Obrazy na stronie

Constantine the Great, Hellenopolis—III. A prom- detailed. Diogenes Laertius and Aristotle class the ontory on the Sinus Arabicus, below Arsinoe : it is Druids with the Chaldeans, Persian Magi, and Indinow Ras-Zafrané. ans, in which they are followed by other writers. The

Drillo, a river of Illyricum, which falls into the deities of the Sanscrit school are closely to be traced Adriatic at Lissus. This is the largest of the Illyrian in the names of the Druidical gods. The importance streams. Strabo (316) informs us, that it was naviga- which the Druids attached to bulls and oxen forms ble as far as the country of the Dardanii, which is a another very striking mark of coincidence. The Druconsiderable distance from the sea, as they inhabited idical mysteries also are said by Davies to have been the southern part of what is now Servia. This river nearly parallel to the rites of Bhawanee and Eleusis. is formed principally by the junction of two others, the In the magic rod of the Druids we likewise discern the one distinguished in modern geography by the name sacred staff of the Brahmins. Both possessed conof the white Drino, which rises in the chain of Mount secrated beads; both made almost endless lustrations: Bertiscus (Strabon, Chrestom, ap. Geogr. Min, vol. both wore linen tiaras; and Maurice remarks that the 2, p. 99); the other flows from the south, out of the circle, Brahma's symbol, and the crescent, that of Siva, great lake of Ochrida, the ancient Lychnitis Palus, were both Druidical ornaments. So also there was a and unites with the former after a course of nearly striking resemblance between the notion entertained sixty miles: this is commonly termed the Black Drino. by the Druids of a Supreme Being, and that found in (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 41.) the sacred writings of the Hindus. – The Druids

Dromus Achillis, a promontory near the mouth formed a distinct caste, possessing the greatest auof the Borysthenes. (Strabo, 307.-Arrian, Peripl., thority, being the learned men and philosophers of the p. 21.—Peripl. Anonym., p. 8–Mela, 2, 1–Plin., nation, and having also very great authority in the 4, 26.) According to the old geographers, Achilles, government of the state. Julius Caesar has left more having entered the Euxine with a hostile fleet, after information concerning then than any other writer. ravaging the coast, landed on this promontory, and According to him, they performed all public and priexercised himself and his followers in running and vate sacrifices, explained the doctrines of religion, disother gymnastics sports. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 4, tributed all kinds of rewards, administered justice at p. 234.) It is a low, sandy, and uninhabited neck of stated times, and determined the punishment which land, resembling somewhat a sword in its shape. Stra- should be inflicted on offenders. Whoever opposed bo evidently exceeds the true measurement, when he their decisions was excommunicated by them, and states it to be one thousand stadia. Pliny only makes was thereby deprived of all share in public worship. it eighty miles. Its modern name is said to be Kossa- They could even pronounce this curse against a whole Oscharigatsh. (Wid. Leuce.) people; and, in fact, their power had hardly any lim

DrueNtius and DrueNtia (6 Apovévrtoo, Ptol— its. They appointed the highest officers in all the 6 Apovévrtaç, Strabo), a river of Gaul, rising among cities, and these dared not undertake anything withthe Alpes Cottiae, north of Brigantio or Briançon. out their advice and direction. They were freed from It falls into the Rhodanus or Rhone, about three miles taxes and all public burdens. Instruction in religious below Avenio or Arignon, after a course of one hun- and all other kinds of knowledge, the art of war alone dred and eighty miles, and is now called the Durance. excepted, was intrusted entirely to them. They gave Is is an extremely rapid river, and below the modern oral instruction in the form of verses, which often had town of Sisteron it has been found impracticable to a hidden meaning, and which, though amounting to throw a bridge over it. Its inundations are frequent many thousands, were committed to memory by their and very destructive. (Strab., 185–Mannert, Geogr., pupils. According to Caesar, they believed in the imvol. 2, p. 78.) mortality of the soul, and its transmigration through

DruidAE, the ministers of religion among the ancient different bodies. They taught, moreover, the nature Gauls and Britons. Britain, according to Caesar, was and motions of the heavenly bodies, the magnitude of the great school of the Druids, and their chief settle- the universe and the earth, the nature of things, and ment was in the island called Mona by Tacitus, now the power of the gods. They also practised astrology, Anglesey. The natives of Gaul and Germany, who magic, and soothsaying. According to Pliny, they wished to be thoroughly versed in the mysteries of were not ignorant of natural philosophy and physic. Druidism, resorted to this island to complete their They had a wonderful reverence for the mistletoe, studies.—Many opinions have been formed respecting a parasitical plant, which grows, not from the earth, the origin of the name. The common derivation is but on other plants, particularly the oak. This they from Öpic, an oak, either from their inhabiting and looked upon as the holiest object in nature. They teaching in forests, or, as Pliny states, because they likewise esteemed the oak sacred. The Druids had never sacrificed but under an oak. But it is hard to a common superior, who was elected by a majority of imagine how the Druids should come to speak Greek. votes from their own number, and who enjoyed his Some deduce the name from the old British word dru dignity for life. In their sacrifices, the Druids often or drew, an oak, whence they take Öpic to be derived. immolated human victims. (Caes., B. G., 6, 13, seqq. This last derivation receives considerable support from –Plin., 16, 44.) Caesar states that the members of a passage in Diodorus Siculus (5, 31), who, speaking of the Gallic nobility might alone enter the order of the the philosophers and priests of Gaul, the same with the Druids. Porphyry, on the other hand (de Abstin., 4, Druids, says that they were called Sapovíðat, a term 17), makes admission into this priesthood to have been which some of the commentators trace to the old Greek open to all who could obtain the consent of their felform oãpovic (tôoc), a hollow oak. Wesseling, how- low-citizens. The severity, however, of a long and ever, it must be acknowledged, condemns this reading, rigorous novitiate, occupying many years, would operand is in favour of receiving into the text the form ate as an effectual barrier to the admission of many.— Apovićat, where others read Xapovićat. Among the As regards the wisdom of which the Druids were the many Oriental derivations which have been given, a depositaries, it may be remarked, that, among all the favourite one is that from the Sanscrit term Druwidh, early nations of antiquity, a sacerdotal caste of some signifying poor, indigent. In historical conformity with kind or other appear, by observation of the stars and this derivation, it has been urged that, among the Hin- the phenomena of nature, to have formed for themdus, we may observe in the Sanniassi the professional selves a species of scientific religion, if it may be so mendicant, while among the Druids poverty was rather termed, which was carefully treasured up by the sacred a merit than a disgrace—The arguments in favour of order, and rendered inaccessible to the people at large. the Oriental origin of the Druids are deserving of Hence those oral traditions which were always congreat attention, although too numerous to be here all fined to the limits of the sanctuary, and those sacred

books which were closed against the profane crowd. Such were, among the Etrurians, the Acherontic and ritual books of Tages, containing the precepts of agriculture, legislation, medicine, the rules of divination, of meteorology, of astrology, and also a system of metaphysics: such were, among the Egyptians, the books of Hermes Trismegistus; such are, among the Hindus, the Vedas, the Pouranas, the Angas, with their innumerable commentaries; and such was the sacred wisdom of the Gallic Druids.-The ablest work on the ancient Druids is the splendid and elaborate production of Mr. Higgins. (The Celtic Druids, by Godfrey Higgins, Esq., F.S.A., 4to, London.) In this will be found a vast body of most interesting information respecting this ancient priesthood. “The Druids,” observes Mr. Higgins, “held the same doctrine, in effect, with Pythagoras, the worship of one Supreme Being, a state of future rewards and punishments, the immortality of the soul, and a metempsychosis. These doctrines, their hatred of images, their circular temples open at the top, their worship of fire as the emblem of the Sun, their observation of the most ancient Tauric festival (when the Sun entered Taurus), their seventeen-letter alphabet, and their system of oral instruction, mark and characterize the Druid in every age and every country of the world, by whatever name the priests of the country may have been known.” (Celtic Druids, p. 305.) The Druids exercised, as may well be imagined, great influence over the minds of their more ignorant countrymen. Tacitus (Ann., 14, 30) speaks of the summary pun. ishinent inflicted upon them by Suetonius Paulinus, in the reign of Nero. The island of Mona was taken by the Roman troops with great slaughter of the foe, the sacred groves were cut down, and the Druids driven out. On the introduction of Christianity, the Druidical order gradually ceased, and the Druids themselves were regarded as enchanters by the early Christians. Drusilla, I. Livia, a daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina, born at Augusta Treverorum (Treres) A.D. 15. She was far from inheriting the excellent qualities of her mother. Her own brother Caligula seduced her, and then gave her in marriage, at the age of seventeen, to Lucius Cassius Longinus, a man of consular rank. Subsequently, however, he took her away from her husband, and lived with her as his own spouse. This unhallowed connexion lasted until the death of Drusilla, A.D. 38, and at her decease Caligula abandoned himself to the most extravagant sorrow. Divine honours were rendered to her memory, and medals were struck in honour of her, with the title of Augusta. She was 23 years of age at the time of her death. (Sueton., Wit. Calig., 24.) Dio Cassius calls the name of her husband Marcus Lepidus, dif. fering in this from Suetonius. He may possibly refer to a second husband, who may have been given her, for form's sake, a short time before her death. (Dio Cass., 59, 3)—II. A daughter of Agrippa, king of Judaea, remarkable for her beauty. She was at first affianced to Epiphanes, son of Antiochus, king of Comagene. But, on his declining to submit to the rite of circumcision and to Judaize, the marriage was broken off. She was then given to Azizus, king of Emesa. Not long after, however, Drusilla renounced the religion of her fathers, abandoned her husband, and espoused Antonius Felix, a freedman of the Emperor Claudius, and brother to Pallas the freedman of Nero. This is the Felix who was governor of Judaea, and is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles. Drusilla was with Felix at Caesarea when St. Paul appeared before the latter. She had a son by her second husband, named Agrippa, who perished in the eruption of Vesuvius which took place during the reign of Titus. (Joseph., Jud. Ant., 19, 9.-Noldius, de Vita et gestis Herodum, p. 463, seqq.)—Tacitus (Hist., 5, 9) calls Drusilla ". granddaughter of Cleopatra and Antony, M m

making her, consequently, the daughter of Juba II., king of Mauritania. The Roman historian is in error, for Drusilla was of Jewish origin. And besides, history only assigns to Juba II. a son, named Ptolemy. (Töchon, in Biogr. Univ., vol. 12, p. 46.) DRūsus, I. Claudius NE Ro, son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and of Livia, was born B.C. 38, three months after his mother's marriage with Augustus. He served early in the army, and was sent, in 17 B.C., with his brother Tiberius, against the Rhaeti and Windelici, who had made an irruption into Italy. He defeated the invaders, pursued them across the Alps, and reduced their country. Horace has celebrated this victory in one of his finest odes (4, 4). Drusus married Antonia Minor, daughter of Antony and Octavia, by whom he had Germanicus and Claudius, afterward emperor, and Livia or Livilla. In 14 B.C., being sent to quell an insurrection in Gaul, occasioned by the extortions of the Roman tax-gatherers, he succeeded by his conciliatory address. #. the following year he attacked the Germans, and, carrying the war beyond the Rhine, he obtained a series of victories over the Sicambri, Cherusci, Catti, and Tencteri, and advanced as far as the Visurgis or Weser, for which the senate bestowed on him and his posterity the surname of Germanicus. In 9 B.C., Drusus was made consul, with L. Quintius Crispinus. He was soon after sent by Augustus against the Germans, crossed the Visurgis, and advanced as far as the Albis or Elbe. He imposed a moderate tribute on the Frisians, consistin of a certain quantity of hides, which, being afterwa aggravatcd by the extortion of his successors, caused a revolt in the reign of Tiberius. (Tacit., Ann., 4, 72). He caused a canal to be cut, for the purpose of uniting the Rhine to the Yssel, which was known long after by the name of Fossa Drusi; and he also began to raise dikes to prevent the inundations of the Rhine, which were completed by Paulinus Pompeius, in the reign of Nero. Drusus did not cross the Aibis, probably because he thought that he had advanced already far enough: he retired towards the Rhine, but, before he reached that river, he died, at the age of thirty, in consequence, as it was reported, of his horse falling upon him, and fracturing his leg. (Liv., Epit., 140.) Tiberius, who was sent for in haste, and found his brother expiring, accompanied his body to Rome, where his funeral was performed with the greatest solemnity. Both Augustus and Tiberius delivered orations in his praise. Drusus was much regretted by both the army and the Romans in general, who had formed great expectations from his manly and generous sentiments. (Tacit., Ann., 1, 3, seq; Id ib., 2, 4' —ld. ib., 4, 72, &c.—Id. Hist., 5, 19, &c.—Sueton, Wit. Aug., 94–Id., Wit. Tib., 7–1d., Wit. Claud, 1, &c.)—II. Caesar, the son of the Emperor Tiberius by Vipsania daughter of Agrippa. He served with distinction in Pannonia and Illyricum, and was consul with his father, A.D. 21. In a quarrel he had with the imperial favourite Sejanus, he gave the latter a blow in the face. Sejanus, in revenge, seduced his wife Livia or I.ivilla, daughter of Drusus the elder and of Antonia; and the guilty pair got rid of Drusus by poison, which was administered by the eunuch Lygdus. The crime remained a secret for eight years, when it was discovered after the death of Sejanus, and Livia was put to death. (Tacit., Ann., 1, 24, &c.—Id. ib., 4, 3, seqq.)-III. Caesar, son of Germanicus and Agrippina, and brother to Nero Caesar and Caligula. He married Æmilia Lepida, who was induced by Sejanus to betray her husband. Deluded himself by the arts of that evil minister, he conspired against the life of his brother, Nero Caesar, and was starved to death by order of Tiberius. (Tacit., Ann., 4, 60.—Id. ab., 6, 23, seqq.)IV. M. Livius. (Wid. Livius.) DRykors, nymphs that presided over the woods The Dryades differed from the Hudoo’. in that these latter were attached to some particular tree, with which they were born, and with which they died; whereas the Dryades were the goddesses of the trees and woods in general, and lived at large in the midst of them. For though épio properly signifies an oak, it was also used for a tree in general. Oblations of milk, oil, and honey were offered to them, and sometimes the votaries sacrificed a goat. The derivation of the name Hamadryades is from dua, “at the same time,” and épic, “a tree,” for the reason given above. It is plain that 6pic and the Germanic tree are the same word. Apic has apparently this signification in Il., 22, 126–0 d., 19, 163.—Herod., 7, 218.-Soph., Trach., 768. In Nonnus, optic is constantly tree, and dpv6cw, wooden. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 237, not.) DRYMAEA, a town of Phocis, on the banks of the Cephissus, northeast of Elatea. (Pausan, 10, 34.) It was burned and sacked by the Persians under Xerxes, as we are informed by Herodotus (8, 33). Its position is uncertain. Some antiquaries place it at Dadi, others at Ogulnitza. (Compare Dodwell's Tour, vol. 2, p. 135.—Gell's Itin., p. 210.) DRyūpes, a people of Greece, in the vicinity of Mounts OEta and Parnassus. (Herodot., 1, 56 —Strabo, 434.) Dicaearchus, however (v. 30), extends their territory as far as the Ambracian gulf. They were so called, it is supposed, from Dryope, the daughter of Eurypylus, or, according to the poets, from a nymph violated by Apollo. Others derive the name, however, from épìg, an oak, and Öy, a coice, on account of the number of oaks which grew about the mountains, and the rustling of their leaves. The inhabitants themselves, however, advocated their fabulous origin, and claimed to be the descendants of Apollo; and therefore Hercules, having overcome this people, carried them prisoners to Delphi, where he presented them to their divine progenitor, who commanded the hero to take then with him to the Peloponnesus. Hercules obeyed, and gave them a settlement there, near the Asinean and Hermionian territories: hence the Asineans came to be blended with, and to call themselves, Dryopes. According to Herodotus, however, they passed into Euboea, and from thence into the Peloponnesus and Asia Minor (8,73; 1,146). It is worthy of remark, that Strabo ranks the Dryopes among those chiefly of Thracian origin, who had, from the earliest period, established themselves in the latter country, towards the southern shores of the Euxine. (Strab., 586.) Dubis, a river of Gallia, rising at the foot of Mount Jura, and, after a course of 50 miles, falling into the Arar or Saone, near Cabillonum, the modern Chalons. It is now the Doubs or Dour. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 77.) The text of Caesar (B. G., 1,38), where he makes mention of this river, is very corrupt, some MSS. reading Addualis, others Alduadubis, and others again Alduadusius, Adduadubis, and Alduasdubis. Cellarius, following Valois (Walesius) and Vossius, gives Dubis as the true lection (Geogr. Ant., vol. 1, p. 36), and this has been followed in the best editions. (Compare the remarks of Oberlinus, ad Caes., l. c., as to the origin of the corruption.) Dubris Portus, a port of Britain, supposed to be Dover. It was in the territory of the Cantii, and 14 miles from Durovernum. At Dubris, according to the Notitia Imperii, was a fortress, erected against the Saxon pirates. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 161.—Cellarius, Geogr. Ant., vol. 1, p. 331.) Duillia LEx, I. was brought forward by M. Duillius, a tribune, A.U.C. 304. It made it a capital crime to leave the Roman people without tribunes, or to create any new magistrate from whom there was no appeal. The punishment was scourging and beheading. (Lit., 3, 55.)—II. Another, A.U.C. 392, to regulate what interest ought to be paid for money lent, and fixing it at one per cent.

Duillius Nepos, C. a Roman consul, the first who obtained a victory over the naval power of Carthage, B.C. 260. After his colleague Cn. Corn. Scipio had been taken at sea by the Carthaginians in the first Punic war, Duillius proceeded, with a newly-built Romal: fleet, to Sicily, in quest of the enemy, whom he met near the Lipari Islands; and, by means of grapplingirons, so connected the ships of the Carthaginians with his own, that the contest became a sort of land-fight. By this unexpected manoeuvre, he took eighty and destroyed thirteen of the Carthaginian fleet, and obtained a naval triumph, the first ever enjoyed at Rome. There were some medals struck in commemoration of this victory, and a column was erected on the occasion. This column (called Columna Rostrata, because adorned with beaks of ships) was, as Livy informs us, struck down by lightning during the interval between the sec ond and third Punic wars. A new column was erect ed by the Emperor Claudius, and the inscription restored, though probably modernized. It was buried afterward amid the ruins of Rome, until at length, in 1565, its base, which contained the inscription, was dug up in the vicinity of the Capitol. So much, however, was defaced, that many of the letters were illegible. This inscription has been restored, on conjecture, by the learning of modern scholars. (Compare Lipsius, Auctarium ad Inscript. Smetianas.-Ciacconius, Col. Rostr. Inscr. in Grav. Thes, vol. 4, p. 1811.) Dulichium, the principal island in the group of the Echinades. Its name occurs more than once in the Odyssey as being well peopled and extensive. (Od., 1, 246; 16, 247.) Its situation, however, has never been determined by those who have commented on the poet; nor is it probable that much light can be thrown upon the subject at this distant period. Strabo (456), who has entered largely on the question, takes much pains to refute those who confounded it with Cephallenia, or considered it as a town of that island. He himself contends, that the Dolicha of his time, situated at the mouth of the Achelous, opposite to GEniadae, and 100 stadia from Cape Araxus, was the real Dulichium. (Compare Steph. Byz., s. v. Aovžixtov.– Eustath. ad Hom., Od., 1, 246.) But it is very doubtful whether this place was ever of sufficient conseuence to apply to Homer's description of that island. odwell, who has made some judicious observations on this head, thinks that Dulichium may have been swallowed up by an earthquake; and mentions having been assured by some Greek sailors that there was, about two miles from Cephallenia, an immersed island, extending out for seven miles. (Classical Tour, vol. 1, p. 107, seqq.—Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 27.) DUMNöRix, a powerful and ambitious chieftain of the AEdui, and brother to Divitiacus. He was disaffected towards Caesar and the Romans, and, when the former was on the point of sailing for Britain, and had ordered Dumnorix to accompany him, the AEduan, on a sudden, marched away with the cavalry of his nation, and directed his course homeward. He was pursued and put to death. (Cas., B. G., 1, 3–Id. ib., 1, 20. —Id. ib., 5, 6, seq.) Durius, a river of Spain, rising in the chain of Mons Idubeda, near the sources of which are the ruins of ancient Numantia. (Strabo, 152.) Ptolemy (2, 5) calls it the Atopiac, and Dio Cassius (37, 52) the A&ptoc. It flowed to the west, through the territories of the Arevaci and Waccai, and formed a dividing line between the Lusitani and Vettones on the south, and the Callaici on the north. It empties into the Atlantic after a course of nearly 300 miles, but is navigable only seventy miles from its mouth, on account of the rapid current. Its modern name is the Douro. The sands of the Durius are spoken of by the ancients as being auriferous. (Sil. Ital, 1, 234.) At the mouth of this river stood Calle, commonly styled Portus Calles, from a corruption of which last comes the modern name of Portugal. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 1, p. 340–Ukert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 290.) DURocasses (called also Drocae and Fanum Druidum), a city of the Eburovices, in Gallia Lugdunensis, southwest of Lutetia. In its vicinity was the principal residence of the Druids in Gaul. The modern name is Dreuz. (Cas., B. G., 6, 13.—Thuan., Hist., 34, seq.) DurocorróRUM, the capital of the Remi, on the Wesle, one of the branches of the Axona or Aisne. It is now Rheims. (Cas., B. G., 6, 44.) DYMAE, the last of the Achaean towns to the west, situate about forty stadia beyond the mouth of the Peyrus or Pirus. Pausanias states (7, 18), that its more ancient name was Palea. Strabo is of opinion, that the appellation of Dyme had reference to its western situation, with regard to the other cities of the rovince (Tagav čvauxwrūrm, do oi kai Toivoua). e adds, that it was originally called Stratos. (Strabo, 387.) The epithet of Cauconis, applied to this city by the poet Antimachus, would lead to the supposition that it was once occupied by the ancient Caucones. (Ap. Schol. Lycophron, v. 589.) Dymae is mentioned as one of the twelve towns of Achaia by Herodotus (?, 146). Its territory, from being contiguous to Elis and AEtolia, was frequently laid waste during the Social war by the armies of those countries then united. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 71.) DYRAs, a river of Thessaly, twenty stadia beyond the Sperchius, said to have sprung from the ground in order to assist Hercules when burning on Oeta. (Herodot., 7, 199.—Strabo, 428.) Dyris, the name given to Mount Atlas by the neighbouring inhabitants. ('Opoc Boriv, Östep of utv "EaAme; "Arzavra kažovatv, oi Baptapot de Aupuy.— Strabo, S25.) Mr. Hodgson, in a pamphlet on the af. finities of the Berber languages, after observing that the Atlas chain of mountains was called by the ancient geographers, besides their common appellation, Dyris or Dyrim, and Adderis or Aderim, indulges in the following etymological remarks (p. 5, seqq). “These names appear to me to be nothing else than the Berber words Athraer, Elihrarin, which mean a mountain or mountains, differently corrupted from what they had been before they were changed to Atlas. Adrar, Athraer, Edhrarin, Adderis, or Adderim, are evidently the same word, with such variations as may naturally be expected when proper names pass from one language to another. There is surely not more, nor perhaps so much, difference between them as between Antwerpen and Amberes (the Spanish name for Antwerp), Mechlin and Malines, Lugdunum and Lyons, 'Oévacetic and Ulysses, Kaponétov and Carthage. And if the Romans or the Greeks changed Adhrar and Edhrarin into Adderus, or in the accusative Adderum, why from Adderis might they not have made Adras, Atras, or Atlas ! The weight of probability, at least, seems to be in favour of this supposition.” (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 4, new series.) Dw RR Achiu M, now Durazzo, a city of Illyricum, previously called Epidamnus. (Wid. Epidamnus.)

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Baetis. (Mela, 3, 1.)—III. A city of Hispania Tarraconensis, near the river Tamaris. It is supposed to coincide with the modern village of Muros, near the mouth of the Tambre. Others, however, are in favour of the harbour of Obre, at the mouth of the Tamaro. (Bischoff und Möller, Worterb, der Geogr., p. 446.) Ebor Acum, a city of Britain, in the territory of the Brigantes, now York. Eboracum was, next to Londinium or London, the most important city in the whole island. It formed a convenient post, and place of arms, for the Romans during the continual wars waged by them against the northern nations of Britain. Septimius Severus died here. The modern city can still show many vestiges of Roman power and magnificence. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 123.) Ebūdze, the western isles of Britain, now Hebrides. Ptolemy (2, 2) places them to the north of Hibernia, and makes them five in number. The name Ebuda, was borrowed by the Romans from the Greek appellation 'Ebovčai. Two of the five properly bear the name of Ebudæ; the remaining three were called Maleus, Epidium, and Ricina. Pliny (4, 16) calls them all Hebrides Insula. “Ebudes,” says Salmasius, “Mela nullas recenset, et nullas Emodas Ptolemaeus. Wir sane mihi dubium est, quin Emoda, rel Emuda, et Ebudæ eacdem sint.” (Salmas. ad Solin., 1, 22.) EburóNes, I. a nation of Belgic Gaul, to the west of the Ubii and the Rhine, and to the south of the Menapii. Their territory corresponded to the present country of Liége (le pays de Liége). Under the con

duct of Ambiorix they defeated Sabinus and Cotta,

the lieutenants of Caesar, having induced them to quit their winter-quarters, and then having attacked them on the route. Caesar inflicted a terrible retaliation, desolating the country, and almost annihilating their race. The Tungri afterward took possession of the vacated seats of the Eburones. The capital of the Eburones was Aduatuca. This was rebuilt by the Tungri, and is now Tongres. (Caes., B. G., 2, 4, seqq.—Id. ib., 5, 26, seqq.—ld. ib., 6, 33.) Ebūsus (’Etowaoc, Gronor. ad Strab., cd Oron., p. 216.-Boüaoc, Dionys. Perieg.), one of the Pityuste, or Pine-islands, so named by the Greeks from the number of pine-trees which grew in them (trirvo, pinus). The island of Ebusus was the largest of the number, and very fertile in the production of vines, olives, and large figs, which were exported to Rome and elsewhere. (Compare Mela, 2, 7–Plin., 3, 5. —Id., 15, 9.--Fest. Arien., v. 621.) It was famed also for its wool: but that no poisonous animal existed here is a mere fable of former days. Some of the ancient writers call it simply Pityusa. (Diod. Sic., 5, 16–Compare Liry, 28, 37, who, however, in another place (22, 20), names it Ebusus.) Agathemerus (Geogr., 1, 5) speaks of the larger Pityusa in contradistinction to the smaller. It is about forty miles from the Mediterranean coast of Spain, and is now named, by a slight corruption, Ivisa. It still produces abundance of corn, wine, oil, fruit, &c., and a great deal of salt is made in it by natural evaporation. Its size is 190 square miles; the population about 15,000. Diodorus (l.c.) compares this island, in point of size, with Corcyra. The chief place on the island was Ebusus, which had an excellent harbour, and was inhabited in part by Phoenicians. (Diod. Sic., 5, 16–Sil. Ital., 3, 262.) Ecb ATANA (orum), I. the capital of Media, situate, according to Diodorus (2, 3), about twelve stadia from Mount Orontes. The genuine orthography of the word appears to be Agbatana ('Aybárava). Stephanus of Byzantium says that this form 'Ayotirava was employed by Ctesias. Bähr, however, the latest editor of Ctesias, retains'Extárava, not because he thinks it the true reading, but from a reluctance to change the form of the word in opposition to the MSS. But the same editor, in his Herodotus (1,98), adopts 'Ayodrava with Wesseling, for here the Moi,” 1t. Isidorus Characenus has 'Arodarava, a manifest error. Reland (Diss. Miscell., pt. 2, p. 107) deduces the name from the Persian Ac, “a lord” or “master.” and Abadan, “a cultivated and inhabited place.”—Ecbatana, being in a high and mountainous country, was a favourite residence of the Persian kings during summer, when the heat of Susa was almost insupportable. The Parthian kings also, at a later period, retired to it in the summer to avoid the excessive heat of Ctesiphor. According to Herodotus (1,98), Ecbatana was built near the close of the eighteenth century B.C. by Dejoces, the founder of the Median monarchy. The book of Judith (1, 2) assigns the building of this city, or, rather, the erection of its citadel, to Arphaxad, in the twelfth year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Assyria. Some writers make Arphaxad the same with Dejoces, while others identify him with Phraortes, the son of the latter, who might have repaired the city, or else made some additions to it.—Herodotus furnishes us with no hint whence we may infer the relative position of Ecbatana on the map of Media. His description of the fortress or citadel, however, is particular. “The Medes,” he remarks, “in obedience to their king's command, built those spacious and massy fortifications now called Ecbatana, circle within circle, according to the following plan. Each inner circle overtops its outer neighbour by the height of the battlements alone. This was effected partly by the nature of the ground, a conical hill, and partly by the building itself. The number of the circles was seven ; within the innermost were built the palace and the treasury. The circumference of the outermost wall and of the city of Athens may be regarded as nearly equal. The battlements of the first circle are white; of the second, black; of the third, scarlet; of the fourth, azure; of the fifth, orange. All these are brilliantly coloured with different paints. But the battlements of the sixth circle are silvered over, while those of the seventh are gilt. Dejoces constructed these walls around his palace for his own personal safety. But he ordered the people to erect their houses in a circle around the outward wall.” (Herod, 1, 98, seq.)— The Orientals, however, according to Diodorus Siculus, claimed a far more ancient origin for Ecbatana. They not only described it as the capital of the first Median monarchy, founded by Arbaces, but as existing prior to the era of the famed and fabulous Semiramis, who is said to have visited Ecbatana in the course of her royal journeys, and to have built there a magnificent palace. She also, with immense labour and expense, introduced abundance of excellent water into the city, which before had been badly supplied with it, and she effected this object by perforating the adjacent Mount Orontes, and forming a tunnel, fifteen feet broad, and forty feet high, through which she conveyed a lakestream. (Diod. Sic., 2, 13.) Ecbatana continued a splendid city under the Persian sway, the great king spending at this place the two hottest months of the year. (AElian, l. c.—Xen., l. c.) The Macedonian conquest did not prove destructive to Ecbatana, as it had to the royal palace at Persepolis. Alexander deposited in Ecbatana the treasures taken from Persepolis and Pasargada, and one of the last acts of his life was a royal visit to the Median capital. Although not equally favoured by the Seleucidae, it still retained the traces of its former grandeur; and Polybius has left on record a description of its state under Antiochus the Great, which shows that Ecbatana was still a splendid city, though it had been despoiled of many of its more costly decorations. (Polyb., 10, frag. 4.) When the Seleucidae were driven from Upper Asia, Ecbatana became the favourite summer residence of the Arsacidae, and we have the authority of Tacitus to show, that, at the close of the first century, it still continued to be the Parthian capital. (Tacit., Ann., 15, 31.) When the Persians, under the house of Sassan, A.D. 226, re

covered the dominion of Upper Asia, Ecbatana, both as an ancient seat of empire and as a place situate far from the immediate scene of warfare between the Persians and the Romans, continued to be a favourite and secure place of residence. The natural bulwarks of Mount Zagros were never forced by the Roman legions, nor did the matrons of Ecbatana ever behold the smoke of a Roman camp. Consequently, we find, from Ammianus Marcellinus, that near the close of the fourth century, Ecbatana continued to be a great and a fortified city.—The site of Ecbatana has been a matter of dispute among Inodern scholars. Gibbon and Sir W. Jones are in favour of the present Tabriz. The claims, however, of this town are now completely set aside. Mr. Williams contends for Ispahan. (Geography of Anc. Asia, p. 10, seqq.) He is ably refuted, however, in the Journal of Education (No. 4, p. 305, seqq.). D'Anville, Mannert, and others declare for Hammedan, which is undoubtedly the true opinion. The route of commerce between the low country, in the neighbourhood of the ancient Seleucia, and the modern Bagdad and the high table-land of Iran, is determined by the physical character of the country, and has continued the same from the earliest recorded history of those countries to the present day. The places marked in the Itinerary of Isidorus Characenus, as lying in Seleucia and o: are the places indicated by modern travellers as lying on the route between Bagdad and Hammedan.—Mr. Kinneir describes the climate of Hammedan as delightful during eight months of the year; but in winter the cold is excessive, and fuel with difficulty procured. Hammedan lies in a low plain at the foot of Mount Elucund, which belongs to the mountain-chain that forms the last step in the ascent from the lowlands of Irak-Arabi to the high table-land of Iran. The summit of Elwund is tipped with continual snow. (Kinneir's Persia, p. 126.)—II. A town of Syria, in Galilaea Inferior, at the foot of Mount Carmel, supposed to coincide with the modern Caffa. Here Cambyses gave himself a mortal wound as he was mounting his horse, and thus sulfilled the oracle which had warned him to beware of Ecbatana. (Herod., 3, 64.) Echid NA, a monster sprung from the union of Chrysaor with Callirhoe, the daughter of Oceanus. She is represented as a beautiful woman in the upper parts of the body, but as a serpent below the waist. (Hesiod, Theog., 297.) Echin Ades, islands formerly lying opposite the mouth of the Achelous, but which, in process of time, have for the most part become connected with the land by the alluvial deposites of the muddy waters of the river. These rocks, as they should rather be termed, were known to Homer, who mentions them as being inhabited, and as having sent a force to Troy under the command of Megas, a distinguished warrior of the Iliad. (Il., 2,625.) They are said by some geographers to be now called Curzolari; but this name belongs to certain small, pointed isles near them, called from their appearance Ozia ('Ofeiau) by the ancients. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 26.) Echinuss A. Vid. Cimolus. Echio N, one of the men who sprang from the dragon's teeth sown by Cadmus. He, along with four others, survived the conflict that ensued, and assisted Cadmus in building Thebes. The monarch gave him his daughter Agave in marriage, by whom he had Pentheus. After the death of Cadmus he reigned in Thebes. Hence the epithet “Echionean,” applied by the poets to that city. (Ovid, Met., 3, 311.-Horat., Od., 4, 4, 64.) Echioxides, a patronymic given to Pentheus as descended from Echion. (Orid, Met., 3, 311.) EchoNius, an epithet applied to the city of Thebes, as founded by the aid of Echion. (Ovid, Mct., 3, 311. —Horat., Od., 4, 4, 64.)

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