325), that whereas Patres and Patricii were titles of honour for individuals, Celcres was the name of the whole class as distinguished from the rest of the nation. The three centuries of the Celcres were called by the same names as the three tribes of the patricians, namely, Ramnes, Tities, and Luceres. Their tribunes are spoken of as a college of priests (Dion. Hal., 2, 64), and it appears that the tribes of the patricians had also tribunes. (Dion. Hal., 2, 7.) Moreover, when it is said that Tarquinius Priscus made three new centuries, which he added to the former three, and that the whole went under the name of the Ser Suffragia, or the Six Equestrian Centuries, we cannot doubt that the alteration which he introduced was a constitutional, and not merely a military one; that, in fact, the centuries which he formed were, like the original three, tribes of houses; that his innovation was nothing but an extension of the political division of Rome under Romulus. (Niebuhr, Rom. Hist, vol. 1, p. 391.) When Servius Tullius established the comitia of the centuries, he received the Ser Suffragia, which included all the patricians, into his first class, and to them he added twelve other equestrian centuries, made up of the richest of the plebeian order. (Niebuhr, vol. 1, p. 427.) The ancient writers appear to have laboured under some great confusion with regard to this arrangement. Livy (1,43) makes a proper distinction between the twelve equestrian centuries created by Servius, and the six which existed before; but when he states (1,36) that the cavalry in the reign of Tarquinius Priscus amounted to 1800, he appears to be antedating the origin of the eighteen equestran centuries which formed part of the constitution of Servius. To the establishment of the Comitia Centuriata, the creation of a body of Equites, as a distinct order, scems to be due. The plan of Servius was, to a certain extent, identical with that of Solon. The object of both legislators was to break down the limits to which the old aristocracy was confined, and to set up an order of wealth by the side of the order of birth; not, however, that when a person could produce his 400,000 ses. terces, he became ipso facto a knight, as was the case in after times. (Hor., Epist., 1, 1, 57.) According to the Servian constitution, good birth or the sanction of the cersors was necessary for gaining a place in the equestrian order. (Polyh., 6, 20–Zonaras, 7, 19.) When Cicero says (De Repuh, 2, 20) that Tarquinius established the equestrian order on the same footing as that on which it stood in his time, and also attributes to the same king the assigning of money to the equites for the purchase and keep of their horses, he is evidently inconsistent. In Tarquin's time, that is, before there was any plebeian order, it was natural enough that the poorer patricians, who were obliged to serve

on horseback (just as the ITTeic at Athens were a poorer class than the IIevrakootouéðquyot, Plut., Wit. Sol, c. 18), should be furnished with the means for doing so. But the case was different with the equites, after the cstablishment of an order of wealth. A man might then be of equestrian rank, and yet have no horse assigned him. Thus, on the one hand, we find, at the time of the siege of Veii, a number of equites serving on horseback at their own expense (Liv.; 5, 7); and, on the contrary, L. Tarquitius, who was a patri cian, was obliged to serve on foot from his poverty. (Liv., 3, 27.) From this it appears probable that a certain sum was fixed, which it was not necessary for every eques to have, but the possessor of which was obliged to serve on horseback at his own expense if no horse could be given him by the public; and that those whose fortune fell short of this, were obliged to serve in the infantry under the same circumstances.— The lieutenant of the dictator was called “the chief of the equites” (magister equitum); and although in later times he was appointed to this office by the dictätor himself, it is probable, as Niebuhr conjectures (vol. 1, p. 559), that he was originally elected by the 12 centuries of plebeian equites, just as the dictator or magister populi was chosen by the ser suffragia, or, in other words, by the populus or patricians.—With regard to the functions of the equites, besides their military duties, they had to act as judices or jurymen under the Sempronian law : under the Servilian law the judices were chosen from the senate as well as from the equites: by the Glaucian law, the equites alone performed the office; and so on, by alternate changes, till the law of Aurelius Cotta, B.C. 70, by which the judices were chosen from the senators, equites, and tribuni arrarii.-The equites also farmed the public revenues. Those who were engaged in this business were called the publicant; and though Cicero, who was himself of the equestrian order, speaks of these farmers as “the flower of the Roman equites, the ornament of the state, the safeguard of the republic” (pro Planc., 9), it appears that they were a set of detestable oppressors, who made themselves odious in all the provinces by their avarice and rapacity.—The equites, as may be inferred from what has been already said, gradually lost the marks of their distinctive origin, and became, as they were in the time of Cicero, for instance, an ordo or class of persons, as distinguished from the senate and the plebs. They had particular seats assigned them in the circus and theatre. The insignia of their rank, in addition to the horse, were a golden ring, and the angustus clarus, or narrow border of purple on their dress, as distinguished from the latus clarus, or broad band of the senators. The last two insignia seem to have remained after the former ceased to possess its original and distinctive character. (Encycl Us. Knowl, vol. 9, p. 492) Equus Tcticus, a town of Samnium, on the Appian Way, distant, according to the Itineraries, twentv-two ancient miles from Cluvia, which is itself ten miles northeast of Beneventum. (Romanelli, vol. 2, p. 33.1) The term Tuticus is Oscan, equivalent to the Latin Magnus. (Lanci, vol. 3, p. 608) Much. discussion has arisen among geographers as to the precise situation of this place. Cluverius was of opinion that it ought to be placed at Ariano (Ital. Ant., 2, 12); others near Ascoli (Prattli, Via Appia, lib. 4, c. 10); D'Anville at Castel Franco (Annal. Geogr. de l'Ital, p. 218), which supposition is nearly correct; but the exact site, according to the report of local antiquaries, is occupied by the ancient church of St. Eleuterio, a martyr who is stated, in old ecclesiastical records, to have suffered at Aoduum. This place is about five miles distant from Ariano, in a northerly direction. The branch of the Appian Way on which

Equus Tuticus stood, runs nearly parallel with that which horace seems to have followed in his well

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