Obrazy na stronie

of Baiae and Neapolis, it did not attain to any degree of prosperity, and in Juvenal's time it appears to have been nearly deserted. (Sat., 3, 1.) But Cumae was, perhaps, still more indebted for its celebrity to the oracular sibyl, who, from the earliest ages, was supposed to have made her abode in the Cumaean cave, from which she delivered her prophetic lore. Every one is acquainted with the splendid fictions of Virgil relative to this sibyl, but it is not so generally known that the noble fabric of the poet was raised on a real foundation. The temple of Apollo, or, as it was more generally called, the cavern of the sibyl, actually existed ; it consisted of one vast chamber, hewn out of the solid rock; but was almost entirely destroyed in a siege which the fortress of Cumae, then in the possession of the Goths, maintained against Narses; that general, by undermining the cavern, caused the citadel to sink into the hollow, and thus involved the whole in one common ruin. (Agath., Hist, Goth, 1.) There is also a description of this cave in Justin Martyr. (Orat. Paraen.—Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 148, seqq.) ox. a place in Babylonia, where the battle was fought between Cyrus the younger and his brother Artaxerxes Mnemon, and in which the former lost his life. Plutarch (Wit. Artar., c. 8) says, it was 500 stadia distant from Babylon. D'Anville places it within the limits of Mesopotamia, near Is, the modern Hit. But Mannert, with more propriety, assigns it to Babylonia, and fixes its location a few miles south of the entrance of the wall of Media. (Geogr., vol. 5, pt. 2, p. 331.) CUNEus, I. Ager, a region in the southernmost part of Lusitania, between the river Anas and the Sacrum Promontorium and Atlantic. It is now Algarre. The appellation Cuneus is generally thought to have been given it by the Romans from its resemblance to “a wedge” (cuneus); Ukert, however, thinks that the name is to be traced to the Conii (Kovtov), of whom Polybius (10, 7) speaks as dwelling to the west of the straits, and who were probably inhabitants of the south. western part of Iberia. Appian (Reb. Hisp., c. 57) calls them Cunei (Kovvéot), and makes their capital to have been Conistorgis. It is very probable that this name, in the time of the Roman sway, reminding that people of their own term cuneus, gave rise to the idea of ascribing a wedgelike form to the country in the southern parts of Lusitania. (Ukert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 309.)—II. or Cuskuw ProMontorium, a promon. tory of the Cuneus Ager, in Lusitania, to the west of the mouth of the Anas, now Cape Santa Maria. It is the southernmost point of Portugal. (Plin., 4, 22.) Cupido, the god of love. (Wid. Eros.) Currs, a town of the Sabines, to the north of Eretum, celebrated as having given birth to Numa Pompilius. (Virg., AEm., 6, 811.) Antiquaries are divided in opinion as to the site occupied by this ancient place. Cluverius fixed it at Wescoro di Sabini (Ital, Ant., 1, 675), about twenty-five miles from Rome; the Abbé Chaupy at Monte Maggiore, on the Via Sa. leria, and twenty miles from that city. (Dec. de la Maison d'Hor, vol. 3, p. 576.) The opinion of Hol. stenius ought, however, to be preferred; he places it at Cores", a little town on a river of the same name, which bears an evident similarity to that of the ancient city, and where, according to the same accurate observer, many remains were still visible when he examined the spot. (Adnot ad Steph. Byz., p. 106– Compare D'Amrille, Geogr. Anc., vol. 1, p. 195— Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 1, p. 310.) Curetes, an ancient people, who would seem to have been a branch of the Leleges, and to have settled at an early period in the island of Crete. (Compare Euseb., Chron , 1, p. 14.—Mannert, Geogr., vol. 8, p. 21.) Being piratical in their habits, we find them, in process of time, occupying many of the islands of the Archi

pelago, and establishing themselves also along the coasts of Acarnania and Ætolia. It is from them that the latter country first received the name of Curetis. Strabo (465) derives their appellation from Kovost, tonsura, from the circumstance of their cutting off the hair in front, to prevent the enemy from taking hold. (Compare remarks under the article Abantes.) Others deduce their name from the town of Curium in AEtolia, in the vicinity of Pleuron. Ritter, however, finds in the name Curetes the key-word of his system (Kor), which traces everything to an early worship of the Sun and other heavenly bodies; just as he deduces the name Creta from Cor-eta. (o. p. 410.)—The name Curetes is also applied, in a religious sense, to a class of priests in the island of Crete, who would seem, however, to be identical with the early inhabitants already spoken of. To them was confided by Rhea the care of Jupiter's infancy, and, to prevent his being discovered by his father Saturn, they invented a species of Pyrrhic dance, and drowned the cries of the infant deity by the clashing of their arms and cymbals. Some writers among the ancients pretended, that the Dactyli were the progenitors of the Curetes, and that Phrygia had been the cradle of their race. Others maintained, that Minos brought them with him into Crete. (Compare Ephorus, ap. Diod. Sic., 5, 64.) The president De Brosses, in order to clear up this obscure point, advances the opinion, that the Curetes were the ancient priesthood of that part of Europe which lies in the vicinity of Asia, and resembled the Druids among the Celts, and the Salii among the Sabines, as well as the sorcerers and jugglers of Lapland, Nigritia, &c. Hence he infers, that it would be idle to seek for their native country, since we find this class of priests everywhere existing where popular belief was based on gross superstition. The most celebrated college of these jugglers would be in Crete. (Hist. de la Republ. Rom de Salluste retablie, vol. 2, p. 564, in notis.) But, whoever they may have been, one thing is certain, that the Curetes exerted themselves successfully to civilize the rude inhabitants of Crete. (Compare Serrius, ad Virg, Æn., 3, 131– “Curetes primi cultores Creta esse dicuntur.") They taught them to keep flocks and herds, to raise bees, to work metals. They made them acquainted also with some of the leading principles of astronomy. (Theon, ad Arat., 1, 35.) To the Curetes, too, must no doubt be attributed what is said of Melisseus, the first king of Crete, that he was the first to sacrifice to the gods, to introduce new rites and sacred processions unknown before his time; and that his daughter Melissa was the first priestess of the Mother of the Gods. (Lactant., dip. Inst, 1, 22, 19.) Melisseus, whose daughters Amalthea and Melissa nourished the infant Jupiter with milk and honey, was of necessity contemporaneous with the Curetes, and may be regarded without doubt as one of them. In a word, so well grounded a reputation did the Curetes leave behind them, that, in process of time, it became customary Un Crete, when an inhabitant of the island had rendered himself conspicuous by talent or acquirements, to call him, as is proved by the example of Epimenides, a new Curete, or simply a Curete. (Plut., Wit. Solun, 84.—Diag. Laert, 1, 114.) The title of Tn) eveiç, or “children of the Earth,” also given to the Curetes (Diod, Sic., 5, 65), and likewise that of “Companions of Rhea" (Strabo, 465), suffice to prove that they worshipped this divinity. The sounders of Cnosus, they raised in that city a temple, and consecrated a grove, unto the Mother of the Gods. (Diod. Sic., 5, 66.-Syncell., Chron, p. 125)—For other remarks on the Curetes, consult Sainte-Croir, Mystères du Paganisme, vol. 1, p. 71, seqq. Curétis, I. a name given to Crete, as being the residence of the Curetes. (Ovid, Met., 8, 196)-II The earlier name of Ætolia. (Wid. co

Curia, I. a subdivision of the early Roman tribes, each tribe containing ten curiae. This arrangement commenced, as is said, with Romulus, at which time the number of tribes amounted to three, so that the curiae at their very outset were thirty. This number of curiae always remained the same, whereas that of the tribes was increased subsequently to thirtyfive. Each curia anciently had a chapel or temple for the performance of sacred rites. He who presided over one curia was called Curio; he who presided over them all, Curio Marimus.—II. A name given to a building where the senate assembled. These curiae were always consecrated, and, being thus of a religious character, were supposed to render the debates of the senate more solemn and auspicious. The senate appear at first to have met in the chapels or temples of the curiae, and afterward to have had buildings specially erected for this purpose. Varro, therefore, distinguishes the curiæ into two kinds; the one where the priests took care of divine matters, and the other where the senate took counsel for human affairs. (Varro, L. L., 4, 32.-Burgess, Antiquitues of Rome, vol. 1, p. 360.) Curiatii, a family of Alba. The three Curiatii, who engaged the Horatii and lost the victory, belonged to it. (Liv , 1, 24.) Curio, I. Caius, was practor A U.C. 632, but did not attain to the consulship. Cicero speaks with praise of his oratory, an opinion founded, not on personal knowledge, but on the speeches he had left. (Cic., Brut., 32.)—II. C. Scribonius, was consul with Cneus Octavius, A.U.C. 677. On returning from the province of Macedonia, he triumphed over the Dardani, as proconsul, A.U.C. 681. (Sigon. Fast. Cons. ad Ann. Dckxci.—ld., Comment. in Fast., p. 454, ed. Oxon.) Cicero often mentions him, and in his Brutus (c. 49) enumerates him among the Roman orators, along with Cotta and others.-III. C. Scribonius, son of the preceding, a turbulent and unprincipled man, and an active partisan of Julius Caesar's. Being deeply involved in debt when tribune of the commons, Caesar gained him over by paying for him what he owed (Plut., Wit. Pomp., c. 58), and Curio immediately exerted himself with great vigour in his behalf. Caesar, it seems, was under obligations to him before this, since Curio is said to have saved his life when he was leaving the senate-house after the debate about Catiline's accomplices, his personal safety being endangered by the young men who stood in arms around the building. (Plut., Vit. Caes., c. 8.) Plutarch ascribes Antony's early initiation into licentious habits to his acquaintance with Curio. (Wit. Ant., c. 2.—Compare, Cic., Phil., 2, 2.) Cicero speaks very favourably of his natural qualifications as an orator, but denies him the praise of application. (Cic., Brut., 81.) On the breaking out of the civil war, Caesar, after having possessed himself of Rome, sent Curio to take charge of Sicily. The latter subsequently crossed over from this island into Africa, with an armed force, against Juba and the followers of Pompey, but was defeated and slain. (Appian, Bell. Cir., 2, 41, seqq.) Curiosolitz, a people of Gaul, forming part of the Armoric states. Their territory lay to the northeast of the Veneti, and answers to what is now the territorv of St. Malo, between Dinant and Lamhalle, in the department des Côtes-du-Nord. (Lemaire, Ind. Geogr., ad Caes., p. 244.) CURIUM, a city of Cyprus, on the southern coast, or rather, according to the ancients, at the commencement of the western shore, at a small distance from which, to the southeast, there is a cape which bears the name of Curias. Curium is said to have been founded by an Argive colony, and it was one of the nine royal cities of Cyprus. (Herod., 5, 113—Strab., 683.) The site seems to correspond with what is now Episcopia, implying the existence of a bishop's see, a

circumstance which applies to Curium in the middle ages. (Hierocl., p. 706.) Ancient writers report, that the hills around Curium contained rich veins of copper ore. (Theophr., de Vent.—Serp., ad Varg., Æn., 3, 111.—Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 3:6.) Curius DENTAtus, Manius, a Roman, celebrated for his warlike achievements, and also for the primitive simplicity of his manners. In his first consulship (A.U.C. 463) he triumphed twice, once over the Samnites and then over the Sabines, and in this same year also he obtained an ovation for his successes against the Lucanians. (Aurel. Vict, c. 33.-Compare the remarks of Sigonius, ad Fast. Cons., p. 142, seqq., ed. Oron.) He afterward (A.U.C. 478), in his third consulship, triumphed over Pyrrhus and the Samnites. (Sigon., p. 164.) It was on this occasion that the Roman people first saw elephants led along in triumph (Flor, 1, 18. Pliny, 8, 6. – Eutropius, 2, 14.— Tzschucke, ad Eutrop., l.c.), and it was this victory that drove Pyrrhus from Italy. The simple manners of this distinguished man are often referred to by the Roman writers. When the ambassadors of the Samnites visited his cottage, they found him, according to one account, sitting on a bench by the fireside, and supping out of a wooden bowl (Val. Max., 4, 3, 5), and, according to another, boiling turnips (Éipovta Yoyyvžičac.—Plut., Wit. Cat. Maj., c. 2). On their attempting to bribe him with a large sum of gold, he at once rejected their offer, exclaiming, that a man who could be content to live as they saw him living, had no need whatever of gold; and that he thought it more glorious to conquer the possessors of it than to possess it himself—His scanty farm and humble cottage, moreover, were in full accordance with the idea which Curius had formed of private wealth ; for, after so many achievements and honours, he declared that citizen a pernicious one who did not find seven acres (jugera) sufficient for his subsistence. (Plin., 18, 3–Compare Schott., ad Aurel. Vict., c. 33.) Seven acres was the number fixed by law on the expulsion of the kings. (Plin., l. c.)—According to Pliny, Dentatus was so named because born with teeth (cum dentibus. —Plin. 7, 15). Curtius, M., a Roman youth, who devoted himself, for his country, to the gods Manes, B.C. 359. According to the account given by Livy (7, 6), the ground near the middle of the Forum, in consequence, as the historian remarks, either of an earthquake or some other violent cause, sank down to an immense depth, forming a vast aperture; nor could the gulf be filled up by all the earth which they could throw into it. At last the soothsayers declared, that, if they wished the Roman commonwealth to be everlasting, they must devote to this chasm what constituted the principle strength of the Roman people. Curtius, on hearing the answer, demanded of his countrymen whether they possessed anything so valuable as their arms and courage. They yielded a silent assent to the question put them by the heroic youth; whereupon, having arrayed himself in full armour and mounted his horse, he plunged into the chasm, and the people threw after him their offerings, and quantities of the fruits of the earth. Valerius Maximus (5, 6, 2) states, that the earth closed immediately over him. Livy, however, speaks of a lake occupying the spot, called Lacus Curtius. In another part of his history (1, 13), he mentions this same lake as existing in the time of Romulus, and as having derived its name from Mettus Curtius, a Sabine in the army of Titus Tatius. In all probability it was of volcanic origin, since the early accounts speak of its great depth, and was not produced merely by the inundations of the Tiber, as Burgess thinks. (Antiquities of Rome, vol. 2, p. 219.) Tarquinius Priscus is said to have filled up this lake, at the time that he drained the whole of this district and constructed the Cloaca Maxima. Possibly he maw have been aided in this by a natural tunnel gradually formed through the basin of the lake itself. (Compare Arnold's History of Rome, vol. 1, p. 511.)—II. Quintus Rufus, a Latin historian. (Vid. Quintus I.) Curūlis Magistratus, the name given to a class of magistracies which conferred the privilege of using the sella curulis or chair of state. This was anciently made of ivory, or, at least, adorned with it. The magistrates who enjoyed this privilege were the dictator, consuls, praetor, censors, and curule aediles. They sat on this chair in their tribunals on all solemn occasions. Those commanders who triumphed had it with them in their chariot. Persons whose ancestors, or themselves, had borne any curule office, were called mobiles, and had the jus imaginum. They who were the first of the family that had raised themselves to any curule office, were called homines novi, new men.—As regards the origin of the term curulis, Festus deduces it from currus, “a chariot,” and says, that “curule magistrates” were so called because they were accustomed to be borne along in chariots (“quia curru rehehantur”). Aulus Gellius (3, 18) also remarks, quoting, at the same time, Gabius Bassus, that those senators who had borne any curule magistracy were accustomed, as a mark of honour, to be conveyed to the senate in chariots, and that the seat in the chariot (sella in curru) was hence denominated “curule” (sella curulis). He may be correct as regards the mere derivation of the term, but he is certainly wrong in the explanation which he gives, since Pliny expressly states (7,43), that L. Metellus, who had enjoyed the highest honours in the state, having become deprived of sight, had the privilege allowed him of being conveyed to the senate in a chariot, a favour granted to no one before his time.—The common derivation of the word is from Cures, a town of the Sabines, whence this official badge is said by some to have been borrowed. Lipsius favours this latter etymology. (De Magistr. Wet. P. R., c. 12.) Cuss Ei or Cossaei, a nation occupying the southern declivity of the mountains which separated Susiana from Media. The Elyma i possessed the northern declivities. The Cussai or Cossaei were a brave people, and the kings of Persia were frequently compelled to purchase a passage over these mountains from them. Alexander effected one by taking them by surprise. Antigonus lost a large §. of his army in crossing over. According to Mannert, this people, together with the Carduchi and some other neighbouring tribes, were the ancestors of the modern Curds. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 5, p. 493.) Cusus, a river of Hungary, falling into the Danube; now the Vag, according to D'Anville. Mannert, however, makes it the same with the Granna or Gran. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 3, p. 380, in notis.) Cutilize, a town of the Sabines, east of Reate, and on the right bank of the Velinus, famed as an aboriginal city of great antiquity (Dion. Hal. 1, 14 and 2, 49), and celebrated for its lake, now Pozzo Ratignano, and the floating island on its surface. (Senec., Nat. Quast, 3, 25–Plin, 2, 95.) This lake was farther distinguished by the appellation of the Umbilicus, or “Navel” (i. e., centre) of Italy. (Varro, ap. Plin., 3, 12.) This statement is found by D'Anville (Anal. Geogr., p. 165) to be correct, when referred to the breadth of Italy; the distance from Ostia to Cutilia, the ruins of which are to be seen close to Paterno, a village near Cirita Ducale, being seventy-six miles, and the same from thence to Castrum Truentinum on the Adriatic. If Cluverius is right in reading Korū2m for Koairn in Stephanus of Byzantium, who quotes the name from the Periegesis of Ctesias, as belonging to a city of the Umbri, we may adduce the authority of that early historian in proof of the antiquity of this town, Cutilia is also noticed by Strabo (228) for its mineral waters, which were accounted salutary for many disD D D

orders; they failed, however, in their effect upon Wes pasian, who is stated to have died here. (Suet., Vesp., 24–Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 317, seqq.) CYANE, according to Ovid, a fountain-nymph of Sicily, whose stream flowed into the Anapus, near Syracuse. She attempted, but in vain, to stop the car of Pluto, when that god was carrying off Proserpina. The irritated deity made a passage for himself to the lower world through the very waters of the sountain. (Ovid, Met., 5, 409, seqq.)—Claudian, on the other hand, makes Cyane one of the attendants of Proserpina, and to have been gathering flowers with her at the time she was carried off. According to this poet, she pined away, and dissolved into a fountain after the abduction of the goddess. (Claudian, de rapt. Proserp., 2, 61.—Id. ab., 3, 246, seqq.) Diodorus Siculus gives a third legend, by which the fountain Cyane is made to have come forth from the opening through which Pluto descended with Proserpina to the shades. (Diod. Sic., 5, 4.)—The modern name of the sountain is said to be the Pisma. On the banks of this stream grows the papyrus, which is thought by Hoare to have been brought hither from Egypt by the orders of Hiero. (Hoare's Classical Tour, vol. 2, p. 163.)

CYANEAE, two small, rugged islands at the en

trance of the Euxine Sea, and forty stadia from the mouth of the Thracian Bosporus. (Arrian, Peripl. Mar. Eur., ad fin., p. 137, ed. Blanc.) According to Strabo, one was near the European, the other near the Asiatic side, and the space between them was about twenty stadia. (Strab., 319.) There was an ancient fable relative to these islands, that they floated about, and sometimes united to crush to pieces those vessels which chanced at the time to be passing through the straits. (Pomp. Mela, 2, 7.) Pliny gives the same fable (4, 13), but assigns, at the same time, the true cause of the legend. It arose from their appearing, like all other objects, to move towards, or from each other, when seen from a vessel in motion itself. The Argo, we are told by Apollonius Rhodius (2,601), had a narrow escape in passing through, and lost the extremity of her stern (ā974aroto sixpa kópousa). Pindar says, that they were alive, and moved to and fro more swiftly than the blasts, until the expedition of the Argonauts brought death upon them. (Pyth., 4, 371, seqq.) On o passage the scholiast remarks in explanation, that it was decreed by the fates they should become “rooted to the deep” whenever a vessel succeeded in passing through them : (Eluapro, ðuaràevadamc veðc boothjval Tag Tétpac to reasiyet). The prediction was accomplished by the Argo. Phineus (rid. Argonautao) had directed Jason and his companions to let fly a pigeon when they were near these islands, telling them that, if the bird came safely through, the Argo might venture to follow her. They obeyed the directions of the prophet-prince; the pigeon passed through safely with the loss of its tail; and then the Argonauts, watching the recession of the rocks, and aided by Juno and Minerva, rowed vigorously on, and passed through with the loss of a part of the stern-works of their vessel.—The term “Cyanea” (Kváveau), i. e., “dark blue” or “azure,” is referred by the scholiasts on Euripides (Med., 2) and Apollonius Rhodius (2, 317), to the colour of these rocks. In the description of Homer, however, as will be seen presently, a more poetic turn is given to the appellation. To the name Cyaneae is frequently joined that of “Symplegades” (Sturzmyáðsc), i.e., “the Dashers,” in allusion to their supposed collision when vessels attempted to pass through. (Compare Eurip., Med., 2. — Kvavéac SvarAmyáčac.) Juvenal calls them “concurrentia sara, Cyaneas” (15, 19), and Ovid (Met, 7, 62) has, “Qui mediis concurrere in undis dicuntur montes.” Homer (Od., 12, 61) calls them IIzaykrat, “The Wanderers,” and gives, the following description of them: “There o are lofty rocks; and near them the vast wave of the dark Am

hitrite resounds: the blessed gods call them the W. Here neither birds pass by, nor do fearful doves which carry ambrosia to father Jove; but the smooth rock always takes away some one of them, while the father supplies another to make up their number. From this not yet has any ship of men escaped, whichever has come to it, but the waves of the sea, and the storms of pernicious fire take away planks of ships and bodies of men together. That ship, indeed, only, which passes over the sea, has sailed beyond, the Argo, a care to all, which sailed from Æta. . . But as to the two rocks, the one reaches the wide heaven with its sharp top, and a dark cloud surrounds it : this, indeed, never goes away, nor does clearness ever hold possession of its top, either in summer or in autumn; nor could a mortal man ascend it, or descend, not if he had twenty hands and feet; for the rock is smooth like one polished around.”—It is not difficult, from the accounts here given, adorned though they be with the garb of poetry, to deduce the inference that the Cyanean isles were originally volcanic. The “storms of pernicious fire” (Tupoc ozooio Güezžai) and the dark cloud (kvavén vegean) point at once to this. Hence, in the discussions which have arisen relative to the formation of the Thracian Bosporus, and the enlargement of the Mediterranean Sea (pid. Mediterraneum Mare), the agency of volcanoes is generally asserted by the one party. (Compare Olivier, Voyage, &c., vol. 1, p. 62–Geographie Physique de la Mere Noire, par Dureau de la Malle, p. 255, seqq.) Their opponents, on the other hand, maintain, that the only probable change in the region of the Bosporus must have been produced by a gradual sinking of a barrier of rocks, and that even this must have occurred at a period antecedent to all historical and geographical records. They add, that the pretended volcanic substances brought from the Bosporus have been proved to be merely fragments of ordinary rocks. (Malte-Brun, Geogr., vol. 3, p. 397, Brussels ed.) It is difficult, however, to reconcile this assertion with the strong and decided language of Dr. Clarke, relative to the structure of the rock of which the Cyanean isles consist, as well as to the general appearance of the shore along the line of the Bosporus. “The Cyanete,” he remarks, “are each joined to the main land by a kind of isthmus, and appear as islands when this is inundated ; which always happens in stormy weather. But it is not certain that the isthmus, connecting either of them with the continent, was formerly visible. The disclosure has been probably owing to that gradual sinking of the level of the Black Sea before noticed. The same cause continuing to operate, may hereafter lead posterity to marvel what is become of the Cyaneae; and this may also account for their multiplied appearance in ages anterior to the time of Strabo. For some time before we reached the entrance to the Canal, steering close along its European side, we observed in the cliffs and hills, even to their summits, a remarkable aggregate of heterogeneous stony substances, rounded by attrition in water, imbedded in a hard natural cement, yet differing from the usual appearance of breccia rocks; for, upon a nearer examination, the whole mass appears to have undergone, first, a violent action of fire; and, secondly, that degree of friction in water to which their forms must be ascribed. Breccia rocks do not commonly consist of substances so modified. The stratum formed by this singular aggregate, and the parts composing it, exhibited, by the circumstances of their position, a striking proof of the power of an inundation; having dragged along with it the constituent parts of the mixture, over all the heights above the present level of the Black Sea, and deposited them in such a manner as to leave no doubt but that a torrent had there passed towards the Sea of Marmora. All the strata

of the mountains, and each individual mass composing them, lean from the north to the south. At the point of the European lighthouse, we found the sea lempestuous, beating against immense rocks of a hard and compact lara : these rocks have separated prismatically, and they exhibit surfaces tinged by the oxide of iron. From this point we passed to the Cyanean isle, upon the European side of the strait, and there landed. The structure of the rock, whereof the island consists, corresponds with the nature of the strata already described: but the substances composing it were perhaps never before associated in any mineral aggregate. They all appear to have been more or less modified by fire, and to have been cemented during the boiling of a volcano. In the same mass may be observed fragments of various-coloured lara, of trap, of basalt, and of marble. In the fissures appear agate, chalcedony, and quartz; but in friable and thin veins, not half an inch in thickness, deposited posterior to the settling of the stratum. The agate appeared in a vein of considerable extent, occupying a deep fissure not more than an inch wide, and coated by a green earth, resembling some of the lacas of Ætna, which have been decomposed by acidiferous vapours. The summit of this insular rock is the most favourable situation for surveying the mouth of the canal; thus viewed, it has the appearance of a crater, whose broken sides were opened towards the Black Sea, and, by a smaller aperture, towards the Bosporus. The Asiatic side of the strait is distinguished by appearances similar to those already described; with this difference, that, opposite to the island, a little to the east of the Anatolian lighthouse, a range of basaltic pillars may be discerned, standing upon a base inclined towards the sea; and, when examined with a telescope, exhibiting very regular prismatic forms. From all the preceding observations, and after due consideration of events recorded in history, as compared with the phaënomena of nature, it is, perhaps, more than probable, that the bursting of the Thracian Bosporus, the deluge mentioned by Diodorus Siculus, and the draining of the waters once uniting the Black Sea to the Caspian, were all the consequence of an earthquake caused by subterranean fires, which were not extinct at the time of the passage of the Argonauts, and the effects of which are still visible.” (Clarke's Travels—Russia, Tartary, and Turkey—vol. 2, p. 430, seqq.) CYAxAREs, I, a king of the Medes, grandson of Dejoces, son of Phraortes, and father of Astyages. He was a prince of violent character (Herodot., 1, 73.— Compare Larcher, ad loc), and this trait displayed itself in his treatment of the Scythians, a body of whom had taken refuge in his territories in consequence of a sedition. He received them kindly, allowed them settlements, and even went so far as to intrust some children to their care, in order to have them taught the Scythian language and the art of bending the bow. After some time had elapsed, the Scythians, accustomed to go forth to the chase, and to bring back to the king some of the game obtained by the hunt, returned one day with empty hands. Cyaxares gave vent to his temper by punishing them severely. The Scythians, indignant at this treatment, which they knew to be unmerited, resolved to slay one of the children confided to their care, and, after preparing the flesh like the game they had been accustomed to bring, to serve it up before Astyages, and betake themselves immediately unto Alyattes at Sardis. The horrid plan succeeded but too well. Cyaxares demanded the fugitives from the Lydian monarch, and on his refusal a war ensued. This war lasted for five years: in the sixth, an eclipse of the sun, which had been predicted by Thales, separated the contending armies. Peace was soon restored through the mediation of Labynetus, king of Babylon, and Syennesis, king of Cilicia. (Herodot, 1, 73, seqq.) Herodotus also informs us

[ocr errors]

which had been imbodied promiscuously before his time, into distinct companies of lancers, archers, and cavalry. The historian then adds parenthetically, (“this was he who waged war with the Lydians; when, during a battle, the day became night"). This

parenthetical remark evidently refers to the foregoing

account of the eclipse. We are next informed, that, having subdued all Asia above the river Halys, he marched with all that were under his command against Nineveh, resolving to avenge the death of his father by the destruction of that city. After he had defeated the Assyrians, he laid siege to the city; but was forced to raise it by a sudden invasion of his territories. For a numerous army of Scythians, headed by Madyas, made an irruption into Media, defeated him in a pitched battle, and reduced him and all Upper Asia, under subjection to them, for eight-and-twenty years. (Herodot., 1, 103, seqq.) Then, in revenge for their galling impositions and exactions, he slew their chieftains, when intoxicated, at a banquet to which he had invited them, and, expelling the rest, recovered his former power and possessions. (Herodot., 1, 196.) After this, the Medes took Nineveh and subdued the Assyrian provinces, all except the Babylonians, their confederates in the war. Cyaxares died after having reigned forty years, including twenty-eight years of the Scythian dominion.—Hale fixes the time of the eclipse that was predicted by Thales, as above stated, on the 18th of May, B.C. 603, at 9 hours and 30 minutes in the morning. He makes this eclipse to have been a total one, and the moon's shadow to have traversed the earth's disk, near the mouth of the river Halys, the boundary of the two contending kingdoms at a later day. (Hale's Analysis of Chronology, vol. 4, p. 84, 2d ed.) The same learned writer makes Cyaxares I. to have been the same with Kai Kobad, whom Mirkhond, and other Persian historians give as the founder of the second or Kaianian dynasty. He identifies him also with the Ahasuerus of Scripture. (Hale's Analysis, vol. 4, p. 76, 81.) According, however, to another modern writer, Cyaxares is the same with the monarch styled Gustasp. (Hölty, Djemschid, Feridun, &c., p. 53, seqq., Hanov., 1829.)—II. Son of Astyages, succeeded his father at the age of 49 years. Being naturally of an easy, indolent disposition, and fond of his amusements, he left the burden of military affairs and the care of the government to Cyrus, his nephew and son-in-law, who married his only daughter, and was, therefore, doubly entitled to succeed him. Xenophon notices this marriage as taking * after the conquest of Babylon. (Cyrop, 8, 28.) ut to this Sir Isaac Newton justly objects: “This daughter, saith Xenophon, was reported to be very handsome, and used to play with Cyrus when they were both children, and to say that she would marry him; and, therefore, they were much of the same age. Xenophon saith, that Cyrus married her after the taking of Babylon; but she was then an old woman. It is more probable that he married her while she was young and handsome, and he a young man.” (Chron., p. 3.10.) Newton supposes that Darius the Mede was the son of Cyaxares, and cousin of Cyrus; and that Cyrus rebelled against, and dethroned him two years after the capture of Babylon. But this is unfounded: for Darius the Mede was sixteen years older than Cyrus. We may therefore rest assured that he was Cyaxares himself, and none else. (Hale's Analysis of Chronology, vol. 4, p. 88, 2d ed.) Cybear, a name of Cybele, used by the poets when a long penult is required. The form Cybelle is sometimes, though with less propriety, employed for a similar purpose. (Compare the Greek forms Kv6s2 m and Kv676m, and consult Drakenborch, ad Sil. Ital, 17,

ni, Lex. Tot. Lat., s. r. Cybebe.) Cybèle (for the quantity of the penult, vid. Cybebe), a goddess, daughter of Caelus and Terra, and distinguished by the appellation of “Mother of the Gods,” or “Great Mother.” The Phrygians and Lydians regarded her as the goddess of nature or of the earth. Her temples stood on the summits of hills or mountains, such as Dindymus, Berecyntus, Sipylus, and others. She was particularly worshipped at Pessinus, in Galatia, above which place rose Mount Dindymus, whence her surname of Dindymene. Her statue in this city was nothing more than a large aerolite, which was held to be her heaven-sent image, and which was removed to Rome near the close of the second Punic war. The legend of Cybele and Atys has already been alluded to, in its various forms (vid. Atys), and the explanation given on that occasion may here be repeated, that Atys was, in fact, an incarnation of the sun. The account of Diodorus, as usual, is based upon the system of Euhemerus, by which a mortal origin was sought to be established for all the heathen divinities. According to this writer, Cybele was daughter to King Maron and his queen Dindyme. She was exposed by her father on Mount Cybelus, where she was suckled by panthers and lionesses, and was afterward reared by shepherdesses, who named her Cybele. When she grew up, she displayed great skill in the healing art, and cured all the diseases of the children and cattle. They thence called her the mountain-mother. While dwelling in the woods she formed a strict friendship with Marsyas, and had a love-affair with a youth named Atys or Attis. She was afterward acknowledged by her parents; but her father, on discoverin her intimacy with Atys, seized that unhappy youth i put him to death. Grief deprived Cybele of her reason: with dishevelled locks she roamed to the sound of the drums and pipes which she had invented, over various regions of the earth, even as far as the country of the Hyperboreans, teaching mankind agriculture: her companion was still the faithful Marsyas. Meantime a dreadful famine ravaged Phrygia; the oracle, being consulted, directed that the body of Atys should be buried, and divine honours be paid to Cybele. A stately temple was accordingly erected to her at Pessinus by King Midas. (Diod. Suc., 3, 58, seq.) It is apparent from this account, pragmatized as it is, that Cybele, Marsyas, and Atys were all ancient Phrygian deities.—Like Asiatic worship in general, that of Cybele was enthusiastic. Her priests, nained Galli and Corybantes, ran about with dreadful cries and howlings, beating on timbrels, clashing cymbals, sounding pipes, and cutting their flesh with knives. The box-tree and cypress were considered as sacred to her; as from the former she made the pipes, and Atys was said to have been changed into the latter. We find from Pindar and the dramatists, that the worship and the mysteries of the Great Mother were common in Greece, particularly at Athens, in their time. (Pind, Pyth., 3, 137–Schol, ad loc.—Eurip., Hippol., 143.−ld, Bacch., 78.—Id., Hel., 1321.) The worship of Cybele, as has already been remarked, was introduced into Rome near the close of the second Punic war, A.U.C. 547, when a solemn embassy was sent to Attalus, king of Pergamus, to request the image at Pessinus, which had fallen from heaven. The monarch readily yielded compliance, and the goddess was conveyed to the Italian capital, where a stately temple was built to receive her, and a solemn festival, named the Megalesia, was celebrated every year in her honour. (Lit., 29, 14.—Orid, Fast., 4, 179, seqq.) As the Greeks had confounded her with Rhea, so the Latins made her one with their Ops, the goddess of the earth. (Lucret., 2, 598, seqq.—Virg, AEm., 3, 104 ...” &c.)

« PoprzedniaDalej »