Obrazy na stronie

Rome, and at a period when the dominion of this city extended over the greatest part of the civilized world, arranges his narrative in accordance with the Roman calendar and consular fasti: he frequently adds the names of the Athenian archons that were contemporaneous. Now, at the time when he wrote, the consuls entered on their office on the first of January, whereas, after the adoption of the cycle of Metou, B.C. 402, the Athenian archons commenced their terms about the middle of the year. Diodorus, however, limits himself to the mention of those archons that entered upon their duties in the course of the consular year, which forms the basis of his chronology: thus, the events which took place during the first six months of a year, ought to be referred to the archon mentioned by him in the preceding year. Nor is this all; the duration of the consulship was that of the Roman year, which, from a very early period, was made to consist of 365 days; while the duration of the archonship remained for a long time subject to the irregularity of the Athenian calendar and years, the latter being sometimes 354 days, at other times 384. Thus, to cite only a single instance, Diodorus places the death of Alexander the Great in the 4th year of the 113th Olympiad, a period with which the names of the consuls also indicated by him fully agree; whereas, by the name of the archon, he makes it to be the following year, the 1st of the 114th Olympiad. (Compare Diod. Sic, 17, 113.-Annales des Lagides, par M. Champollion Figeac, vol. 1, p. 264.) We must carefully attend to this point in remodelling the chronology of Diodorus-With regard to the historical value of the work itself, and the merits of the author, the most discrepant opinions have been entertained by modern writers. The Spanish scholar Wives called him a mere trifler; and Jean Bodin accused him, in no sparing terms, of ignorance and carelessness; while, on the other hand, he has been defended and extolled by many eminent critics as an accurate and able writer. The principal fault of Diodorus seems to have been the too great extent of his work. It was not possible for any man living in the time of Augustus to write an unexceptionable universal history. It is not, then, a matter of surprise, that Diodorus, who does not appear to have been a man of superior abilities, should have fallen into a number of particular errors, and should have placed too much reliance on authorities sometimes far from trustworthy. Wherever he speaks from his own observations, he may, perhaps, generally be relied upon; but when he is compiling from the writings of others, he has shown little judgment in the selection, and has, in many cases, proved himself incapable of discriminating between the fabulous and the true. We must not blame him for having given a Greek colouring to the manners of other nations which he describes, for it was the common practice of Greek writers to do so, and he has not erred so much in this respect as Dionysius of Halicarnassus. We are indebted to him, moreover, for many particulars which, but for him, we should never have known; and we must regret that we have lost the last, and probably the most valuable, portion of his works, as even by the fragments of them which remain we are enabled, in many places, to correct the errors of Livy. The style of Diodorus, though not very pure or elegant, is sufficiently perspicuous, and presents but few difficulties, except where the MSS. are defective, as is frequently the case. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol.4, p. 77, seqq.—Niebuhr, Röm. Gesch., vol. 3, p. 190, note 297.) The best edition of Diodorus is that of Wesseling, Amst, 2 vols. folio, 1746; reprinted at the Bipont press in 11 vols. 8vo, 1793, with dissertations by Heyne, and notes and disputations by Eyring—II. A native of Caria, and disciple of the Megaric school. He was a great adept in that species of verbal com

hat which go among the philosophers of his sect. K. K.

It is said that a question was proposed to him in the presence of Ptolemy Soter, by Stilpo, one of his fraternity, which he required time to answer, and on this account he was ridiculed by Ptolemy, and denominated Chromus (Xpóvog). Mortified at this defeat, he

| wrote a book on the question, but nevertheless died of

vexation. He is the reputed author of the famout sophism against motion. “If any body be moved, it is moved either in the place where it is, or in a place, where it is not, for nothing can act or suffer where it is not, and therefore there is no such thing as mo tion.” Diodorus was suitably rewarded for this brill iant discovery ; having dislocated his shoulder, the surgeon who was sent for kept him for some time in torture, while he proved from the philosopher's owr mode of reasoning that the bone could not have moved out of its place. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr, vol. 3, p. 253.)—III. A peripatetic philosopher, with whom the uninterrupted succession of the peripatetic school terminated. He was a native of Tyre, and a pupil of Critolaus. Mention is often made of him in the selections of Stobaeus, and also in the works of Cicero. The sovereign good, according to Diodorus, was to live in a becoming manner, free from toil and care, to duoxthorog kai kažđe Šāv, or, vacare omni molestia cum homestate, as Cicero expresses it. (Acad., 2, 42) —IV. An orator and epigrammatic poet, a native of Sardis. He was surnamed Zonas (Zovág). He fought in Asia, and was contemporaneous with Mithradates the Great, against whom he was charged with conspiring. He defended himself successfully. Nine of his epigrams revaain. (Jacobs, Catal. Poet. Epigram. in Anthol, vol. 3, p. 883–Strab., 627.)—V. Another native of Sardis, who wrote historical works, odes, and epigrams. Strabo speaks of him as subsequent to the former, and a contemporary and friend of his own. (Strab., 627.) We have one of his epigrams remaino, (Jacobs, l.c.)

logi:Nes, I, a celebrated Cynic philosopher of Si

nope. His father, who was a banker, was convicted of debasing the public coin, and was obliged to leave the country, or, according to another account, his father and himself were charged with this offence, and the former was thrown into prison, while the son escaped from the city and came to Athens. Here he attached himself, as a disciple, to Antisthenes, who was at the head of the Cynics. Antisthenes at first refused to admit him into his house, and even struck him with a stick. Diogenes calmly bore the rebuke, and said, Strike me, Antisthenes, but never shall you find a stick sufficiently hard to remove me from your presence, while you speak anything worth hearing. The philosopher was so much pleased with this reply, that he at once admitted him among his scholars. Diogenes perfectly adopted the principles and character of his master. Renouncing every other object of ambition, he determined to distinguish himself by his contempt of riches and honours, and by his indignation against luxury. He wore a coarse cloak ; carried a wallet and a staff; made the porticoes and other public places his habitation; and depended upon casual contributions for his daily bread. A friend, whom he had desired to procure him a cell, notexecuting his order so soon as was expected, he took up his abode in a tub or large vessel in the Metroum. It is probable, however, that this was only a temporary expression of indignation and contempt, and that he did not make a tub the settled place of his residence. This famous tub is indeed celebrated by Juvenal; it is also ridiculed by Lucian, and mentioned by Seneca. But no notice is taken of so singular a circumstance by other ancient writers who have mentioned this philosopher; not even by Epictetus, who discourses at large concerning Diogenes, and relates many particulars respecting his manner of life. It may therefore be questioned whether this whole story is not to be ranked * the ni

merous tales which have been invented to expose the sect of the Cynics to ridicule. It cannot be doubted, however, that Diogenes practised the most hardy selfcontrol and the most rigid abstinence; exposing himself to the utmost extremes of heat and cold, and living upon the simplest diet, casually supplied by the hand of charity. In his old age, sailing to Ægina, he was taken by pirates and carried to Crete, where he was exposed to sale in the public market. When the auctioneer asked him what he could do, he said, I can gorern men; therefore sell me to one who wants a master. Xeniades, a wealthy Corinthian, happening at that instant to pass by, was struck with the singularity of his reply, and purchased him. On their arrival at Corinth, Xeniades gave him his freedom, and committed to him the education of his children and the direction of his domestic concerns. Diogenes executed this trust with so much judgment and fidelity, that Xeniades used to say that the gods had sent a good genius to his house. During his residence at Corinth, the interview between him and Alexander is said to have taken place. Plutarch relates, that Alexander, when at Corinth, receiving the congratulations of all ranks on being appointed to command the army of the Greeks against the Persians, missed Diogenes among the number, with whose character he was not acquainted. Curious to see one who had given so signal an instance of his haughty independence of spirit, Alexander went in search of him, and found him sitting in his tub in the sun. “I am Alerander the Great,” said the monarch ; “and I am Diogenes the Cynic,” replied the philosopher. Alexander then requested that he would inform him what service he could render him: “Stand from between me and the sun,” said the Cynic. Alexander, struck with the reply, said to his friends who were ridiculin the whimsical singularity of the philosopher, “If were not Alexander, I would wish to be Diogenes.” This story is too good to be omitted, but there are several circumstances which in some degree diminish its credibility. It supposes Diogenes to have lived in his tub at Corinth, whereas it appears that he lived there in the house of Xeniades, and that, if he ever dwelt in a tub, he left it behind him at Athens. Alexander, moreover, was at this time scarcely 20 years old, and could not call himself Alexander the Great, for he did not receive this title till his Persian and Indian expedition, after which he never returned to Greece; yet the whole transaction supposes him elated with the pride of conquest. Diogenes, probably, was visited by Alexander, when the latter held the general assembly of the Greeks at Corinth, and was received by him with rudeness and incivility, which may have given rise to the whole story. The philosopher at this time would be about 70 years of age.—Various accounts are given concerning the manner and time of his death. It seems most probable that he died at Corinth, of mere decay, in the 90th year of his age, and in the 114th Olympiad. His friends contended for the honour of defraying the expenses of his funeral; but the magistrates settled the dispute by ordering him an interment at the public expense. A column of Parian marble, terminated by the figure of a dog, was raised over his tomb. His fellow townsmen of Sinope also erected brazen statues in memory of the philosopher. • Diogenes left behind him no system of philosophy. After the example of his master, he was more attentive to practical than theoretical wisdom. The following are a few of the particular opinions ascribed to him. He thought exercise was indispensable, and able to effect anything; that there were two kinds of exercise, one of the mind, the other of the body, and that one of these was of no value without the other. By the cultivation of the mind, he did not mean the prosecution of any science, or the acquirement of any

useless; but he intended such a cultivation of the mind as might serve to bring it into a healthy and virtuous state, and produce upon it an effect analogous to that which exercise produces upon the body. He adopted Plato's doctrine, that there should be a conmunity of wives and children; and he held, with the Dorian lawgivers, that order (xãcuoc) was the basis of civil government.—The freedom of remark in which Diogenes indulged, and which spared neither the rich and powerful, nor even the religious superstitions of the age, gave great offence; and the consequence was, that in his private life he suffered much obloquy, and was made the subject of ludicrous and disgraceful calumny. It is wholly incredible, that a man who is universally celebrated for his sobriety and contempt of pleasure, and who, for his vehement indignation against vice, and his bold attempts to reform the age in which he lived, has been represented by some of the most eminent philosophers as one endued with divine wisdom, should have been capable of committing the grossest indecencies. The tale which is related of him and the courtesan Lais is wholly inconsistent with chronology, for Lais must have been fourscore years old, and Diogenes seventy, when the circumstance is related to have taken place. The truth is, we are chiefly indebted for these stories to Athenaeus, a writer who seems to have ransacked every corner of antiquity, and of his own invention too, for tales to the discredit of philosophy. (Diog. Laertius, Vit. Diog.— Plutarch, Apopth—Enfield, Hist. Philos., vol. 1, p. 305, seqq.)—II. A native of Apollonia in Crete, was a pupil of Anaximenes, and contemporary with Anaxagoras. Schleiermacher, however, who is followed by Schaubach, the editor of the fragments of Anaxagoras, affirms, from the internal evidence of the fragments of the two philosophers, that Diogenes preceded Anaxagoras. But Diogenes might have written before Anaxagoras, and yet have been his junior, as we know was the case with Empedocles. (Aristot., Met., 1, 3, p. 843, b.) Diogenes followed Anaximander in making air the primal element of all things; but he carried his views farther, and regarded the universe as issuing from an intelligent principle, by which it was at once vivified and ordered, a rational as well as sensitive soul, but still without recognising any distinction between matter and mind. Diogenes wrote several books on Cosmology (repi 6%aeoc). The fragments which remain have been recently collected and edited by Panzerbeiter. (Diog. Laert., 9, 9–Bayle, Hist. Dict., s. v.–Schleiermacher, Mcm. Berlin. Acad. for 1815.—Philol. Museum, vol. 1, p. 92.)—III. Laertius, so called from his native city, Laertes in Cilicia. He wrote the lives of the philosophers, in ten books, which are still extant. The period when he lived is not exactly known, but it is supposed to have been during the reigns of Septimius Severus and Caracalla. (Compare Ionsius, de Script. Hist. Phil., lib. 3, c. 12, § 5. seqq.) Diogenes is thought to have belonged to the Epicurean sect. He divides all the Greek philosophers into two classes; those of the Ionic and those of the Italic school. He derives the first from Anaximander, the second from Pythagoras. After Socrates, he divides the Ionian philosophers into three branches: 1st. Plato and the Academics, down to Clitomachus: 2d, the Cynics down to Chrysippus: 3d. Aristotle and Theophrastus. The series of Italic philosophers consists, after Pythagoras, of the following: Telanges, Xenophanes, Parmenides, Zeno of Elea, Leucippus, Democritus, and others down to Epicurus. The first seven books are devoted to the Ionic philosophers; the last three treat of the Italic school.—The work of Dionysius is a crude contribution towards the history of philosophy. It contains a brief account of the lives, doctrines, and sayings of most persons who have been called philosophers; and though the author is evidently apon himself, and has shown very little judgment and discrimination in the execution of it, yet the book is extremely useful as a collection of facts, which we could not have learned from any other quarter, and is entertaining as a sort of omniana on the subject. The article on Epicurus is valuable, as containing some original letters of that philosopher, which comprise a pretty satisfactory epitome of the Epicurean doctrines, and are very useful to the readers of Lucretius. The best editions of Diogenes are, that of Meibomius, Amst., 1692, 2 vols. 4to, and that of Hubner, Lips., 1828, 2 vols. 8vo. Diom Epo/E INsul.A. Wid. Diomedis Insulae. DioxEdes, son of Tydeus and Deiphyle, was king of AEtolia, and one of the bravest of the Grecian chiefs in the Trojan war, ranking next to Achilles and Ajax. Homer represents him as one of the favourites of Minerva, and ascribes his many, acts of valour to her protecting influence. Among his exploits, it is recorded of him that he engaged in single combat with Hector and AEneas; that he wounded Mars, AEneas, and Venus; and that, in concert with Ulysses, he carried off the horses of Rhesus, and the palladium; and procured the arrows of Philoctetes. (Sophocles, however, makes Ulysses to have been aided in this last-mentioned affair by Pyrrhus, son of Achilles.) Diomede was deprived of the affection of his wife Ægiale, through the wrath and vengeance of Venus, by whose influence, during his absence at the war, she had become attached to Cyllabarus, the son of Sthenelus. (But consult Heyne, ad Apollod., 1, 8, 6, et ad Hom., Il., 5, 412.) Diomede was so afflicted at the enstrangement of Ægiale, that he abandoned Greece, and settled at the head of a colony, in Magna Graecia, where he founded a city, to which he gave the name of Argyripa ; and married a daughter of Daunus, prince of the country. In the progress of his voyage to Italy, Diomede was shipwrecked on that part of the Libyan coast which was under the sway of Lycus, who, as was his usage towards all strangers, seized and confined him. He was, however, liberated by Callirhoë, the tyrant's daughter, who became so enamoured of him, that, upon his quitting the African shores, she put herself to death. Diomede, according to one account, died in Italy at a very advanced age; while another legend makes him to...have been slain by his father-in-law Daunus. (Tzetz., ad Lycophr., 603, seqq.) His companions were so much afflicted by his death that they were changed into birds. Virgil, however, makes this transformation earlier in date, and to have taken place during the lifetime of Diomede. (AEm., 11, 272.) He seems to have followed the tradition recorded by Ovid (Met, 14, 457), that Agnon, one of Diomede's companions in his voyage from Troy, insulted Venus with contemptuous language, and that the goddess, in revenge, transformed not only Agnon, but many others of Diomede's followers into birds. These birds, according to Ovid, resembled swans; they chiefly frequented some neighbouring islands in the Adriatic, and were noted for their fond. ness for Greeks, and their aversion towards the natives of any other country. (Vid. Diomedis Insulae –Consult Heyne, Excurs , 1, ad AEm., 11, and Lord Bacon's Fabies of the Ancients, fab, xviii.)—II. A king of the Bistones, in Thrace, son of Mars and Cyrene. His mares fed on human flesh. Hercules sailed to this quarter, having been ordered, as his eighth labour, to bring these mares to Mycenae. The hero overcame the grooms of Diomede, and led the mares to the sea. The Bistones pursued with arms. Hercules, leaving the mares in charge of Abderus, one of his companions, went to engage the foe. Meantime the mares tore their keeper to pieces; and the hero, having defeated the Bostones and slain Diomede, built a city by the tomb of Abderus, which he called Abdera aster him. Hercules brought the mares to Eurystheus,

mental accomplishment; all such things he considered a most unfit person for the task which he imposed

who turned them loose; and they strayed on to Mount Olympus, where they were destroyed by the wild beasts. (Apollod, 2, 5, 8.-Heyne, ad loc.) Another account makes Hercules to have given Diomede to be devoured by his own mares; and Eurystheus to have consecrated them to Juno. (Diod. Sic., 4, 15.) Dioxiēdis INsulAE, certain small islands opposite the Sinus Urias, and at no great distance from the coast of Apulia. They are celebrated in mythology as connected with the legend of the transformation of Diomede's companions into birds. (Vid. Diomedes I., towards the close of the article.) (Aristot, de Mirab–Lycophr., Aler., v. 599. –Ovid, Mct., 14,457.) Ancient writers differ as to their number. Strabo (284) recognises two ; whereof one was inhabited, the other deserted. This is also the account of Pliny (3, 26, and. 10, 44), who states, that one was called Diomedea, and the other Teutria. Ptolemy, however, reckons five, which is said to be the correct number, if we include in the group three barren rocks, which scarce deserve the name of islands. The island to which Pliny gives the name of Diomedea appears to have also borne the appellation of Tremitus, as we learn from Tacitus (Ann., 4, 71), who informs us that it was the spot to which Augustus removed his abandoned daughter Julia, and where she terminated a life of infamy. Of these islands, the largest is now called Isola San Domino, the other S. Nicolo. (Romanelli, vol.2, p. 296.-Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 275.) Dion, I. an illustrious inhabitant of Syracuse, who, deriving an ample inheritance from his father Hipparinus, became a disciple of Plato, invited to the court of Syracuse by the elder Dionysius. In consequence of the instructions of his master, he escaped being infected with the licentiousness of the capital, and he shared with his preceptor, at a subsequent period, in the persecutions inflicted by the son and successor of the tyrant. He was nearly connected with Dionysius by having married his daughter, and by his sister being one of his wives; and he was also much esteemed by him, so as to be employed on several em. bassies. At the accession of the younger Dionysius. Plato was again, at Dion's request, invited to Syra cuse. In order, however, to counteract his influence, the courtiers obtained the recall of Philistus, a man notorious for his adherence to arbitrary principles. This faction determined to supplant Dion, and availed themselves of a real or supposititious letter to fix on him the charge of treason. Dion, precluded from defence, was transported to Italy, and from thence proceeded to Greece, where he was received with great honour. Dionysius became jealous of his popularity in Greece, especially at Athens, stopped his remittances, confiscated his estates, and compelled his wife, who had been left at Syracuse as an hostage, to marry another person. Dion, incensed at this treatment, determined to expel the tyrant. Plato resisted his intentions; but, encouraged by other friends, he assembled a body of troops, and with a small force sailed to Sicily, took advantage of the absence of Dionysius in Italy, and freed the people from his control. Dionysius returned, but, after some conflicts, was compelled to escape to Italy. The austere and philosophic manners of Dion, however, soon lost him the favour of his fickle countrymen, and he was supplanted by Heraclides, a Syracusan exile, and obliged to make his retreat to Leontini. He asterward regained the ascendancy, and in a rash moment caused Heraclides to be assassinated. This robbed him ever after of his peace of mind. An Athenian, an intimate friend, formed a conspiracy against his life, and Dion was assassinated in the 55th year of his age, B.C. 354. His death was universally lamented by the Syracusans, and a nonment was raised to his memory. (Diod. Stoo. 1", " son-Plut. Wit. Dion—Corn Nep. Wit. Dion)II. Cassius Cocceianus, son of coyo

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under his own eyes. We have fragments remaining of the first 36 books: but there is a considerable portion of the 35th book, on the war of Lucullus against Mithradates, and of the 36th, on the war with the pirates, and the expedition of Pompey against the King of Pontus. The books that follow, to the 54th inclusive, are nearly all entire: they comprehend a period from B.C. 65 to B.C. 10, or from the eastern campaign of Pompey, and the death of Mithradates, to the death of Agrippa. The 55th book has a considerable gap in it. The 56th to the 60th, both included, which comprehend the period from A.D.9 to A.D. 54, are complete, and contain the events from the defeat of Varus in Germany to the reign of Claudius. Of the following 20 books we have only fragments, and the meager abridgment of Xiphilinus. The S0th or last book comprehends the period from A.D. 222 to A. D. 229, in the reign of Alexander Severus. The abridgment of Xiphilinus, as now extant, commences with the 35th, and continues to the end of the S0th book. It is a very indifferent performance, and was made by order of the Emperor Michael Ducas : the abbreviator, Xiphilinus, was a monk of the eleventh century.—The fragments of the first 36 books, as now collected, are of three kinds. 1. Fragmenta Walesiana : such as were dispersed throughout various writers, scholiasts, grammarians, lexicographers, &c., and were collected by Henri de Valois. 2. Fragmenta Peiresciana : comprising large extracts, found in the section entitled “Of Virtues and Vices,” in the great collection or portative library compiled by order of Constantine V.I., Porphyrogenitus. The manuscript of this belonged to Peiresc. 3. The fragments of the first 34 books, preserved in the second section of the same work of Constantine's, entitled “Of Embassies.” T'ese are known under the name of Fragmenta Ursiniana, because the manuscript containing them was found in Sicily by Fulvio Orsini. 4. Ercerpta Vaticana, by Mai, which contain fragments of books 1–35, and 61–80, and which have been published in the second volume of the Scriptorum Nora Collectio, p. 135, seqq. To these are added the fragments of an unknown continuator of Dion (p. 234–246), which go down to the time of Constantine. Other fragments from Dion belong chiefly to the first 35 books, also published in the same collection (p. 527, seqq.), were found by Mai in two Vatican MSS., which contain a sylloge or collection made by Maximus Planudes. The annals of Zonaras also contain

numerous extracts from Dion. Dion has taken Polybius for his model; but the imitator is comparable with his original neither as respects arrangeinent and the distribution of materials, nor in soundness of views, and just and accurate reasoning. His style is generally clear, though there are occasionally obscure passages, where there appears to be no corruption of the text. His diligence is unquestionable, and, from his opportunities, he was well acquainted with the circumstances of the empire during the period for which he is a contemporary authority ; and, indeed, we may assign a high value to his history of the whole period from the time of Augustus to his own age. Nor is his work without value for the earlier periods of Roman history, in which, though he has fallen into errors, like all the Greek and l&oman writers who have handled the same obscure subject, he still enables us to correct some erroneous statements of Livy and Dionysius.-The best edition is that of Fabricius, completed by Reimar, Hamb., 2 vols. folio, 1751. Notwithstanding, however, the labours of these editors, a new critical edition is much wanted, both from the scarcity of the edition just mentioned, and the fact that the manuscripts have not been collated with sufficient care. The small Tauchnitz edition, 4 vols. 16mo, contains all the fragments. A very useful edition appeared in 1824–1825, by Sturz, from the Leipsic press, 8 vols. 8vo, which some even prefer to the edition of Fabricius and Reimar. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr, vol. 4, p. 180, seqq.—Hoffmann, Lez. Bibliograph., vol. 1. p. 250.)—III. Surnamed Chrysostomus, or the Golden-mouthed, on account of the beauty of his style, was a native of Prusa, in Bithynia, and a sophist and stoic. He was in Egypt when Vespasian, who had been proclaimed emperor by his own army, came there, and he was consulted by that prince on the proper course to be adopted under the circumstances. Dion had the candour, or, as some"may think, the want of judgment, to advise him to restore the republic. Afterward he resided for years at Rome, till one of his friends having engaged in a conspiracy against Domitian, Dion, fearing for himself, fled to the modern Moldavia, where he remained till the tyrant's death, labouring for his subsistence with his own hands, and possessing no books but the Phaedon of Plato, and Demosthenes' Topi IIapamptatisfac. Domitian having been assassinated, the legions quartered on the Danube were about to revolt, when Dion got upon an altar, and harangued them so effectually that they submitted to the decision of the senate. Dion was in high favour with Nerva and Trajan, and, when the latter triumphed after his Dacian victories, the orator sat in the emperor's car in the procession. He returned to Bithynia, where he spent the remainder of his life. Accusations of peculation and treason were brought against him, but rejected as frivolous. He died at an advanced age, but it is not known in what year. We have eighty orations attributed to him, which are very prettily written, but not of much intrinsic value. The best edition is that of Reiske, 2 vols. 8vo, Lips., 1784 (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 4, p. 210, scqq.) Dion.EA, a surname of Venus, as the daughter of Dione. DióNE, a nymph daughter of Nereus and Doris. She was mother of Venus by Jupiter, according to Homer (Il., 5,370). Dione, according to Knight, is the female AIX, or ZETX, and therefore associated with him in the most ancient temple of Greece at Dodona. (Inquiry into the Symb, Lang., &c., § 43.— Class. Journ., vol. 23, p. 234.—Compare Buttmann, Mythologus, vol. 1, p. 7, and Constant, de la Religeon, vol. 2, p. 335, in notis.) . Dionysia, festivals held in honour of the god Dionysus or Bacchus, . The most important of these were held at Athens and in Attica ; and these derive their importance from their being the occasion on which the dramatic exhibitions of the Athenians took place. An account of these festivals, which were four in number, will be found under the article Theatrum, @ 2.

from a statue of Jupiter, consecrated by Gelon out of the spoils of the Carthaginians, he replaced it by a woo

llen garment, saying that this was more suited to the vicissitudes of the seasons. He also took away a golden beard from AEsculapius, observing that it was not becoming for the son of a beardless father (Apollo) to make a display of his own beard. He likewise appropriated to himself the silver tables and golden vases and crowns in the temples, saying he would make use

Dionysias, a town of Egypt, situate at the southwestern extremity of the Lake Moeris. It is now called Bełrd-Kerun, or, according to some, Scobha. (Ptol.)

Dio Nysorólis, I. a town of Lower Moesia, in the vicinity of the Euxine Sea. Pliny says that it was also called Crunos, but Pomponius Mela (2, 2) makes Crunos the port of Dionysopolis. The modern name of the bounty of the gods. (Cic, N. D., 3, 34.—AEliis Dunysipoli—II. A city of India, supposed by Man-an, W. H., 1,20.) He also made a descent with a fleet nert to be the same with the modern Nagar, or Nughr, on the coast of Etruria, and plundered the temple at on the western bank of the river Cow. Mannert does Caere or Agylla of 1000 talents. With these renot consider it to have been the same with the ancient sources he was preparing himself for a new expedition city of Nyssa, but makes the position of the latter more to Italy, when a fresh Carthaginian armament landed to the north. (Geogr., vol. 5, p. 142.) in Sicily, 383 B.C., and defeated Dionysius, whose

Dionysius I., or the Elder, a celebrated tyrant of brother Leptines fell in the battle. A peace followed, of Syracuse, raised to that high rank from the station of which Carthage dictated the conditions. The boundary a simple citizen, was born in this same city 430 B.C. of the two states was fixed at the river Halycus, and He was son-in-law to Hermocrates, who, having been | Dionysius had to pay 1000 talents for the expenses of banished by an adverse party, attempted to return by the war. This peace lasted fourteen years, during which

force of arms, and was killed in the action. Dionysius was dangerously wounded, but he recovered, and was afterward recalled. In time he procured himself to be nominated one of the generals, and, under pretence of raising a force sufficient to resist the Carthaginians, he obtained a decree for recalling all the exiles, to whom he gave arms. Being sent to the relief of Gela, then besieged by the Carthaginians, he effected nothing against the enemy, pretending that he was not seconded by the other commanders; and his friends suggested, that, in order to save the state, the supreme power ought to be confided to one man, reminding the people of the times of Gelon, who had defeated the Carthaginian host, and given peace to Sicily. The general assembly therefore proclaimed Dionysius supreme chief of the republic about 405 B.C., when he was twenty-five years of age. He increased the pay of the soldiers, enlisted new ones, and, under pretence of a conspiracy against his person, formed a guard of mercenaries. He then proceeded to the relief of Gela, but failed in the attack on the Carthaginian camp : he however penetrated into the town, the inhabitants of which he advised to leave it quietly in the night under the escort of his troops. On his retreat he persuaded those of Camarina to do the same. This raised suspicions among his troops, and a party of horsemen, riding on before the rest, raised, on their arrival at Syracuse, an insurrection against Dionysius, plundered his house, and treated his wife so cruelly that she died in consequence. Dionysius, with a chosen body, followed close after, set fire to the gate of Acradina, forced his way into the city, put to death the leaders of the revolt, and remained undisputed possessor of the supreme power. The Carthaginians, being afflicted by a pestilence, made proposals of peace, which were accepted by Dionysius, and he then applied himself to fortifying Syracuse, and especially the island of Ortygia, which he made his stronghold, and which he peopled entirely with his trusty partisans and mercenaries, by the aid of whom he put down several revolts. Aster reducing beneath his sway the towns of Leontini, Catana, and 'Naxus, he engaged in a new war with Carthage, in which he met with the inost brilliant success, making himself master of numerous towns in Sicily, and becoming eventually feared both in Italy and Sicily, to the dominion of both of which countries he seems at one time to have aspired. In order to raise

Dionysius remained the undisturbed ruler of Syracuse, and one half of Sicily, with part of southern Italy. He sent colonies to the coasts of the Adriatic, and his o navigated both seas. Twice he sent assistance to his old ally, Sparth; once against the Athenians, 374 B.C., and again in 369, after the battle of Leuctra, when the Spartans were hard pressed by Epaminondas. Meantime the court of Dionysius was frequented by many distinguished men, philosophers, and poets. Plato is said to have been among the former, being invited by Dion, the brother-in-law of Dionysius; but the philosopher's declamations against tyranny led so his being sent away from Syracuse. The poets fared little better, as Dionysius himself aspired to poetical fame, for which, however, he was not so well qualified as for political success. Those who did not praise his verses were in danger of being led to prison. Dionysius twice sent some of his poems to be recited at the Olympic games, but they were hissed by the assembly. He was more successful at Athens. A tragedy of his obtained the prize, and the news of his success almost turned his brain. He had just concluded a fresh truce with the Carthaginians, after having made an unsuccessful attack on Lilybaeum, at the expiration of the fourteen years' peace; and he now gave himself up to rejoicings and feastings for his poetical triumph. In a debauch with his friends, he ate and drank so intemperately that he fell senseless, and soon after died (some say he was poisoned by his physicians, at the instigation of his son), B.C. 367, in the 63d year of his age, having been tyrant of Syracuse thirty-eight years. After the death of his first wife, he married two wives at once, namely, Doris of Locri, and Aristaneta, daughter of Hipparinus, of Syracuse: by these women he had seven children, of whom Dionysius, his elder son by Doris, succeeded him in the sovereignty.—Dionysius was a clever statesman, and generally successful in his undertakings. He did much to strengthen and extend the power of Syracuse, and it was probably owing to him that all Sicily did not fall into the hands of the Carthaginians. He was unscrupulous, rapacious, and vindictive, but several of the stories stated of his cruelty and suspicious temper appear improbable, or at least exaggerated. The works of Philistus, who had written his life, and who is praised by Cicero, are lost. Diodorus, who is our principal remaining authority concerning Dionysius,

money, he allied himself with the Illyrians, and pro- lived nearly three centuries after, and was not a critiposed to them the joint plunder of the temple of Del- cal writer. The government of Dionysius, like that phi: the enterprise, however, sailed. He then plun- of many others who are styled tyrants in ancient histo; dered several temples, such as that of Proserpina at ry, was not a despotism ; it resembled rather that of Locri; and as he sailed back with the plunder, with a the first Medici, and other leaders of the Italian repubfair wind, he, who was a humourist in his way, ob. lics in the middle ages, or that of the stadtholders in served to his friends, “You see how the immortal gods Holland. The popular forms still remained, and we find

favour sacrilege.” Having carried off a golden mantle Dionysius repeatedly convoking the “o of the

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