Obrazy na stronie

name of this place Kožacaas, a reading given also by numerous MSS. of St. Paul's Epistles. But Herodotus, Xenophon, and Strabo give the more customary forms, and they have also on their side the evidence of coins, the authority of which is not to be disputed. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 44.) Colossus, a celebrated brazen image at Rhodes, which passed for one of the seven wonders of the world. It was the workmanship of Chares, a pupil of Lysippus, who was employed twelve years in making it its height was 105 Grecian feet; there were few persons who could encompass the thumb with their arins, and its fingers were larger than most statues. It was hollow, and in its cavities were large stones, placed there to counterbalance its weight, and render it steady on its pedestal. The cost was 300 talents (nearly $317,000), and the money was obtained from the sale of the machines and military engines which Demetrius Poliorcetes had left behind him when he raised the siege of Rhodes. (Plin., 34, 18.) The Colossus is generally supposed to have stood with distended legs upon the two moles which formed the entrance of the harbour. As the city, however, had two harbours, the main one, and a second one much smaller, within which their fleets were secured, it seems more natural to suppose that this Colossus was placed at the entrance of this latter one, inasmuch as the space between the legs at the base could not have greatly exceeded fifty feet; a space too narrow to be the entrance to the main harbour. There was a winding staircase to go up to the top of the statue, from whence one might discover Syria, and the ships that went to Egypt. It was erected B.C. 300, and, after having stood about fifty-six years, was broken off below the knees, and thrown down by an earthquake. (Plin., l. c.) Eusebius says that this occurred in the second year of the 139th Olympiad; but Polybius seems to place it a little later, in the 140th Olympiad (5, 88). The same writer adds, that the greater part of the walls and docks were thrown down at the same time. It remained in ruins for the space of 894 years; and the Rhodians, who had received several large contri

butions to repair it, divided the money among them

selves, and frustrated the expectations of the donors, by saying that the oracle of Delphi forbade them to raise it up again from its ruins. (Strab., 652.) In the year 672 of the Christian era, it was sold, according to Cedrenus, by the Saracens, who were masters of the island, to a Jewish merchant of Edessa, who loaded 900 camels with the brass. Allowing 800 pounds' weight for each load, the brass, after the diminution which it had sustained by rust, and probably by thest, amounted to about 720,000 pounds weight. The city of Rhodes had, according to Pliny, 100

other colossuses, of inferior size, in its different quar

ters.-Compare the remarks of Ritter in relation to the worship of the sun, which prevailed in the earliest periods of Rhodes, and the connexion between this and the Colossus. He finds also his accustomed root (Col-) in the name of the statue. (Vorhalle, p. 104, seqq.) Colux. Ella (L. Junius Moderatus), an ancient writer, born at Gades, in the reign of Augustus or Tiberius, and a contemporary, according to his own account, of Seneca and Celsus. The elder Pliny also frequently makes mention of him. His father, Marcus Columella, had possessions in the province of Baetica. The son betook himself at an early period to Rome, where he passed his life, with the exception of a few journeys to Syria and Cilicia. It is not ascertained whether he visited these latter countries as a simple traveller, or on some mission of government, for we know nothing very particularly of the circumstances of his life. We have two works of his remaining: one, entitled “De Re Rustica,” in twelve Jooks; the other, “De Arboribus.” This last made,

and Isidorus are the only ones that cite him.

very probably, part of a work on agriculture, in four books, which Columella had published as the first edition of that which we now have in twelve books. On this supposition Cassiodorus was correct in saying that Columella had written a work in sixteen books on rural economy. This author appears to have been but little read. Among the ancients, Servius, Cassiodorus, He sell into almost complete neglect after Palladius had made an abridgment of his work. (Wid. Palladius II.) Hence Vincent de Beauvais and Petrus de Crescentiis, the latter of whom Schneider calls “diligentissimum reterum rei rustica scriptorum lectorem,” were not acquainted with him. (Compare Script. Rei Rust, ed. Schneider, vol. 2, p. 5.) The style of Columella is pure and elegant; if any reproach can be made against him, it is that of being too studied in his language on the subject of which he treats. The best edition is that of Schneider, in the Scriptores Rei Rustica, Lips., 1794–97, 4 vols. 8vo. That of Gesner is also in deservedly high repute, Lips., 1773, 2 vols. 4to. Colum NA: Hercülis, “The Pillars of Hercules,” a name often given to Calpe and Abyla, or the heights on either side of the Straits of Gibraltar. The tradition was, that the Mediterranean had no outlet in this quarter until Hercules broke through the mountain barrier, and thus formed the present straits. The rocky height on either side of the opening was fabled to have been placed there by him as a memorial of his achievement, and as marking the limits of his wanderings towards the west. (Wad. Calpe, Abyla, and Mediterraneum Mare.—Odyss., 4, 351–Virg., AEm., 11, 262.) Col. Uthus, a native of Lycopolis in Egypt, supposed to have lived about the beginning of the sixth century. He wrote a poem in six cantos, entitled “Calydoniacs” (Kažvčovuka), as well as other pieces that are now lost. He is believed also, though without any great degree of certitude, to have been the author of a poem, in three hundred and eighty-five verses, which bears the title of “the Rape of Helen” ("EZs inc sprays). This most unfortunate imitation of Homer commences with the nuptials of Peleus and Thetis. The poet goes on, without any animation, sentiment, or grace whatsoever, to recount the judgment of Paris, the voyage of this prince to Sparta, and the abduction of Helen, which takes place after the first interview. This poem of Cojuthus was discovered by Cardinal Bessarion along with that of Quintus Smyrnaeus. The best editions are, that of Van Lennep, Leorard, 1747, 8vo, improved by Shaeffer, Lips., 1825, 8vo, and that of Bekker, Berol., 1816, 8vo. CoMAGENE. Wid. Commagene. CoMANA (orum), I, a city of Pontus, surnamed Pontica, to distinguish it from the Cappadocian city of the same name. It was situate to the northeast of Zela, and not far from the source of the Iris. (Straho, 547.) This place was celebrated for the worship of the goddess Mā, supposed to answer to the Bellona of the West. She was likewise revered with equal honours in the Cappadocian Comana. The priesthood attached to the temple was an office of the highest emolument and dignity, and was sought after by kings and princes. The city itself was large and populous, and kept up a considerable traffic with Armenia. The festivals of the goddess, which were held twice a year, drew thither an immense concourse from the surrounding countries and towns, as well as from more distant parts. There were no less than 6000 slaves attached to the service of the temple, and most of these were courtesans. Hence it was remarked, that the citizens were generally addicted to pleasure, and the town itself was styled by some the little Corinth. The chief produce of the country was wine. When the Romans, under Luculius, invaded Pontus, a report

was spread, probably by Mithradates, that they were come for the express purpose of plundering the shrine of Comana. (Cie., Or, pro Leg. Manil., § 9.) Some remains, at the present day, not far from Tokat, under the name of Komanak, sufficiently indicate the ancient site. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. i., p. 307, seq.) —II. A city of Cappadocia, on the river Sarus, and the principal place in the district of Cataonia. It was celebrated, like its Pontic namesake (No. 1.), for the worship of Má, the Cappadocian Bellona. The population consisted, in a great degree, of soothsayers, priests, and slaves, belonging to the sacred institution; the latter of these amounted, in the time of Strabo, to more than 6000 of both sexes. These belonged exclusively to the high-priest, who stood next in rank to the King of Cappadocia, and was generally chosen from the royal family. The territory annexed to the temple was very considerable, and furnished a large income for the pontiff (Cic., Ep. ad Fam., 15, 4.) It was asserted that the worship of Bellona, like that of Diana Tauropolus, had been brought from Tauris by Orestes and Iphigenia, and it was even pretended that the former had deposited within the temple his mourning locks (köumv), whence the city was called Comana. (Strah, 535.) These, of course, are sables of Greek invention. The Bellona of Comana was probably no other than the Anaïtis of the Persians and Armenians, and perhaps the Agdistis and Cybele of the Phrygians. The Cappadocian Comana was distinguished from the Pontic by the epithet of Xpwań. The Turkish town of El Bostan is thought to represent the ancient city. (Kinner's Travels, Append , p. 560–Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 138, seqq.) Cow ARIA provostorium, a promontory forming the southern extremity of India intra Gangem. It is now Cape Camorin (or Comari). Al-Edrissi, the Arabian geographer, confounds this cape with Comar, or the island of Madagascar. (Arrian, Peripl. Mar. Erythr. Vincent's Anc. Commerce, vol. 2, p. 498) CoMMAGENE, a district of Syria, in the northeastern extremity of that country, bounded on the north by Mount Taurus, on the west by Amanus, on the east by the Euphrates, and on the south by Cyrrhestica. Its chief city was Samosata. This tract of country had at one time rulers of its own, but became a Ro: man province under Domitian. Its modern name is Camash or Kamask. (Plin, 5, 12–Eutrop., 7, 19. —A mm. Marcell., 14, 26.) The name often occurs as Comagene, but the more correct form is Commagene. (Consult Rasche, Ler. Rev Num, vol. 2, col. 723) Cow Möpus, L. Aurelius ANtoxinus, son and successor of M. Aurelius Antoninus, ascended the inperial throne A. D., 180. The reign of this prince is a scene of guilt and misery, which the historian contemplates with disgust, and is glad to dismiss with brevity. He appears, indeed, to have inherited all the vices of his mother Faustina; and his father, in selecting him for his successor, allowed the feelings of the parent to triumph over the wisdom of the magistrate. He had accompanied his father on the expedition against the Marconanni and Quadi, but no sooner was Aurelius dead than his degenerate son became anxious to proceed to Rome, and soon concluded a hasty and disgraceful peace with the very barbarians whom his father was on the point of completely subjugating when he was cut off by disease. Notwithstanding the care which Antoninus had bestowed upon his education, Commodus was ignorant to an extreme degree, having neither abilities nor inclination for profiting by the imperial example and instruction. On his return to Rome he speedily showed the bias of his natural disposition, giving himself up to unrestrained indulgence in the grossest vices. That he might do so without impediment, he intrusted all power to Perennis, prefect of the praetorian guard, a man of stern and cruel temper,

who was at last slain by his soldiers for his severity. A conspiracy against the life of Commodus having failed, was followed by a long succession of judicial murders, to gratify the vengeance of the cowardly and vindictive tyrant. He was next threatened by a new danger: disaffection had spread over the legions, and an attempt of Maternus, a private soldier, who headed a band of deserters, and projected the assassination of Commodus during the celebration of the festival of Cybele, was so ably conceived, that he must have been successful but for the treachery of an accomplice. But neither duty nor danger could draw Commodus from the sports of gladiators or the pleasures of debauchery. Cleander, a Phrygian slave, soon succeeded to the place and influence of Perennis, and for three years the empire groaned beneath his cruelty and rapacity. At length a new insurrection burst forth, which nothing could allay, the praetorian cavalry being defeated in the streets by the populace, until the head of Cleander was, by the emperor's command, thrown to the insurgents. In the mean time, Commodus was indulging his base tastes and appetites, not only by gross sensuality, but by endeavouring to rival the gladiators in their sanguinary occupation. Being a very skilful archer, and of great personal strength, he delighted in killing wild beasts in the amphitheatre, and thus pretendin to rival the prowess of Hercules. In the 4...i contests, he publicly engaged so often, that he was the conqueror in 735 combats. Though luxurious in his dress, frequently resorting to the baths eight times in the day, scattering gold dust in his hair, and, from the fear of admitting the approach of a razor in the hand of another, singing off his beard, he was especially proud of exhibitions of personal strength, and frequently butchered victims with his own hands in the garb of a sacrificer. Among the flatteries of the obsequious senate, none pleased him more than the vote which styled him the Hercules of Rome, not even that which annexed to him the titles of Pius and Feliz, or which offered to abolish the name of the eternal city, and substitute for it Colonia Commodiana 1– After thirteen years of unmitigated oppression, his favourite Martia ultimately became the instrument by which the Roman world was delivered from its odious master. She discovered, from some private notes of Commodus, that herself, Laetus the praetorian praefect, and Electrus the chamberlain, were on the list devoted to death : a conspiracy was immediately formed, Martia administered poison to the emperor, and, lest the measure should not prove effectual, the deed was completed by suffocation, A.D. 192. (Lamprid, Vit. Com.—12 neyclop. Metropol, div. 3, vol. 2, p. 684) Comps A, a city of Samnium, on the southern confines of the Hirpini. It revolted to Hannibal after the battle of Cannae, and it was here that this general left all his baggage and part of his army when advancing towards Campania. (Lin , 23, 1.) Compsa was retaken by the Romans under Fabius two years afterward. (Lir, 24, 20.) Welleius Paterculus says, that Milo, the opponent of Clodius, met his death before the walls of Compsa, which he was at that time besieging (Well. Paterc., 2, 68); but, according to Caesar and Pliny, this event took place near Cossa in Lucania. The modern Conza occupies the site of the ancient city. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 253.) Cowuw, a city of Gallia Cisalpina, at the southern extremity of the Lacus Larius, or Lago di Como. It was originally a Gallic settlement, and continued to be an inconsiderable place until a Greek colony was established here by Pompeius Strabo and Cornelius Scipio, and subsequently by Julius Caesar. Comum thenceforth took the name of Novum Comum. (Strabo, 212–1°orcacchi Nobilta della Citta di Como, vol. 1, p. 10.) The enemies of Caesar, among whom were the consuls Cl. Marcellus and L. Cornelius Lentulus,

appear to have taken the lead, and used every endeavrights. (Appian, Bell. Cir., 2, 26.-Plut., Wit. Caes. —Svet. Wu. Jul., 28.) If they succeeded in their designs, it was only for a short time; since we may collect from the letters of the younger Pliny, who was born at Counum, that his native city was in his time in

our to ruin the colony, and even went so far as to pro: Agesilaus from the East. The plan was approved of pose a law which should deprive it of its municipal by the King of Persia, and Conon, at the head of a

a very flourishing state, and in the enjoyment of all

Persian fleet, B.C. 398, attacked the Spartan admiral Pisander near Cnidus, and defeated him, with the loss of the greater part of his ships. Lacedæmon immediately lost the empire of the sea, and her power in Asia Minor ceased. Conon thereupon, after ravaging the coasts of Laconia, returned to Attica, rebuilt the city

the privileges which belonged to a Roman corporation, walls as well as those of the Piraeus, with means which

independently of the prosperity and affluence it would naturally derive from the peculiar advantages of its situation. (Plin., Ep., 3, 6–Id. abid., 4, 13.−1d whid, 4, 24.) Coinum is now Como. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 60.) Coscà Ni, a people of Spain, among the Cantabri. According to Horace (Ode, 3, 4, 34), they delighted in mingling the blood of horses with their drink. This same trait is mentioned by Silius Italicus (3, 360, seqq.), who makes them of Scythian origin, tracing them up to the parent stock of the Massageta. Strabo likewise speaks of a resemblance between them and the Scythians in certain customs. The Scythian Massagetae, according to Dionysius Periegetes (r. 743, seqq.), drank milk mixed with horse's blood; which is also ascribed to the Geloni by Virgil (Georg., 3,463); while Pliny states, that the Sarmata mixed millet with the milk of mares, or with the blood drawn out of their legs. Their chief town, Concana, is now called Santiluna, or Cangas de Onis. (Virg., G., 3, 463.—Sil. Ital., 3, 361.-Horat., Od., 3, 4, 34.) CoNortosi, a people of Gallia Belgica, to the south of the Eburones. Their country answers at the present day to the archdeaconry of Comdros, forming part of the bishopric of Liege. (Caes., B. G., 2, 4.— Lemaire, Ind. Geogr. ad Cas., vol. 4, p. 239.) CoNFLUENtes, a city of the Treviri, at the confluence of the Moselle and Rhine, now Coblentz. This town, in the time of the Romans, was the station of the first legion; and afterward became the residence of the successors of Charlemagne. (Anton., Itin.—Tab. Peut.-Caes., B. G., 4, 15.-Amm. Marcell., 16, 3.) CoN1MB Rica, a town of Lusitania, near the seacoast, on the river Munda, now Coimbra in modern Portugal. As regards the termination of the ancient name (-brica), consult remarks under the article Mesembria. CoNoN, I. a distinguished Athenian commander, was one of the generals who succeeded Alcibiades in the command of the fleet during the Peloponnesian war. Having engaged with Callicratidas, the Spartan admiral, he lost thirty vessels, and was compelled to take shelter in the harbour of Mytilene, where he was blockaded by his opponent. The victory gained by the Athenians at the Arginusae released him at length from this situation. Being subsequently appointed along with five others to the command of a }. fleet, he proceeded to the Hellespont, where ..ysander had charge of the Lacedæmonian squadron. The negligence of his fellow-commanders, the result of overweening confidence in their own strength, led to the fatal defeat at AEgos Potamos, and the whole Athenian fleet was taken, except nine vessels of Conon's division, with eight of which, thinking that the war was now desperate, he sailed to Salamis in the island of Cyprus. The ninth vessel was sent to Athens with the tidings of the defeat. In Cyprus, Conon remained at the court of Evagoras, watching for an opportunity to prove of service to his country. Such a state of affairs soon presented itself. The Lacedæmonians, having no more rivals in Greece, sent Agesilaus with an army into Asia, to make war upon the Persian king. Conon immediately repaired to Pharnabazus, the satrap of Lydia and Ionia, aided him with his counsels, and suggested to him the idea of exciting the Thebans and other Grecian communities against Sparta, so as to compel that state to recall

had been furnished by Pharnabazus, and gave on this occasion a public entertainment to all the Athenians. The Lacedaemonians, dispirited by the success of Conon, and alarmed at the re-establishment of the Athenian fortifications, sent Antalcidas to Tiribazus, one of the Persian generals, to negotiate a peace. The Athenians, on their part, deputed Conon and some others to oppose this attempt; but Tiribazus being favourably inclined towards Sparta, and in all probability jealous of Pharnabazus, imprisoned Conon, under the pretext that he was endeavouring to excite an insurrection in AColis and Ionia. The Persian king, however, disapproved of the conduct of his satrap, and Conon was released. The latter thereupon returned to the island of Cyprus, where he fell sick and died, about B.C. 390. His remains were conveyed to Athens. (Corn. Nep., in Wit.—Xen, Hist. Gr., 1,4, 10–Id. ib., 2, 1, 21, &c.—Diod. Sic, 13, 78-Id., 14, 39.-Id., 14, 83, &c.)—II. A native of Samos, distinguished as an astronomer and geometrician. None of his works have reached us; he is mentioned, however, with eulogiums, by Archimedes, Virgil, Seneca, and others. Conon lived between about 300 and 260 years before our era. Apollonius, in the fourth book of his Comic Sections, does not speak as favourably of him as Archimedes has done. He thinks that many of his demonstrations might be rendered more concise. This is nearly all that we know respecting Conon as a geometer. He is mentioned as an astronomer by one of the commentators on Ptolemy, who speaks of his having made observations in Italy. Seneca (Quast. Nat., 7, 3) informs us, that he had made out a list of the eclipses of the sun that had been visible in Egypt. He is mentioned also by Virgil (Eclog., 3, 40), and by Catullus in his translation of the Greek poem of Callimachus, on the tresses of Berenice. The Greek piece itself, in which he bore a conspicuous part, is iost. (Wid. Berenice.) Delambre expresses considerable doubt as to the correctness of the story, which makes Conon to have named a new constellation after the locks of the Egyptian queen. (Delambre, in Biogr. Univ., vol. 9, p. 427.) Consentes, the name which the Romans gave to the twelve superior deities, or Div Majorum Gentium. The best derivation of the name is that which traces it to the participle of the obsolete verb conso, “to advise” or “counsel,” the Dil Consentes being they who formed the council of the sky. (Voss., Etym. s. p.) Ennius has expressed their names in the two sollowing lines: “Juno, Vesta, Ceres, Diana, Minerra, Venus, Mars, Mercurius, Jovi', Neptunus, Vulcanus, Apollo.”

(Ennii, Fragm., ed. Hessel., p. 164.—Compare Columna, ad loc.) Consentia, a town of the Brutii, the capital of that people according to Strabo (255), and situated at the sources of the river Crathis. It was taken by Hannibal after the surrender of Petilia (Liv., 23, 30), but again fell into the hands of the Romans towards the end of the war. (Liv., 29, 38.) It is now represented by Cosenza. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 434.) Constans, a son of Constantine. (Wid. Constantinus.) Cosstantia, a granddaughter of Constantine, who married the Emperor Gratian.

Constantina, a princess, wife of the Emperor (Hallus. Constantinopólis. Wid. Byzantium. Constantinus (Caius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Claudius), surnamed the Great, son of the Emperor Constantius Chlorus, was born A.D. 272, or, according to some authorities, A.D. 274, at Naisus, a city of Dacia Mediterranea. When Constantine's father was associated in the government by Dioclesian, the sen was retained at court as a kind of hostage, but was treated with great kindness at first, and was allowed several opportunities of distinguishing himself. After the abdication of Dioclesian, Constantius and Galerius were elevated to the rank of Augusti, while two new Caesars, Severus and Maximin, were appointed to second them. Constantine was not called to the succession. Dioclesian, partial to Galerius, his sonin-law, had left the nomination of the two new Ca:sars to the latter; and the son of Constantius, whose popularity and talents had excited the jealousy of Galerius, and whose departure, although earnestly solicited by his father, was delayed from time to time under the most frivolous pretences, with difficulty at length obtained permission to join his parent in the West, and only escaped the machinations of the em. peror by travelling with his utmost speed until he reached the western coast of Gaul. He came just in time to join the Roman legions, which were about to sail under his father's command to Britain, in order to make war upon the Caledonians. Having subdued the northern barbarians, Constantius returned to York, where he died in the month of July, in the year 306. Galerius, sure of the support of his two creatures, the Caesars, had waited impatiently for the death of his colleague, to unite the whole Roman empire under his individual sway. But the moderation and justice of Constantius had rendered.him the more dear to his soldiers from the contrast of these qualities with the ferocity of his rival. At the moment of his death, the legions stationed at York, as a tribute of gratitude and affection to his memory, and, according to some, at his dying request, saluted his son Constantine with the title of Caesar, and decorated him with the purple. Whatever resentment Galerius felt at this, he soon perceived the danger of engaging in a civil war. As the eldest of the emperors, and the representative of Dioclesian, he recognised the authority of the colleague imposed upon him by the legions. Ise assigned unto him the administration of Gaul and Britain, but gave him only the fourth rank among the rulers of the empire, and the title of Caesar. Under this official appellation, Constantine administered the prefecture of Gaul for six years (A.D. 306–312), perhaps the most glorious, and certainly the most virtuous, period of his life.—The title and rank of Augustus, which his soldiers had conferred upon Constan. time, but which Galerius had not allowed him to retain, the latter gave to Severus, one of his own Caesars. This dignity had been expected by Maxentius, son of the abdicated Emperor Maximian, the former colleague of Dioclesian: , Indignant at his disappointment, Maxentius caused himself to be proclaimed emperor by his army and, to colour his usurpation, he induced his father to leave his retreat and resume the imperial title. . A scene of contention followed, scarcely paralleled in the annals of Rome. Severus marched against the two usurpers; but was abandoned by his own troops, yielded, and was slain. Galerius levied a great army, and marched into Italy against Maximian and Maxentius, who, dreading his power, retired to Gaul, and endeavoured to procure the support of Constantine. This politic prince did not consider it expedient to provoke a war at that time, and for no better cause; and Galerius having withdrawn from Italy and returned to the East, Maximian and Maxentius returned to Rome. To aid him in the AAA

struggle, Galerius conferred the title of emperor on his friend Licinius; and thus there were at once six pretenders to the sovereignty of the empire, namely, Galerius and Licinius, Maximian and his son Maxentius, Maximin, who had been nominated Caesar by Galerius, and Constantiue, the son and successor of Constantius. Among these rivals Constantine possessed a decided superiority in prudence and abilities, both military and political. The harsh teinper of Maximian soon led to a quarrel between him and his son Maxentius. Quitting Rome, he went to Gaul, to Constantine, who had become his son-in-law when he and his son were endeavouring to make head against Galerius. Here also Maximian found himself disappointed of that power which he so greatly longed to possess, and, having plotted against Constantine, was detected and put to death. Galerius died not long after, leaving his power to be divided between his Caesars Maximin and Licinius; and there were now four competitors for the empire, Constantine, Maxentius, Maximin, and Licinius. Maxentius speedily provoked open hostilities with Constantine, who marched at the head of a powerful army towards Rome. It was while Constantine was proceeding on this momentous expedition that he made an open and public declaration in favour of Christianity. Before that time, the persecuting edicts of Dioclesian had been much mitigated by the forbearance and leniency of Constantius; and Constantine not only followed his father's example in being merciful to the persecuted Christians, but even showed thern some marks of positive favour. Very considerable numbers of them, in consequence, flocked to his standard, and swelled the ranks of his army. Their peaceful, orderly, and faithful conduct, contrasting most favourably with the turbulent and dissolute behaviour of those who formed the mass of common armies, won his entire confidence. To what extent this led Constantine to form a favour. ble opinion of Christianity, or inclined him to view with esteem and respect the tenets which had produced such results, cannot be ascertained. How far his avowed reception of Christianity was influenced by the prudence of the politician, how far by the conviction of the convert, it is impossible to determine. The accounts of his dream and his vision (rid. Labarum). which united to enforce his trust in Christianity, bear too much the aspect of fiction, or of having been the illusive consequences of mental anxiety, brooding intensely on the possible results of a great religious revolution, to be woven into the narrative of sober history. This, at least, is certain: Constantine caused the cross to be employed as the imperial standard, and advanced with it to promised victory. After the armies of Maxentius, led by his generals, had sustained two suc. cessive defeats, that emperor himself, awakening from his sensual and inactive life at Rome, advanced against his formidable assailant, and met him near the little river Cremera, about nine miles from the city. Maxentius lost the day, after a bloody conflict, and, in endeavouring to enter the city by the Milvian bridge, was precipitated into the Tiber, where he perished. Constantine was received at Rome with acclamations; Africa acknowledged hin, as well as Italy; and an edict of religious toleration, issued at Milan, extended the advantages, hitherto enjoyed by Gaul alone, to this prefecture also. After a brief stay at Rome, during which he restored to the senate their authority, disbanded the praetorian guard, and destroyed their fortified camp, from which they had so long awed the city and given rulers to the empire, Constantine proceeded to Illyricum to meet Licinius, with whom he had formed a secret league before marching against Maxentius. The two emperors met at Milan, where their alliance was ratified by the marriage of Licinius to Constantine's sister. During this calm interview, Constantine prevailed upon Licinius to #" the per

secuting edicts of Dioclesian, and to issue a new one, by which Christianity was encouraged, its teachers were honoured, and its adherents advanced to places of trust and influence in the state. After the overthrow of Maximin by Licinius, and his death at Nicomedia, Constantine and his brother-in-law were now the only two that remained of the six competitors for the empire; and the peace between them, which had seemed to be established on so firm a basis, was soon interrupted by a strife for sole supremacy. In the first war (A.C. 315) Constantine wrested Illyricum from his competitor. After an interval of eight years the contest was renewed. Licinius was beaten before Adrianople, the 3d July, 323, and Constantine the Great was recognised as sole master of the Roman world,—The seat of empire was now transferred to Byzantium, which took from him the name of Constantinople. Several edicts were issued for the suppression of idolatry; and their churches and property restored to the Christians, of which they had been deprived during the last persecution. A re-construction of the empire was effected upon a plan entirely new, and this renovated empire was pervaded by the worship and the institutions of Christianity. That much of the policy of the statesman was mixed up with this patronage of the new religion can easily be imagined. But still it would be wrong to make him, as some have done, a mere hypocrite and dissembler. The state of his religious knowledge, as far as we have any means of judging, was certainly very inadequate and impersect; but he was well aware of the characters of the two conflicting religions, Christianity and Paganism, and the purity of the former could not but have made some impression upon his mind.—The private character of Constantine has suffered, in the eyes of posterity, from the cruel treatment of Crispus, his son by his first wife, whom he had made the partner of his empire and the commander of his armies. Crispus was at the head of the administration in Gaul, where he gained the hearts of the people. In the wars against Licinius he had displayed singular talents, and had secured victory to the arms of his father. But, from that moment, a shameful and unnatural jealousy stifled every paternal feeling in the bosom of the monarch. He detained Crispus in his palace, surrounded him with spies and informers, and at length, in the month of July, 326, ordered him to be arrested in the midst of a grand festival, to be carried off to Pola in Istria, and there put to death. A cousin of Crispus, the son of Licinius and Constantine's sister, was at the same time sent, without trial, without even accusation, to the block. His mother implored in vain, and died of grief. Fausta, the daughter of Maximian, the wife of Constantine, and the mother of the three princes who succeeded him, was shortly after stifled in the bath by order of her husband.—Constantine died at the age of sixtythree, at Nicomedia, May 22, 337, after a reign of thirty-one years from the death of his father, and of fourteen from the conquest of the empire. (Hetherington, Hist. of Rome, p. 236, seqq.—Sismondi, Fall of the Roman Empire, p. 76, seqq.–Encyclop. Metropol., div. 3, vol. 3, p. 74, seqq.)—Constantine left three sons, Constantine, Constans, and Constantius, among whom he divided his empire. The first, who had Gaul, Spain, and Britain for his portion, was conquered by the armies of his brother Constans, and killed in the twenty-fifth year of his age, A.D. 340. Magnentius, the governor of the provinces of Rhaetia, murdered Constans in his bed, after a reign of thirteen years; and Constantius, the only surviving brother, now become the sole emperor, A.D. 353, punished his brother's murderer, and gave way to cruelty and oppression. He visited Rome, where he displayed a triumph, and died in his march against Julian, who had been proclaimed emperor by his soldiers. Constantius, I. Chlorus, son of Eutropius, and

father of Constantine the Great, merited the title of Caesar, which he obtained, by his victories in Britain and Germany. He became the colleague of Galerius on the abdication of Dioclesian; and, after bearing the character of a humane and benevolent prince, he died at York, and had his son for his successor, A.D. 306. —II. The third son of Constantine the Great. (Vid. Constantinus.)—III. The father of Julian and Gallus, was son of Constantius by Theodora, and died A.D. 337. —IV. A Roman general, who married Placidia, the sister of Honorius, and was proclaimed emperor, an honour he enjoyed only seven months. He died universally regretted, 421 A.D., and was succeeded by his son Valentinian in the West. CoNsu Alia, the festival of the god Consus. Consus.) CoNstiles, two chief magistrates at Rome, chosen annually by the people. The office commenced aster the expulsion of the kings, and the first two consuls were L. Junius Brutus and L. Tarquinius Collatinus, A.U.C. 244. . In the first ages of the republic the two consuls were always chosen from patrician families; but the people obtained the privilege, A.U.C. 388, of electing one of the consuls from their own body; and sometimes both were plebeians. The first consul from the plebeians was L. Sextius.--It was required that every candidate for the consulship should be forty-three years of age. He was always to appear at the election as a private man, without a retinue; and it was requisite, before he canvassed for the office, to have discharged the inferior functions of quaestor, a dile, and praetor. Sometimes, however, these qualifications were disregarded. M. Valerius Corvus was made a consul in his twenty-third year; Scipio Africanus the Elder in his twenty-fourth, and the Younger in his thirty-eighth; T. Quinctius Flamininus when not quite thirty; Pompey before he was full thirty-six.-The consuls were at the head of the whole republic; all the other magistrates were subject to them, except the tribunes of the commons. They assembled the people and senate, laid before them what they pleased, and executed their decrees. The laws which they proposed and got passed were usually called by their name. They received all letters from the governors of provinces, and from foreign kings and states, and gave audience to ambassadors. The year was named after them, as it used to be at Athens from one of the archons. Their insignia were the same with those of the kings (except the crown), namely, the toga praetexta, sella curulis, the sceptre or ivory staff, and twelve lictors with the fasces and securis. Within the city, the lictors went before only one of the consuls, and that commonly for a month alternately. A public servant, called accensus, went before the other consul, and the lictors followed. He who was eldest, or had most children, or who was first elected, or had most suffrages, had the fasces first. When the consuls commanded different armies, each of them had the fasces and securis; but when they both commanded the same army, they commonly had them for a day alternately. Valerius Poplicola took away the securis from the fasces, i. e., he took from the consuls the power of life and death, and only left them the right of scourging. Out of the city, however, when invested with military command, they retained the securis, i. e., the right of punishing capitally. Their provinces used anciently to be decreed by the senate after the consuls were elected or had entered on their office. But by the Sempronian law, passed A.U.C. 631, the senate always decreed two provinces to the future consuls before their election, which they, after entering upon their office, divided by lot or agreement. Sometimes a certain province was assigned to some one of the consuls, both by the senate and people, and sometimes again the people reversed what the senate had decreed respecting the

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