Obrazy na stronie

ln the time of Polybius the Cretans had much degenerated from their ancient character, for he charges thein repeatedly with the grossest immorality and the most hateful vices. (Polyh., 4, 47.-Id. abul., 53.-Id., 6, 46.) We know also with what severity they are reproved by St. Paul, in the words of one of their own poets, Epimenides (Ep. Tit., 1, 12), Kpire; dei yellorat, kaka &mpia, yadrépec apyat.--The Romans did not interfere with the affairs of Crete before the war with Antiochus, when Q, Fabius Labeo crossed over into the island from Asia Minor, under pretence of claiming certain Roman captives who were detained there. (Lip., 37, 60.) Several years after, the island was invaded by a Roman army commanded by M. Antonius, under the pretence that the Cretans had secretly favoured the cause of Mithradates; but Florus more candidly avows, that the desire of conquest was the real motive which led to this attack (3, 7.-Compare Liv., Epit., 97). The enterprise, however, having failed, the subjugation of the island was not effected till some years later, by Metellus, who, from his success, obtained the agnomen of Creticus. (Liv., Epit., 99–Appian, Ercerpt. de Reb. Cret.—Flor., 3, 7.) It then became annexed to the Roman empire, and formed, together with Cyrenaica, one of its numerous provinces, being governed by the same proconsul. (Dio Cassius, 53, 12. – Strabo, 1198.)— Crete forms an irregular parallelogram, of which the western side faces Sicily, while the eastern looks towards Egypt; on the north it is washed by the Mare Creticum, and on the south by the Libyan Sea, which intervenes between the island and the opposite coast of Cyrene. The whole circumference of Crete was estimated at 4100 stadia by Artemidorus; but Sosicrates, who wrote a very accurate description of it, did not compute the periphery at less than 5000 stadia, Hieronymus also, in reckoning the length alone at 2000 stadia, must have exceeded the number given by Artemidorus. (Strabo, 474.) According to Pliny, the extent of Crete from east to west is about 270 miles, and it is nearly 539 in circuit. In breadth it nowhere exceeds 50 miles. Strabo observes, that the interior is very mountainous and woody, and intersected with fertile valleys. Mount Ida, which surpasses all the other summits in elevation, rises in the centre of the island ; its base occupies a circumference of nearly 600 stadia. To the west it is connected with another chain, called the white mountains (Aevkü Öpm), and to the east its prolongation forms the ridge anciently known by the name of Dicte. (Strabo, 475, 478.) The island contains no lakes, and the rivers are mostly mountain-torrents, which are dry during the summer season.—It has been remarked by several ancient writers, that Homer in one passage ascribes to Crete 100 cities Il., 2, 649), and in another only 90 (0d., 19, 174), a variation which has been accounted for on the supposition, that ten of the Cretan cities were foundd posterior to the siege of Troy; but, notwithstand.ng this explanation, which Strabo adopts from Ephorus, it seems rather improbable, that the poet should have paid less attention to historical accuracy in the Iliad than in the Odyssey, where it was not so much required. The difficulty may be solved by assuming, what has every appearance of being true, that the Odyssey was not the composition of Homer, but the work of a later age. Others affirmed, that during the siege of Troy the ten deficient cities had been destroyed by the enemies of Idomeneus. (Strabo, 479.—Compare Hoeck, Kreta, vol. 2, p. 437.) The modern name of Crete is Candia. Chalk was produced in great abundance here, and was hence called Creta Terra, or simply Creta. The valleys or sloping plains in modern Candia are very fertile. The greater portion of the land is not cultivated, but it might produce sugarcane, excellent wine, and the best kind of fruit; the exports are salt, grain, oil, honey,

silk, and wool. Crete abounds in wild sowl and disserent kinds of game. (Malte-Brun, Geogr., vol. 6, p. 166, Am. ed.—Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 3, p. 356, seqq.) The best work on the history of ancient Crete is that of Hoeck (Kreta, 3 vols. 8vo, Göttingen, 1823–29). CRETE, I, the wife of Minos. (Apollod, 3, 1.)— II. A daughter of Deucalion. (Id., 3, 3.) CRETEs, the inhabitants of Crete. (Virg., AEn., 4, 146.) Creisa, I. a daughter of Creon, king of Corinth, and wife of Jason. She received from Medea, as bridal presents, a diadem and robe, both of which had. been prepared with magic art, and saturated with deadly poisons. On arraying herself in these, flames burst forth, and fed upon and destroyed her. Creon, the father of the princess, perished in a similar way, having thrown himself upon the body of his dying daughter, and being afterward unable to extricate himself from the embrace of the corpse. (Eurip., Med., 781, seqq. —ld. ib., 1156, seqq.) According to the scholiast, she was also called Glauce. (Schol. ad Eurip., Med., 19.)—II. Daughter of Priam and Hecuba, and wife of AEneas. When Troy was surprised by the Greeks, she fled in the night with her husband, but they were separated during the confusion, nor was her absence observed until the other fugitives arrived at the spot appointed for assembling. Æneas a second time braved the perils of the burning city in quest of his wife. While he was distractedly seeking for her through every quarter of Troy, Creüsa appeared to him as a deified personage, and appeased his alarm by informing him, that she had been adopted by Cybele among her own attendant nymphs; and she then exhorted him to pursue his course to Italy, with an intimation of the good fortune that awaited him in that land. (Virg., AEn., 2, 562, seqq.) Creusis or Creusa (Kpeiicts or Kpeiida), a town of Boeotia, which Pausanias (9, 32) and Livy (36, 21) term the harbour of Thespiae. It was on the confines of the Megarean territory, and a difficult and dangerous road led along the shore from thence to AEgosthena, a seaport belonging to the latter. Xenophon, on two occasions, describes the Lacedæmonians as retreating from Boeotia by this route, with great hazard and labour, before the battle of Leuctra, when under the command of Cleombrotus, and again subsequent to that bloody conflict. (Hist. Gr., 5, 4, 17.-Ibid., 6, 4, 25.) Pausanias describes the navigation from the coast of the Peloponnesus to Creusa as dangerous, on account of the many headlands which it was necessary to double, and also from the violence of the winds blowing from the mountains (9, 32.-Compare Strabo, 405 and 409.—Ptol., p. 86). The position of Creusa seems to correspond with that of Livadostro, a well-frequented port, situated in a bay running inland towards the north, to which it gives its name. From Livadostro to Psato there is a path which winds around the western shore of the bay, at the base of Mount Cithaeron, and agrees very well with Xenophon's description. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 202, seqq.) Crimisus or Crimissus, I. a river of Sicily, in the western part of the island, flowing into the Hypsa. D'Anville makes the modern name Caltabellotta; but Mannert, the San Bartolomato. The orthography of the ancient word is given differently in different editions of Virgil. The true reading is Crimisus or Crimissus. (Consult Heyne, in War. Lect., ad Virg., AEm., 5, 38.—Cellarius, Geogr. Ant., vol. 1, p. 794.) —II. or Crimisa, a promontory, river, and town of Brutium, north of Crotona. The modern name of the promontory is Capo dell' Alice; of the river, the Fiumenica; the modern Ciro answers to the city. This place was said to have been founded by Philoc

tetes after the siege of Troy. (Strab., 254.—Steph Byz., s. v.–Lycophr., 911.)—III. The god of the river Crimisus in Sicily. He became, by a Trojan female, the father of Acestes or AEgestes. (Wid. AEgestes, and compare Serr., ad Virg., AEm., 1, 550.) Crispinus, I. a native of Alexandrea in Egypt, of mean, if not servile, origin. According to the scholiast on Juvenal (1,26), he was at first a paper-vender (xaprotonc), but became afterward a great favourite with Domitian, and was raised to equestrian rank. He was a man of infamous morals. (Schol., in cod. Schurz., ad Juv., l. c.—Schott, Obs., 5, 35.)—II. A ridiculous philosopher and poet in the time of Horace, and noted for garrulity. According to the scholiast (ad Horat., Serm., 1, 1, 120), he wrote some verses on the Stoic philosophy, and, on account of his verboseness and loquacity, received the appellation of dpetážoyoo. (Compare Döring, ad Horat., l.c.) Crispus, S.Allustius. Wid. Sallustius. Criss AEU's SINUs, an arm of the Sinus Corinthiacus, on the northern shore. It extends into the country of Phocis, and had at its head the town of Crissa, whence it took its name. Its modern name is the Gulf of Salona, from the modern city of Salona, the ancient Amphissa, which was the chief town of the Locri Ozola, and lay to the northeast of Delphi. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 151.) CrithEis, the reputed mother of Homer. (Wid. Homerus.) Critias, one of the thirty tyrants set over Athens by the Spartans. He was of good family, and a man of considerable talents, but of dangerous principles. He applied himself with great success to the culture of eloquence, which he had studied under Gorgias, and Cicero cites him among the public speakers of that day. (Brut, 7–De Orat., 2, 22.) He appears also to have had a talent for poetry, if we may judge from some fragments of his which have reached us. Critias turned his attention likewise to philosophical studies, and was one of the disciples of Socrates, whom, however, he quarrelled with and left. (Xen, Mem., 1, 2.) Being after this banished from Athens for some cause that is not known, he retired to Thessaly, where he excited an insurrection among the Penesta, or serss. (Consult Schneider, ad Xen, Hist. Gr., 2, 3, 36, et ad Xen, Mem., 1, 2, 24.) Subsequently to this he visited Sparta, and wrote a treatise on the laws and institutions of that republic. Returning to Athens along with Lysander, B.C. 404, he was appointed one of the thirty, his pride of birth and hatred of demagogues having pointed him out as a fit person for that

office. After a cruel and oppressive use of the power

thus conferred upon him, he sell in batttle against Thrasybulus and his followers. Plato, who was a relation of his, has made him one of the interlocutors in his Timaeus and Critias. (Xen., Hist. Gr., 2, 3–1d., 2, 4.)

Crito, I. a wealthy Athenian, the intimate friend and disciple of Socrates. When that philosopher was accused, he became security for him; and, after his condemnation, succeeded in bribing the keeper of the prison, so that Socrates, had he felt inclined, might easily have escaped. He is introduced, therefore, by Plato as an interlocutor in the dialogue called Crito, after his name. The remainder of his life is not known ; but, as he was nearly of the same age with Socrates, he could not have long survived him. Crito wrote seventeen dialogues, which are lost. (Plat., Crit.—Suid., &c.)—II. A Macedonian historian, who wrote an account of Pallene, of Persia, of the foundation of Syracuse, of the Getae, &c. (Suid, s. v.)— III. An Athenian sculptor, who, with Nicolaus, one of his fellow-citizens, made a statue intended as a support to a building. This work, belonging to the class of Caryatides, is still extant, and forms part of the collection at the Villa Albani. Winckelmann (vol. 6, p. 203) thinks he flourished about the time of Cicero (Sullig, Dict. Art., s. v.)

Critol Rus, I. a native of Phaselis in Lycia, who came to Athens to study philosophy, and became there, after the death of Ariston of Ceos, the head of the peripatetic school. He was sent by the Athenians, along with Carneades and Diogenes, on an embassy to Rome, B.C. 158, and acquired great reputation in that city, during his stay there, for his ability in speaking; a circumstance, however, which did not prevent his declaiming against the rhetorical art, which he considered prejudicial rather than useful. He lived more than eighty years. Critolaus strove to confirm, by new arguments, the doctrine of Aristotle respecting the eternity of the world. (Plut., de Eril., p. 605.— Cic, de Fin., 5, 5.—Stobaeus, Eclog. Phys., 1, 1.— Philo, Mund. Incorrupt., p. 943.)—II. A general of the Achaeans, and one of the principal authors of the war between the Romans and his countrymen, which ended in the subjugation of the latter. (Polyb., 38, 2.—Id., 38, 5, &c.) Criu-Metópon (Kptois Mériorov, i. e., “Ram's Front”), I. a promontory of the Tauric Chersonese, and the most southern point of that peninsula. It i now called Karadjebouroun, according to D'Anville which signifies, in the Turkish language, Black-nose Mannert, however, makes the modern name to be Ajadag, or the Holy Mountain.—II. A promontory of Crete, forming its southwestern extremity, now Cape Crio. (Plin., 4, 11.) Robyzi, a people between Mount Haemus and the Danube, in Lower Masia. Their territory lay in a northeastern direction from Philippopolis on the Hebrus. (Plin., 4, 12.) W CrocodiläPolis, a city of Egypt. (Wid. Arsinoë .) Crocus, a youth who, being unable to obtain the object of his affections, the nymph Smilax, |...} away, and was changed into the crocus, or “saffron.” Smilax herself was metamorphosed into the smilar, or “Oriental bindweed.” (Orld, Met., 4, 283.) Croesus, son of Alyattes, king of Lydia, and born about 591 B.C. He was the fifth and last of the Merinnada, a family which began to reign with Gyges, who dethroned Candaules. (Herod., 1, 14.) According to the author just quoted, Croesus was the son of Alyattes by a Carian mother, and had a half-brother, named Pantaleon, the offspring of an Ionian female. An attempt was made by a private foe of Croesus to hinder his accession to the throne, and to place the kingdom in the hands of Pantaleon; but the plot failed (Herod., 1, 92), although Stobacus (Serm., 45) informs us, that Croesus, on coming to the throne, divided the kingdom with his brother. Plutarch states, that the second wife of Alyattes, wishing to remove Croesus, gave a female baker in the royal household a dose of poison to put into the bread she made for Croesus. The woman informed Croesus, and gave the poisoned bread to the queen's children, and the prince, out of gratitude, consecrated at Delphia golden image of this female three cubits high. (Plut, de Pyth. Orac.—Op., ed. Reiske, vol. 7, p. 580–Herod., 1, 51.) Croesus ascended the throne on the death of his father, B.C. 560, and immediately undertook the subjugation of the Greek communities of Asia Minor (the AEolians, Ionians, and Dorians), whose disunited state, and almost continual wars with one another, rendered his task an easy one. He contented himself, however, after reducing them beneath his sway, with merely imposing an annual tribute, and left their forms of government unaltered. when this conquest was effected, he turned his thoughts to the construction of a fleet, intending to attack the islands, but was dissuaded from his purpose by Bias of Priene. (Herod., 1, 27), Turning his arms, upon this, against the nations of Asia Minor, he subjected all the country lying west of the river Halys, except Cilicia and Lycia; and then applied himself to the arts of peace, and to the patronage "...} scietices and of literature. He oc.ne samed for his riches and munificence. Poets and philosophers were invited to his court, and, among others, Solon, the Athenian, is said to have visited his captital, Sardis. Herodotus relates the conversation which took place between the 'atter and Croesus on the subject of human felicity, in which the Athenian offended the Lydian monarch by he little value which he attached to riches as a means of happiness. (Herod., 1, 30.) This anecdote, however, appeared encumbered with chronological difficulties, even to the ancients (Plut., Wit. Sol., c. 27), and has given rise to considerable discussions in modern times. (Consult Larcher, Chronol. d'Herod., vol. 7, p. 205, seqq.—Clarier, Histoire des premiers temps de la Grèce, vol. 2, p. 324. — Schultz, Apparat, ad Annall. Crit. Rer. Gratc., p. 16, seqq. Bühr, ad Herodot., 1, 30.) Not long after this, Croesus had the misfortune to lose his son Atys (vid. Atys); but the deep affliction into which this loss plunged him was dispelled in some degree, after two years of mourning, by a feeling of disquiet relative to the movements of Cyrus and the increasing power of the Persians. Wishing to form an alliance with the Greeks of Europe against the danger which threatened him, a step which had been recommended by the oracle at bj, (Herod., 1, 53), he addressed himself, for this purpose, to the Lacedæmonians, at that time the most powerful of the Grecian communities, and having succeeded in his object, and made magnificent presents to the Delphic shrine, he resolved on open hostilities with the Persians. The art of the crafty priesthood who managed the machinery of the oracle at Delphi is nowhere more clearly shown than in the history of their royal dupe, the monarch of Lydia. He had lavished upon their temple the most splendid gifts; so splendid, in fact, that we should be tempted to suspect Herodotus of exaggeration if his account were not confirmed by other writers. And the recipients of this bounty, in their turn, put him off with an answer of the most studied ambiguity when he consulted their far-famed oracle on the subject of a war with the Persians. The response of Apollo was, that is Craesus made war upon this people, he would destroy a great empire; and the answer of Amphiaraus (for his oracle, too, was consulted by the Lydian king), tended to the same effect. (Herod., 1, 53.) The verse itself, containing the response of the oracle, is given by Diodorus (Excerpt., 7, § 28), and is as follows: Kpoigos, "AZvy 6tabac, ugyū2 m. dpov karažūget, “Crasus, on having crossed the Halys, will destroy a great empire,” the river Halys being, as already remarked, the boundary of his dominions to the east. (Compare Cic., de Div., 2, 56.-Aristot., Rhet., 3, 4.) Croesus thought, of course, the kingdom thus referred to was that of Cyrus; the issue, however, proved it to be his own. Having assembled a numerous army, the Lydian monarch crossed the Halys, invaded the territory of Cyrus, and a battle took place in the district of Pteria, but without any decisive result. Croesus, upon this, thinking his forces not sufficiently numerous, marched back to Sardis, disbanded his army, consisting entirely of mercenaries, and sent for succour to Amasis of Egypt, and also to the Lacedæmonians, determining to attack the Persians again in the beginning of the next spring. But Cyrus did not allow him time to effect this. Having discovered that it was the intention of the Lydian king to break up his present army, he marched with all speed into Lydia, before a new mercenary force could be assembled, defeated Croesus (who had no force at his command but his Lydian cavalry), in the battle of Thymbra, shut him up in Sardis, and took the city itself after a siege of fourteen days, and in the fourteenth year of the reign of the son of Alyattes. With Croesus fell the empire of the Lydians. Herodotus relates two incredible stories connected with this event; one having reference to the dumb son of Croesus, who spoke for the first time

when he saw a soldier in the act of killing his father. and, by the exclamation which he uttered, saved his parent's life, the soldier being ignorant of his rank, and the other being as follows: Croesus having been made prisoner, a pile was erected, on which he was placed in order to be burned alive. After keeping silence for a long time, the royal captive heaved a deep sigh, and with a groan thrice pronounced the name of Solon. Cyrus sent to know the reason of this exclamation, and Croesus, after considerable delay, acquainted him with the conversation between himself and Solon, in which the latter had discoursed with so much wisdom on the instability of human happiness. The Persian monarch, relenting upon this, gave orders for Croesus to be released. But the flames had already begun to ascend on every side of the pile, and all human aid proved ineffectual. In this emergency Croesus prayed earnestly to Apollo, the god on whom he had lavished so many splendid offerings; that deity heard his prayer, and a sudden and heavy fall of rain extinguished the flames' (Herod., 1, 86, seqq.) This story must be decidedly untrue, as it is not possible to conceive that the Persians would employ fire, which to them was a sacred element, in punishing a criminal. Croesus, after this, stood high in the favour of Cyrus, who profited by his advice on several important occasions; and Ctesias says that the Persian monarch assigned him for his residence a city near Ecbatana. This prince, in his last moments, recommended Croesus to the care of his son and successor Cambyses, and entreated the Lydian, on the other hand, to be an adviser to his son. Croesus discharged this duty with so much fidelity as to give offence to the new monarch, who ordered him to be put to death. Happily for him, they who were charged with this order hesitated to carry it into execution; and Cambyses, soon after, having regretted his precipitation, Croesus was again brought into his presence, and restored to his former favour. The rest of his history is unknown. As he was advanced in years, he could not have long survived Cambyses. (Herod, 3, 36, seqq. —Compare Bühr, ad Ctes., p. 102, seqq.—Creuzer, Fragm. Hist., p. 207, seqq.—Nic. Damasc., in Excerpt. Wales., p. 457, seqq.) The wealth of Croesus was proverbial in the ancient world, and one source of supply was in the gold ore washed down by the Pactolus from Mount Timolus in Lydia. (Compare Erasmus, chil. 1, cent. 6, col. 216.-Strab., 610,625.-Virg., AEn., 10, 141. —Senec., Phaen., 604.—Juvenal, Sat., 14, 298.) CRox11 or Crom Ni, a town of Arcadia, in the district Cromitis, mentioned by Xenophon as a place of some strength. It is thought by Sir W. Gell to correspond with Crano, two hours and forty-seven minutes from Sinano, or Megalopolis. (Itin. of the Morea, p. 99.) Crow MYox, a small place in Corinthia, on the shore of the Saronic Gulf, south of the Megarean frontier. It was celebrated in mythology as the haunt of a wild boar destroyed by Theseus. (Plut., Wit. Thes, Plat, Lach, p. 196—Strabo, 380.) Pausanias says it was named after Crommus, son of Neptune. From Thucydides (4, 44) it appears that Crommyon was 120 stadia from Corinth. The little hamlet of Canetta or Kinetta is generally thought to occupy the site of this ancient town. (Chandler's Travels, vol. 2, ch. 43.−Gell's Itin., p. 209.) Crophi, a mountain of Egypt, between Elephantina and Syene. Between this mountain and another called Mophi were the sources of the Nile, according to a foolish statement made to Herodotus by an Egyptian priest at Sais. (Herodot., 2, 28.) CRotöNA or CRoto (Kpétwy), now Cotrone, a powerful city of Italy, in the Brutionum ager, on the coast of the Sinus Tarentinus. Its foundation is ascribed to Myscellus, an Achaean leader, soon after Sybaris had been colonized by a party of the same nation, which was about 715 A.C. (Antioch., Syrac., ap.

Strab., 262.) According to some traditions, the origin of Crotona was much more ancient, and it is said to derive its name from one hero Croton. (Orid, Metam., 15, 53.—Compare Heracl., Pont. Fragm., p. 20.Duod. Suc., 4, 24.) The residence of Pythagoras and his most distinguished followers in this city, together with the overthrow of Sybaris which it accomplished, and the exploits of Milo and of several other Crotonia. victors in the Olympic Games, contributed in a high degree to raise its fame. Its climate, also, was proverbially excellent, and was supposed to be particularly calculated for producing in its inhabitants that robust frame of body requisite to ensure success in gymnastic contests. Hence it was commonly said, that the last athlete of Crotona was the first of the other Greeks. (Strabo, 262.) This city was also celebrated for its school of medicine, and was the birthplace of Democedes, who long enjoyed the reputation of being the first physician of Greece. (Herodot, 3, 131.) However brilliant an epoch in the history of Crotona its triumph over Sybaris may appear, that event must be regarded also as the term of her greatness and prosperity ; for from this period it is said that luxury and the love of pleasure, the usual consequences of great opulence, soon obliterated all the good effects which had been produced by the wisdom and morality of Pythagoras, and conspired to enervate that hardihood and vigour for which the Crotoniatae had hitherto been so peculiarly distinguished. (Polyb., Fragm., 7, 1, and 10, 1.—Tim., ap. Athen., 12, 4.) As a proof of the remarkable change which took place in the warlike spirit of this people, it is said that, on their being subsequently engaged in hostilities with the Locrians, an army of 130,000 Crotoniatae were routed by 10,000 of the enemy on the banks of the Sagras. Such was, indeed, the loss they experienced in this battle, that, according to Strabo, their city henceforth rapidly declined, and could no longer maintain the rank it had long held among the Italiot republics. (Strabo, 261.) According to Justin (20, 2), it is true, a much earlier date ought to be assigned to this event; but the accounts which Strabo has followed evidently regarded it as subsequent to the fall of Sybaris, and probability rather favours such an arrangement in the order of events. (Consult Heyne, de Cirit. Grac., prolus. 10, in Op. Acad., vol. 2, p. 184.) Dionysius the elder, who was then aiming at the subversion of all the states of Magna Græcia, having surprised the citadel, gained possession of the town, which, however, he did not long retain. (Lir. 24, 3.) Crotona was finally able to assert its independence against his designs, as well as the attacks of the Bruti: ; and when Pyrrhus invaded Italy, it was still a considerable city, extending on both banks of the AEsarus, and its walls embracing a circumference of twelve miles. But the consequences of the war which ensued with that king proved so ruinous to its prosperity, that above one half of its extent became deserted; the Esarus, which flowed through the town, now ran at some distance from the inhabited part, which was again separated from the fortress by a vacant space. Such is the picture which Livy draws of the state of this city after the battle of Cannae, at which period almost all the Greek colonies abandoned the Roman cause. Crotona was then occupied by the Brutti, with the exception of the citadel, in which the chief inhabitants had taken refuge; these being unable to defend the place against a Carthaginian force, soon after surrendered, and were allowed to withdraw to Locri (Lar. 24, 2 and 3.) Crotona eventually fell again into the hands of the Romans, A.U.C. 560, and a colony was established here. Pliny merely speaks of it as an Oppidum, without adding a single remark respecting its importance. It became a place of some consequence in the time of Belisarius, who made it, on account of its position, a chief point in his operations along the coast. (Procop., B. Goth., 3, 28, et

14, 26.) Its harbour, however, does not seem to have
been any of the best, or well calculated to afford pro-
tection against storms and winds. It was rather what
Polybius calls (10, 1) a summer-harbour. (Cramer's
Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 391, seqq.—Mannert, Geogr.,
vol. 9, pt. 2, p. 210.)
CrotontxtA, the inhabitants of Crotona.
de Inn., 2, 1.) -
Crotoni Atis (; Kporavtårts topa), a part of Italy,
of which Crotona was the capital. (Thucyd., 7, 35.)
Crustume RiuM or CRU stumium, a town of the
Sabines, in the vicinity of Fidena, and, like Fidenæ,
founded by a colony from Alba. (Dion. Hal., 2, 53.)
Its great antiquity is also attested by Virgil (Æn., 7,
629), and by Silius Italicus (8, 367). From Pliny (3,
5) we learn that the Crustumini were vanquished by
Romulus, and that a settlement was formed in their
territory. The fertility of their lands is extolled by
more than one writer. Their city, however, was not
finally conquered till the reign of the elder Tarquin.
(Lir, 1, 38 ). The name of Crustumini Colles ap-
ears to have been given to the ridge of which the
ons Sacer formed a part, since Varro, speaking of
the secession of the Roman people to that hill, terms
it Secessio Crustumerina. (L. L., 3, 1.) The tribe
called Crustumina evidently derived its name from
this ancient city. (Lir, 42, 34.) The ruins of Crus-
tumerium are said to exist in a place now called Mar-
cigliano Vecchio. (Vulp., Vet. Lat , lib. 18, c. 17.—
Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 1, p. 303, seqq.)
Ctesias, I, a Greek historian and physician of Cni-
dus, who flourished in the time of Artaxerxes Mnemon.
(Suidas, s. v.–Xen... Anab., 1, 8, 27.-Diod. Sic.,
1, 32.) He was of the family of the Asclepiades, who
possessed the art of healing as a patrimony, inherited
from their great progenitor Æsculapius. (Galen, vol.
5, p. 652, l. 51, ed. Basil.) Ctesias assisted at the
battle of Cunaxa, B.C. 401, but it is not precisely
known whether he was in the army of Cyrus or in
that of Artaxerxes. He merely states that he healed
the wound received by the latter during the conflict.
In speaking, however, of the death of §. the
Grecian commander, which took place a short time
after the battle, he informs us, that he was then the
physician of Parvsatis, the mother of Artaxerxes,
which would render it very probable that he was from
the first in the suite of the king, and not in that of his
brother. (Compare Bühr, ad Ctes., p. 16, Proleg.)
He passed, after this, seventeen years at the court of
Persia. Ctesias composed a History of Assyria and
Persia, entitled IIepauká, in 23 books, written in the
Ionic dialect. In writing this, he obtained great as:
sistance, as well from the oral communications of the
Persians as from the archives of the empire, to which
he states that he had access, and in which appear to
have been deposited those royal documents which Di-
odorus Siculus calls Baat?, Rai Öothpat. These an-
mals contained rather the history of the court and the
monarchs of Persia than that of the state itself.
What we possess at present of the history of Ctesias,
induces the belief, that it was precisely in this circle
of events that the work of Ctesias just mentioned was
principally taken up. It is by means of quotations
given by Athenaeus, and more particularly by Plutarch,
that we are made acquainted with some fragments of
the first six hooks, which turned entirely on the history
of Assyria. We have an extract, in a somewhat more
complete order, from the seventeen books that imme-
diately follow : Photius has placed it in his Bibliothe-
ca. Ctesias wrote also a history of India ('Ivoirá), in
one book, from which Photius has also . an ex-
tract.—On many points Ctesias is in contradiction with
Herodotus, whom he accuses of dealing in fable; and
also with Xenophon. He has been charged, in his
turn, with being, on many occasion; negligent of the
truth. What has principally injured the* o:

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Ctesias is his system of chronology, which is more disficult to be reconciled with that of the Scriptures than the one adopted by Herodotus. It must be observed, however, that, among the ancient writers, Plutarch is the only one who shows little respect for Ctesias; whereas Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Diodorus Siculus, Strabo, Pliny, and even Xenophon himself, his contemporary, cite him with praise, or at least without contradicting him. It may reasonably be asked, moreover, which of the two ought to have been better acquainted with the subject of which they treat, Herodotus or Ctesias | Herodotus, who speaks only of the affairs of Persia on the testimony of others, and who wrote at a period when the Greeks had as yet but little intercourse with Persia; or Ctesias, who had passed many years at Susa, where he enjoyed so high a reputation as to be charged with the management of some important negotiations ! (Gedoyn, Mem., de l'Acad, des Inscr., &c., vol. 14, p. 247, seqq.)—What has just been said, however, refers merely to the work of Ctesias on Persia. His history of India is crowded with sables. Heeren (Ideen, vol. 1, p. 323) seeks to justify Ctesias, on the ground that he details merely those of the myths of India which were in the mouths of the vulgar in Persia. Cuvier also observes, that Ctesias has by no means imagined the fantastic animals of which he speaks, but that he has fallen into the mistake of ascribing an actual existence to the hieroglyphic figures, which are remarked at the present day among the ruins of Persepolis. We there find, for example, the martichora, that fabulous animal which was the symbol or hieroglyphic of royal power. Many other fables are to be explained by the ignorance of the laws of nature, which was so great among the ancients.-The fragments of Ctesias are to be found appended to various editions of Herodotus. A separate edition was given by Lion, in 1825, 8vo, Gotting., and another by Bähr, in 1834, 8vo, Francof. This last is decidedly the best. The editor has not contented himself with giving an accurate text, corrected by the aid of manuscripts, but in his commentary he explains the text, with reference to history, geography, &c., and seeks also to justify Ctesias against most of the charges alleged to his discredit. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 2, p. 176, seqq —ld., vol. 7, p. 436.)— II. An Ephesian, who also wrote on Persian affairs (Consult Vossius, de Hist. Grate., 3, p. 349.)—III. An artist, mentioned by Pliny (34, 29) as having flourished, along with other carvers in silver, after the time of Myron.—IV. A spendthrift and debauched person. Some verses of the comic poets Anaxilas and Philetaerus against him are preserved in Athenaeus (10, p. 416, d.) Ctesibius, a native of Ascra, and contemporary of Archimedes, who flourished during the reigns of Ptolemy II. and Ptolemy III., or between 260 and 240 B.C. He was the son of a barber, and for some time exercised at Alexandrea the calling of his parent. His mechanical genius, however, soon caused him to emerge from obscurity, and he became known as the inventor of several very ingenious contrivances for raising water, &c. The invention of clepsydra, or water clocks, is also ascribed to him. (Compare Witruvius, 9, 9.) He wrote a work on hydraulic machines, which is now lost. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr, vol. 3, p. 363.) Ctesiphon, I. an Athenian, who brought forward the proposition respecting the crown of gold, which the Athenians, on his motion, decreed to Demosthenes for his public services. He was accused and brought to trial for this by AEschines, but was successfully defended by Demosthenes. This controversy gave rise to the two famous and rival orations concerning “the Crown.” (Vid. AF'schines, Demosthenes.)—II. A city of Parthia, situate on the eastern

bank of the Tigris, opposite to, and distant three miles:

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It was sounded by Wardanes, sortified by Pacorus, and became the metropolis of the whole Parthian empire. Ctesiphon was at first an inconsiderable village, but the camp of the Parthian monarchs being frequently pitched in its vicinity, caused it gradually to become a large city. In A.D. 165 it was taken by the Romans, and again 33 years after by the Emperor Severus. (Dio Cass., 75, 9.-Spartian, Wit. Sev., 16–Herodian, 3, 30.) Notwithstanding, however, its losses, it succeeded to Babylon and Seleucia as one of the great capitals of the East. In the time of Julian, Ctesiphon was a great and flourishing city; and Coche, as the only remaining part of Seleucia was called, was merely its suburb. To these two have been assigned the modern epithet of “Al Modain,” or “the cities.” They are now both in ruins. Ctesiphon never recovered its sack by the Saracens, A.D. 637. This place was the winter residence of the Parthian and Persian monarchs. In summer they dwelt at Ecbatana in Media. (Strabo, 743.−Plin., 6, 26.—Mannert, Geogr., vol. 5, p. 406.) Cul.Áko, a city of the Allobroges, in Gallia Narbonensis, on the banks of the Isara. On being rebuilt by Gratian, it took the name of Gratianopolis, and is now Grenoble. (Cic., Ep. ad Fam., 10, 23.—Paul Warnefr., de Gest. Longob , 3, 8.) CUMAE, I. a city of Æolis, in Asia Minor. (Wid. Cyme.)—II. A city of Campania in Italy, northwest of Neapolis. It was placed on a rocky hill washed by the sea; and the same name is still attached to the ruins which lie scattered around its base. Whatever doubt may have been thrown on the pretensions of many other Italian towns to a Greek origin, those of Cumae seem to stand on grounds too firm and indisputable to be called in question. It is agreed upon by all ancient writers who have adverted to this city, that it was founded at a very early period by some Greeks of Euboea, under the conduct of Hippocles of Cumae and Megasthenes of Chalcis. (Strabo, 243–Thucyd., 6. 4.—Lir., 8, 22.) The Latin poets, moreover, with Virgil at their head, all distinguish Cumae by the title of the Euboic city. (AEn., 6, 2–Orid, Met., 14, 154. —Lucan, 5, 195—Martial, 9, 30.-Statius, Sylp., 4, 3.)—The period at which Cumae was founded is stated in the chronology of Eusebius to have been about 1050 B.C., that is, a few years before the great migration of the Ionians into Asia Minor, (Compare Scaliger, ad Euseb., Chron., and Prudeaux, Not ad Marm. Oxon., p. 146.) We have also the authority of Strabo (l.c.) for considering it as the most ancient of all the Grecian colonies in both Italy and Sicily. The colonization of Cumae at this early period is a remarkable event, as showing the progress already made by the Greeks in the art of navigation, and proving also that they were then well acquainted with Italy. (Compare Müller, Etrusker, vol. 1, p. 167.) Hence Blum is of opinion, that to an early intercourse between Rome and Cumae, by means of commercial operations, is to be ascribed the AEolic character which so clearly develops itself in the forms of the most ancient Latin. (Eunleitung in Roms alte Geschichte, p. 89.) Strabo also informs us, that from its commencement the state of the colony was most flourishing. The fertility of the surrounding country, and the excellent harbours which the coast afforded, soon rendered it one of the most powerful cities of southern Italy, and enabled it to form settlements along the coast, and to send out colonies as far as Sicily. When Campania placed itself under the protection of Rome, Cumae followed the example of that province, and obtained soon after the privileges of a municipal city. (Lir., 8, 14, and 23, 31 ) In the second Punic war it was attacked by Hannibal, but, by the exertions of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, it was vigorously and successfully defended. (Liz., 23, 37.) This city became a Roman colony in the reign of Augustus but, owing to the superior attractions

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