Obrazy na stronie

was a very active and inveterate foe to the Athenians, and did them considerable mischief in the Chersonese. Cotys was assassinated by Python and Heraclides, who received each from the Athenians, as a recompense for the deed, the rights of citizenship and a golden crown. (Demosth., contra Aristocr—Aristot, Polit., 5, 10.-Palmer, ad Demosth., contr. Arist., 30)—II. A king of Thrace, who sent his son Sadales, at the head of five hundred horse, to the aid of Pompey, in his contest with Caesar. (Cars., Bell. Cir., 3, 4–Compare Lucan, 5, 54, and Cortius, ad loc.)—III. A king of Thrace in the time of Augustus, slain by his uncle Rhescuporis, B.C. 15. He was a prince of a literary turn, and Ovid addressed to him one of his epistles from the Euxine (Ep. ex: Ponto, 2,9.—Tacit., Ann, 2, 66, &c.)—IV. Son of Manes, succeeded his father on the throne of Lydia. (Herod., 4, 45.-Consult Ritter, Vorhalle, p. 365)—-V. A king of the Odrysae, in Thrace, who favoured the interests of Perses against the Romans. (Lip., 42, 29.) Corytto, or Cotys, a goddess worshipped by the Thracians, and apparently identical with the Phrygian Cybele. Her worship was introduced at Athens and Corinth, where it was celebrated, in private, with great indecency and licentiousness. The priests of the so were called Bapta. A full account of all that the ancients have left us in relation to this deity, may be found in Buttmann (Mythologus, vol. 2, c. 19, p. 159, seqq., “Ueber die Kotyttia und die Bapta”) and in Lobeck (Aglaophamus, p. 1007, seqq.—Epimetrum xi., ad. c. 8). CRAGus, I, a chain of mountains running along the coast of Lycia. It rises precipitously from the sea, and, from the number of detached summits which it offers to the spectator in that direction, it has not unaptly been called by the Turks Yedi Bouroun, or the Seven Capes. Strabo, however, assigns to it eight summits. (Strab, 665.) This same writer also places in the range of Cragus the famed Chimaera. (Wid. Chimaera.) Scylax calls Cragus, however, a promontory, and makes it the separation of Lycia and Caria (p. 39–Compare Plin., 5, 28)—II. A town of Lycia, in the vicinity of the mountain-ranges of the same name. (Strab., 665.) The authority of Strabo is confirmed by coins. (Sestini, p. 92.—Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, 245, seqq.) Cr ANA1, a surname of the Athenians, from their King Cranaus. (Wid. Cranaus.) CRANKUs, the successor of Cecrops on the throne of Attica. He married Pedias, and the offspring of their union was Atthis. (Consult remarks under the article Cecrops.) CRANii, a town of Cephallenia, situate, according to Strabo, in the same gulf with Pale. (Strab., 456. —Thucyd, 2, 34–Lit., 38, 28.) The Athenians established the Messenians here, upon the abandonment of Pylos by the latter, when that fortress was restored to the Lacedæmonians. (Thucyd., 5,35.) Dr. Holland says, “this city stood on an eminence at the upper end of the bay of Argostoli; and its walls may yet be traced nearly in their whole circumference,” which he conceives to be nearly two miles. The structure is that usually called Cyclopian. (Vol. 1, p. 55.-Dodwell, vol. 1, p. 75.) CRANoN and CRANNoN, a city of Thessaly, on the river Onchestus, southeast of Pharsalus. Near it was a fountain, the water of which warmed wine when mixed with it, and the heat remained for two or three days. (Athenæus, 2, 16.) CRAN roR, a philosopher of Soli, among the pupils of Plato, B.C. 310. He was the first who wrote commentaries on the works of Plato. Crantor was highly celebrated for the purity of his moral doctrine, as may be inferred from the praises bestowed by the ancients, especially by Cicero, upon his discourse “on grief.” Horace also (Ep., 1, 2, 3) alludes to his high reputa.

tion as a moral instructer. (Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 248, seqq.) CRAssus, I. Lucius Licinius, a Roman orator and man of consular rank. In A.U.C. 633, being only twenty-one years of age, he made his debut in the Forum, in a prosecution against C. Carbo. Cicero says, that he was remarkable, even at this early period, for his candour and his great love of justice. Crassus was but twenty-seven years old when his eloquence obtained the acquittal of his relation, the vestal Licinia. Being elevated to the consulship in 657, he was the author of a law, by which numbers of the allies, who passed for Roman citizens, were sent back to their respective cities. This law alienated from him the affections of the principal Italians, so that he was regarded by some as the primary cause of the social war, which broke out three years after. Having Hither Gaul for his province, Crassus freed the country from the robbers that infested it, and for this service had the weakness to claim a triumph. The senate were favourable to his application; but Scaevola, the other consul, opposed it, on the ground that he had not conquered foes worthy of the Roman people. Crassus conducted himself, in other respects, with great wisdom in his government, and not only did not remove from around him the son of Carbo, who had come as a spy on his conduct, but even placed him by his side on the tribunal, and did nothing of which the other was not a witness. Being appointed censor in 659, he caused the school of the Latin rhetoricians to be closed, regarding them as dangerous innovators for the young. Crassus left hardly any orations behind him; and he died while Cicero was yet in his boyhood: but still that author, having collected the opinions of those who had heard him, speaks with a minute, and apparently perfect, intelligence of his style of oratory. He was what may be called the most ornamental speaker that had hitherto appeared in the Forum. Though not without force, gravity, and dignity, these were happily blended with the most insinuating politeness, urbanity, ease, and gayety. He was master of the most pure and accurate language, and of perfect elegance of expression, without any affectation, or unpleasant appearance of previous study. Great clearness of language distinguished all his harangues; and, while descanting on topics of law or equity, he possessed an inexhaustible fund of argument and illustration. Some persons considered Crassus as only equal to Antonius, his great contemporary; others preferred him as the more perfect and accomplished orator. The language of Crassus was indisputably preferable to that of Antonius; but the action and gesture of the latter were as incontestably superior to those of Crassus. As a public speaker Crassus was remarkable for his diffidence in the opening of a speech, a diffidence which never forsook him ; and, after the practice of a long life at the bar, he was frequently so much agitated in the exordium of a discourse, as to grow pale and tremble in every joint of his frame. The most splendid of all the efforts of Crassus was the immediate cause of his death, which happened A.U.C. 662, a short while before the commencement of the civil wars of Marius and Sylla, and a few days after the time in which he is supposed to have borne his part in the dialogue “De Oratore.” The consul Philippus had declared, in one of the assemblies of the people, that some other advice must be resorted to, since, with such a senate as then existed, he could no longer direct the affairs of the government. A full senate being immediately summoned, Crassus arraigned, in terms of the most glowing eloquence, the conduct of the consul, who, instead of acting as the political parent and guardian of the senate, sought to deprive its members of their ancient inheritance of respect and dignity. Being farther irritated by an attempt, on the part of Philippus, to force him into compliance with his de

signs, he exerted, on this occasion, the utmost effort of his genius and strength; but he returned home with a pleuritic sever, of which he died seven days after. This oration of Crassus, followed, as it was, by his almost immediate death, made a deep impression on his countrymen; who, long afterward, were wont to repair to the senate-house for the purpose of viewing the spot where he had last stood, and where he fell, as it may be said, in defence of the privileges of his order. (Dunloy's Rom. Lit., vol. 2, p. 215, seqq.)—II. Marcus, was praetor A.U.C. 648. (Cic, de Fun., 5, 30.) He was surnamed by his friends Agelastus ("Ayo Aaaroo), because, according to Pliny (7, 19), he never laughed during the whole course of his life; or because, according to Lucillus, he laughed but once. (Cic, de Fin., 5, 30.)—III. Marcus Licinius, surnamed the Rich, grandson of the preceding, and the most opulent Roman of his day, was of a patrician family, and the son of a man of consular rank. His father and brother perished by the proscriptions of Marius and Cinna while he was still quite young, and, to avoid a similar fate, he took refuge in Spain until the death of Cinna, when he returned to Italy and served under Sylla. Crassus proved very serviceable to this commander in the decisive battle that was fought near Rome; but afterward, making the most unjust and rapacious use of Sylla's proscriptions, that leader, according to Plutarch, gave him up, and never employed him again in any public affair. The glory which was then beginning to attend upon Pompey, though still young and only a simple member of the equestrian order, excited the jealousy of Crassus, and, despairing of rising to an equality with him in warlike operations, he betook himself to public affairs at home, and, by paying court to the people, defending the impeached, lending money, and aiding those who were candidates sir office, he attained to an influence almost equal to that which Pompey nad acquired by his military Achievements. It was at the bar, in particular, that Crashus rendered himself extremely popular. He was not, it would seem, a very eloquent speaker, yet •y care and application he eventually exceeded those whom nature had more highly favoured. When Pomey, and Caesar, and Cicero declined speaking in be|. of any individual, he often arose, and advocated the cause of the accused. Besides this promptness to aid the unfortunate, his courteous and conciliating deportment acquired for him many friends, and made him very popular with the lower orders. There was not a Roman, however humble, whom he did not salute, or whose salutation he did not return by name. The great defect, however, in the character of Crassus, was his inordinate fondness for wealth; and, although he could not strictly be called an avaricious man, since he is said to have lent money to his friends without demanding interest, yet he allowed the love of riches to exercise a paramount sway over his actions, and it proved at last the cause of his unhappy end. Plutarch informs us, that his estate at first did not exceed three hundred talents, but that afterward it amounted to the enormous sum of seven thousand one hundred talents (nearly $7,500,000). The means by which he attained to this are enumerated by the same writer, and some of them are singular enough. Observing, says Plutarch, how liable the city was to fires, he made it his business to buy houses that were on fire and others that joined upon them; and he commonly got them at a low price, on account of the fear and distress of the owners about the result. A band of his slaves thereupon, regularly organized for the purpose, exerted themselves to extinguish the flames, and, after this was done, rebuilt what had been destroyed, and in this way Crassus gradually became the owner of a large portion of Rome. He gained large sums also by educating and then selling slaves. Plutarch, in fact, regards this as his principal source of revenue. With all this

eager graspirg after wealth, however, Crassus appears to have been no mean soldier, even though he displayed so few of the qualities of a commander in his Parthian campaign. Created praetor A.U.C. 680, he was sent to terminate the war with Spartacus. He accordingly met, defeated him in several encounters, and at last bringing him to a decisive action, ended the war by a single blow, Spartacus and forty thousand of his sollowers being left on the field. Not venturing to de

mand a triumph for a victory over gladiators and slaves, he contented himself with an ovation. In 682 Crassus obtained the consulship, having Pompey for his colleague. At a subsequent period we find him implicated by an informer in the conspiracy of Catiline, but acquitted by acclamation the moment the charge was heard by the senate. We now come to the closing scene in the career of Crassus. When Caesar, on returning from his government to solicit the consulship, found Pompey and Crassus at variance (which had been the case also during almost all the time that they were colleagues in the consular office), and perceived, that, for the furtherance of his own ambitious views, the aid of these two individuals would be needed by him for opposing the influence of the senate, as well as that of Cicero, Cato, and Catulus, he managed to reconcile them, and soon, in conjunction with both of them, formed the well-known league usually styled the First Triumvirate, which proved so fatal to the liberties of the Roman people. By the terms of this compact Crassus obtained the government of Syria. In the law that was passed relative to this government of Crassus, no mention was indeed made of any war in its neighbourhood; still every one knew that he had connected with it an immediate invasion of Parthia. Plutarch even states, that he had fixed upon neither Syria nor Parthia as the limits of his expected good fortune, but intended to penetrate even to Bactria, India, and the shores of the Eastern Ocean. The only motive to this memorable and unfortunate undertaking was the rapacious love of wealth. It was not, however, without considerable opposition from the people and the tribunes that Crassus was allowed to proceed on this expedition. All the influence of Pompey was necessary to prevent an expression of popular wrath, for no good was expected to result from hostilities against a people who had done the Romans no injury, and who were, in fact, their allies. When Crassus, moreover, had reached the gate of the city, the tribune Ateius attempted to stop him by force; but, failing in this, he immediately proceeded to perform a religious ceremony of the most appalling nature, by which he devoted the commander himself, and all who should follow him on that service, to the wrath of the infernal gods and a speedy destruction. Undismayed, however, by either denunciations or omens (vid. Caunus), Crassus, embarking at Brundisium, proceeded into Asia by Macedonia and the Hellespont. As the enemy were not prepared for this unprovoked invasion, the Romans met with no resistance. At first Crassus overran the greater part of Mesopotamia; and, had he taken advantage of the consternation into which his sudden appearance had thrown the Parthians, he might, with the greatest ease, have extended his conquest to Babylonia itself. But the season being far advanced, he did not think it ex

pedient to proceed. On the contrary, having left in the different towns and strongholds a detachment of 7000 foot and 1000 horse, he returned into Syria, and took up his winter quarters in that province. This retrograde movement was a fatal error. His occupations, too, during the winter were highly censurable, having more of the trader in them than the general. Instead of improving the discipline of the soldiers, and keeping them in proper exercise, he spent his time in making inquiry relative to the revenues of the cities, and in weighing the treasures which he found in the temple of Hierapolis.

In the spring the Roman com- suits.

While they lived, their friendship continued

mander took the field, on the frontiers of Syria, with inviolate, and they were both buried in the same

seven legions, four thousand horse, and an equal num- grave.

ber of light or irregular troops. again passed the Euphrates, when he was joined by an Arabian chief, whom Plutarch calls Ariamnes, but who is elsewhere named Acbarus or Abgarus; and in this barbarian, owing to his knowledge of the country, and his warm and frequent expressions of attachment to the Romans, Crassus unfortunately placed the utmost confidence. The result may easily be foreseen. Crassus intended to have followed the course of the Euphrates till he should reach the point where it approaches nearest to Seleucia and Ctesiphon, the capital of the Parthian empire; but, being dissuaded from this by his crafty guide, and directing his march across the plains, he was led at last into a sandy desert, where his army was attacked by the Parthian forces under Surena. An unequal conflict ensued. The son of Crassus, sent with a detachment of Gallic horse to repel the Parthian cavalry, lost his life after the most heroic exertions; and his loss was first made known to his father by the barbarians carrying his head on a spear. Crassus himself, not kng after, being compelled by his own troops to meet Surena in a conference, was treacherously slain by the barbarians, and his head and right hand sent to the Parthian king, Orodes. The whole loss of the Romans in this disastrous campaign was 20,000 killed and 10,000 taken prisoners. (Plut, Vit. Crass.—Dio Cass., 40, 13, scqq.—Appian, Bell. Parth.) CRATER, or SiNus CRAter, the ancient name of the Gulf of Naples, given to it from its resembling the mouth of a large bowl or mixer (Kparip.) It is about twelve miles in diameter. CRATER Us, one of Alexander's generals, distinguished for both literary and warlike acquirements. He was held in high esteem by Alexander, whose confidence he obtained by the frankness of his character; and the monarch used to say, “Hephæstion loves Alexander, but Craterus the king.” After the death of Alexander, he was associated with Antipater, in the care of the hereditary states. He afterward crossed over into Asia along with Antipater, in order to contend against Eumenes, but was defeated by the latter, and lost his life in the battle. (Nep, Wit. Eum, 2– Justin, 13, 6, &c.) CRAtes, I. a philosopher of Boeotia, son of Ascondus, and disciple of Diogenes the Cynic, B.C. 324. He is considered as the most distinguished philosopher of the Cynic sect, after Diogenes. In his natural temper, however, he differed from his master, and, instead of being morose and gloomy, was cheerful and facetious. Hence he obtained access to many families of the most wealthy Athenians, and became so highly esteemed, that he frequently acted as an arbiter of disputes and quarrels among relations. He was honourably descended, and inherited large estates; but when he turned his attention to philosophy, he sold them, and distributed the money among the poorer citizens. He adopted all the singularities of the Cynic sect. His wife Hipparchia, who was rich and of a good family, and had many suiters, preferred Crates to every other, and, when her parents opposed her inclinations, so determined was her passion that she threatened to put an end to her life. Crates, at the request of her parents, represented to Hipparchia every circumstance in his condition and manner of living which might induce her to change her mind. Still she persisted in her resolution, and not only became the wife of Crates, but adopted all the peculiarities of the Cynic profession. (Enfield's H. of Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 313.)— II. A philosopher of Athens, who succeeded in the school of his master Polemon. Crates and Polemon had long been attached to each other from a similarity of dispositions and pur

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ed the principal part in the plays of Cratinus. He could not, however, have followed this profession very long, for we learn from Eusebius that he was well known as a comic writer in 450 B.C., which was not long after Cratinus began to exhibit. . Crates, according to Aristotle (Poet., 4, 6), was the first Athenian poet who abandoned the iambic or satiric form of comedy, and made use of general stories or fables. Perhaps the law, passed B.C. 440, restraining the virulence and license of comedy, might have some share in giving his plays this less offensive turn. His style is said to have been gay and facetious; yet the few fragments of his writings which remain are of a serious cast; such are, for example, his reflections on poverty, and his beautiful lines on old age. From the expressions of Aristophanes (Equit., 538), the comedies of Crates seem to have been marked by elegance of language and ingenious ideas. Yet, with all his endeavours to please his fastidious auditors, the poet had, in common with his rivals, to endure many contumelles and vexations. He nevertheless, with unwearied resolution, continued to compose and exhibit during a varied career of success and reverses. (Theatre of the Greeks, 2d ed., p. 170.) CRA'this, I. a river of Arcadia, rising in a mountain of the same name, and flowing through Achaia into the Sinus Corinthiacus, to the west of Ægira. It was from this stream that the Italian Crathis, which flowed between Crotona and Sybaris, derived its appellation. (Herodot., 1, 146.-Strabo, 386.)—II. A river of Lucania, flowing into the Sinus Tarentinus, between Crotona and Sybaris. It is now the Crati. The ancients ascribed to this stream the property of turning white the hair of those who bathed in its waters, which were, however, accounted salutary for various disor ders. (Strabo, 263.) Cratinus, an Athenian comic poet, born B.C. 519. It was not till late in life that he directed his attention to comic compositions. The first piece of his on record is the 'Aprižorot, which was represented about 448 B.C., at which time he was in his seventy-first year. In this play, according to Plutarch (Wit. Com.), he makes mention of the celebrated Cimon, who had died the preceding year, B.C. 449, and from the language employed by the poet, it may be inferred that he was on terms of close intimacy with the Athenian general. Soon after this, comedy became so licentious and virulent in its personalities, that the magistracy were obliged to interfere. (Schol, in Aristoph., Acharn, 67–Compare Clinton's Fasti Hellenci, B.C. 440 and 437.) A decree was passed, B.C. 440, prohibiting the exhibitions of comedy; which law continued in force only during that year and the two sollowing, being repealed in the archonship of Euthymenes. Three victories of Cratinus stand recorded after the recommencement of comic performances. With the Xetuajópevot he was second, B.C. 425 (Argum. Acharn.), when the 'Avapweig of Aristophanes won the prize, and the third place was adjudged to the Novumviat of Eupolis. In the succeeding year he was again second with the X4Tupol, and Aristophane again first with the 'ITTeic. (Argum. Equit.) In a parabasis of this play that young rival makes mention of Cratinus; where, having noticed his former successes, he insinuates, under the cloak of an equivocal piety, that the veteran was becoming doting and superannuated. The old man, now in his ninety-fifth year, indignant at this insidious attack, exerted his remaining vigour, and composed, against the contests of the approaching season, a comedy entitled IIvrium, or The Flagon, which turned upon the accusations brought against him by Anton-on- aged dramatist had a complete triumph. (Argum. Nub.) He was first; while his humbled antagonist was vanquished also by Ameipsias with the Kovvos, though the play of Aristophanes was his favourite Neo Zat. Notwithstanding his notorious internperance, Cratinus lived to an extreme old age, dying B.C. 422, in his ninetyseventh year. (Lucian, Macrob., 25.) Aristophanes alludes to the excesses of Cratinus in a passage of the Equites (v. 526, seqq.). In the Pax (v. 700, seqq.), he humorously ascribes the jovial old poet's death to a shock on seeing a cask of wine staved and lost. Cratinus himself made no scruple of acknowledging his failing : (Orl 68 otzowoc & Kpatiroc kai at Too #y to IIvriv 2.Éyet gadog.-Schol, in Pac., 703). Horace, also, opens one of his epistles (1, 19) with a maxim of the comedian's, in due accordance with his practice. The titles of thirty-eight of the comedies of Cratinus have been collected by Meursius, Koenig, &c. His style was bold and animated (Persius, l, 123), and, like his younger brethren, Eupolis and Aristophanes, ke searlessly and unsparingly directed his satire against the iniquitous public officer and the rofligate of private life. (Horat, Sat., 1, 4, 1, seqq.) R. yet are we to suppose, that the comedies of Cratinus and his contemporaries contained nothing beyond broad jest or coarse invective and lampoon. They were, on the contrary, marked by elegance of expression and purity of language; elevated sometimes into philosophical dignity by the sentiments which they declared, and graced with many a passage of beautiful idea and high poetry: so that Quintilian deems the Old Comedy, after Homer, the most fitting and beneficial object of a young pleader's study. (Quint., 10, 1–Theatre of the Greeks, 2d ed., p. 166, seqq.) CRAtippus, a peripatetic philosopher of Mytilene, who, among others, taught Cicero's son at Athens. He first became acquainted with Cicero at Ephesus, whither he had gone for the purpose of paying his respects to him. Afterward, being aided by the orator, he obtained from Casar the rights of Roman citizenship. On coming to Athens, he was requested by the Areopagus to settle there, and become an instructer of youth in the tenets of philosophy, a request with which he complied. He wrote on divination and on the interpretation of dreams. (Cic., Off., 1, 1–Id., de Dir., 1, 3.-Id, Ep. ad Fam., 12, 16.) Cratylus, a Greek philosopher, and disciple of Heraclitus. According to Aristotle (Metaph. 1, 6), Plato attended his lectures in his youth. Diogenes Laertius, however (3.8), says that this was after the death of Socrates. Cratylus is one of the interlocutors in the dialogue of Plato called after his name. (Compare Schleiermacher's Introduction to the Cratylus, Dobson's transl., p. 245.) CRAU Allidae, a nation who occupied at one period a part of the Cirrhaean plain. They are described by Æschines (in Ctes., p. 405) as very impious, and as having plundered some of the offerings of Delphi. They were exterminated by the Amphictyons. The name is erroneously given by some as Acragallidae, and they are thought by Wolf, who adopts this lection, to have been a remnant of the army of Brennus. (Consult Taylor, ad AEsch, l.c.) CREMERA, a small river of Tuscany, running between Veii and Rome, and celebrated for the daring but unsortunate enterprise of the gallant Fabii. (Ovid, Fast., 2, 193, seqq.). The Cremera is now called la Valca, a rivulet which rises in the neighbourhood of Baccano, and falls into the Tiber a little below Prima Porta. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 239.) CREMNA, I. a strong place in the interior of Pisidia, lying, according to Ptolemy, on the declivity of Taurus, nearly six miles north of Selga. According to Strabo (569), it had been long looked upon as impregnable; but it was at length taken by the tetrarch Amy tas, with some other places, in his wars against

the Pisidians. This fortress was considered after. ward by the Romans to be of so much consequence, that they established a colony here. (Ptol., p. 124.— Hierocl., p. 681–Zosim., 1, 60.) It is generally supposed, that this town is represented by the modern fort of Kebrinaz, occupying a commanding situation between Isbarteh and the lake Egreder. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 300.)—II. A commercial place on the Palus Maeotis. Mannert supposes the name to be one of Greek origin, and to have reference to its rocky situation. He locates the place at the mouth of the Tanais, near the modern Taganrock. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 4, p. 115.) CrewdNA, a city of Cisalpine Gaul, northeast of Placentia, and a little north of the Po. Cremona and Placentia were both settled by Roman colonies, A.U.C. 535. (Polyb., 3, 40.) After the defeat on the Trebia, we find the consul P. Scipio retiring to Cremona (Lir., 21, 56), and it appears that the Romans retained the place throughout the whole of the second Punic war, though it suffered so much during its continuance, and afterward from the attacks of the Gauls, that it was found necessary to recruit its population by a fresh supply of colonists. (Lir., 37, 46.) The colony, being thus renewed, continued to prosper for nearly a hundred and fifty years; when the civil wars, which ensued after the death of Caesar, materially alsected its interests. Cremona unfortunately espoused the cause of Brutus, and thus incurred the vengeance of the victorious party. The loss of its territory, which was divided among the veteran soldiers of Augustus, is well known from the line of Virgil (Eclog., 9, 28), “Mantua rao miserae nimum vicina Cremona,” which is nearly repeated by Martial (8,55), “Jugera perduderat miserae ricina Cremonc.” The effect of this calamity would seem, however, to have been but temporary, and, in fact, we learn from Strabo (216), that Cremona was accounted in his time one of the most considerable towns in the north of Italy. The civil wars, which arose during the time of Otho and Vitellius, were the source of much severer affliction to this city than any former evil, as the fate of the empire was more than once decided between large contending armies in its immediate vicinity. After the defeat of Vitellius's party by the troops of Vespasian, it was entered by the latter, and exposed to all the horrors that fire, the sword, and the ungoverned passions of a licentious soldiery can inflict upon a city taken by storm. The conflagration of the place lasted four days. The indignation which this event excited throughout Italy seems to have been such, that Vespasian, afraid of the odium it might attach to his party, used every effort to raise Cremona srom its ruins, by recalling the scattered inhabitants, reconstructing the public edifices, and granting the city fresh privileges. (Tacit., Hist., 3, 33 and 34.— Plin., 3, 19–Ptol., p. 63.-Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 1, p. 66, seq.) CREMUtius Cor DUs, an historian who wrote an account of the achievements of Augustus. He gave of. fence to Tiberius, and his prime minister Sejanus, by stating in his history that “Cassius was the last of the Romans.” (Tacit., Ann., 4, 34.) Suetonius, however, makes him to have called both Cassius and Brutus by this title. (Sueton, Wit. Tib., 61.—Dic Cass., 57, 24.) CREoN, I. king of Corinth, and father of Creüsa or Glauce, the wife of Jason. (Wid. Creüsa and Medea.)—II. The brother of Jocasta, mother and wife of CEdipus. (Wid. (Edipus.) He ascended the throne of Thebes after Eteocles and Polynices had fallen in mutual combat, and gave orders that the body of the latter should be deprived of funeral rites, on which circumstance is founded the plot of the Antigone of Sophocles. (Vid. Eteocles, Polynices, Antigone, &c.) CREophylus, a native of Samos, who composed, under the title of Qixažíag äAwaug, “The conquest of OEchalia,” an epic poem commemorative of the exploits of Hercules. According to an ancient tradition, Homer himself was the author of this piece, and gave it to Creophylus as a return for the hospitable reception which he had received under his roof. (Strabo, 638.) In an epigram of Callimachus, however, Creophylus is named as the real author. (Strab., l.c.) It was among the descendants of Creophylus that Lycurgus found, according to Plutarch (Wit. Lycurg., 4), the Iliad and Odyssey. (Scholl, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 1, p. 166.) Cresphontes, a son of Aristomachus, who, with his brothers Temenus and Aristodemus, conquered the Peloponnesus. This was the famous conquest achieved by the Heraclidae. (Wid. Aristodemus and Heraclidae.) CREstúNE, I. or Creston, a city of Thrace, the capital probably of the district of Crestonia. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and most of the commentators and translators of Herodotus, confound this city with Cortona in Umbria. (Compare Muller, Etrusker, vol. 1, p. 95–Larcher, Hist. d'Herodote.—Table Geogr., vol. 8, p. 149.) Herodotus speaks of Crestone as situate beyond the Tyrrhenians, and inhabited by Pelasgi (1, 67), speaking a different language from their neighbours. Rennel thinks that the reading Tyrrhenians is a mistake, and that Thermatans should be substituted for it, as Therma, afterward Thessalonica, agrees with the situation mentioned by the historian. (Geography of Herodot., p. 45.) If, however, the text be correct as it stands, it shows that there was once a nation called Tyrrhenians in Thrace. This is also confirmed by Thucydides (4, 109. — Compare the elaborate note of Larcher, ad Herodot., l. c.)—II. A district of Thrace, to the north of Anthermus and Bolbe, chiefly occupied by a remnant of Pelasgi. (Herodot., 1, 57.) We are informed by Herodotus, ...hat the river Ethedorus took its rise in this territory; and also that the camels of the Persian army were here attacked by lions, which are only to be found in Europe, as he remarks, between the Nestus, a river of Thrace, and the Achelous (7, 124, and 127). Thucydides also mentions the Crestonians as a peculiar race, part of whom had fixed themselves near Mount Athos (4, 109). The district of Crestone is now known by the name of Caradagh. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 240.) CRETA, one of the largest islands of the Mediterranean Sea, at the south of all the Cyclades. Its name is derived by some from the Curetes, who are said to have been its first inhabitants; by others, from the nymph Crete, daughter of Hesperus; and by others, from Cres, a son of Jupiter, and the nymph Idaea. (Steph. Byz., s. v. Kporm.) . It is also designated among the poets and mythological writers by the several appellations of Æria, Dolche, Idaea, and Telchinia. (Pliny, 4, 12–Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Arpia.) According to Herodotus, this great island remained in the possession of various barbarous nations till the time of Minos, son of Europa, who, having expelled his brother Sarpedon, became the sole sovereign of the country (1, 173–Compare Hoeck, Kreta, vol. 1, p. 141). These early inhabitants are generally supposed to be the Eteocretes of Homer, who clearly distinguishes them from the Grecian colonists subsequently settled there. (Od., 19, 172.) Strabo observes that the Eteocretes were considered as indigenous; and adds, that Staphylus, an ancient writer on the subject of Crete, placed them in the southern side of the island. (Strab., 475.) Other authors, who concur in this statement of the geographer, would lead us to establish a connexion between this primitive Cretan race

and the Curetes, Dactyli, Telchines, and other ancient |ly offered their services for hire to such states, wheth

tribes, so often alluded to with reference to the mystic

rites of Crete, Samothrace, and Phrygia. (Strab.,

466.) Minos, according to the concurrent testimony C cc

of antiquity, first gave laws to the Cretans, and, hav. ing conquered the pirates who infested the AEgean Sea, established a powerful navy. (Herodot., 1, 171. —Id, 3, 122–Thucyd., 1, 4, seqq.—Ephor., ap. Strab,476–Aristot, Polit., 2, 12). In the Trojan war, Idomeneus, sovereign of Crete, led its forces to the war in eighty vessels, a number little inferior to that commanded by Agamemnon himself. According to the traditions which Virgil has followed, Idomeneus was afterward driven from his throne by faction, and compelled to sail to Iapygia, where he founded the town of Salernum. (AEm., 3, 121 and 399.) At this period the island appears to have been inhabited by a mixed population of Greeks and barbarians. Homer enumerates the former under the names of Achaei, Dorians, surnamed Trichaices, and Pelasgi. The latter, who were the most ancient, are said to have come from Thessaly, under the conduct of Teutamus, posterior to the great Pelasgic emigration into Italy. (Andron., ap. Steph. Byz., s. v. Aćptov.) The Dorians are reported to have established themselves in Crete, under the command of Althamenes of Argos, after the death of Codrus and the foundation of Megara. (Strabo, 481.-Eustath. ad Il., 2, 645.) After the Trojan war and the expulsion of Idomeneus, the principal cities of Crete formed themselves into several republics, for the most part independent, while others were connected by federal ties. These, though not exempted from the dissensions which so universally distracted the Greek republics, maintained for a long time a considerable degree of prosperity, owing to the good system of laws and education which had been so early instituted throughout the island by the decrees of Minos. The Cretan code was supposed by many of the best-informed writers of antiquity to have furnished Lycurgus with the model of his most salutary regulations. It was founded, according to Ephorus, as cited by Strabo (480), on the just basis of liberty and an equality of rights; and its great aim was to promote social harmony and peace by enforcing temperance and frugality. On this principle, the Cretan youths were divided into classes called Agela, and all met at the Andreia, or public meals. Like the Spartans, they were early trained to the use of arms, and inured to sustain the extremes of heat and cold, and undergo the severest exercise; they were also compelled to learn their letters and certain pieces of music. The chief magistrates, called Cosmi (Köquot), were ten in number, and elected annually. The Gerontes constituted the council of the nation, and were selected from those who were thought worthy of holding the office of Cosmus (Köquor). There was also an equestrian order, who were bound to keep horses at their own expense. (Compare Aristot., Polit, 2, 7–Polyh., 6, 46.) But though the Cretan laws resembled the Spartan institutions in so many important points, there were some striking features which distinguished the legislative enactments of the two countries. One of these was, that the Lacedæmonians were subject to a strict agrarian law, whereas the Cretans were under no restraint as to the accumulation of moneyed or landed property; another, that the Cretan republics were for the most part democratical, whereas the Spartan was decidedly aristocratical. Herodotus informs us, that the Cretans were deterred by the unfavourable response of the Pythian oracle from contributing forces to the Grecian armament assembled to resist the Persians (7, 169). In the Peloponnesian war, incidental mention is made of some Cretan cities as allied with Athens or Sparta; but the island does not appear to have espoused collectively the cause of either of the belligerant parties. (Thucyd., 2, 85.) The Cretan soldiers were held in great estimation as light troops and archers, and readi

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