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in what this same lexicographer adds, that Choerilus was a young man when Xerxes invaded Greece, there is a contradiction to the previous assertion, since Herodotus was at this time but just born. Plutarch states, that Lysander of Sparta was very fond of the poet's society : this * fix the period when he flourished between the peace of Cimon and the commencement of the Peloponnesian war, or between 460 and 431 B.C. (Charilus, ed. Näke, p. 21, seqq.) In his old age Chaerilus was invited to the court of Macedonia by King Archelaus, who allowed him, it is said, three mine daily. At the court of this prince he died. Choerilus perceived that a poet could no longer please by following the footsteps of Homer, since a people arrived at the degree of civilization in which the Greeks then were, seemed no longer capable of relishing, in a modern work, the simplicity which possesses so many charms in the earlier national poetry. Chaerilus selected, in consequence, an historical subk. the victory of his countrymen over the arms of

erxes. In this, however, he was unfortunate, since so recent an event was incompatible with the employment of fiction, and fiction is an important part of the inachinery of every epic poem. According to Stobous, he entitled his poem IIspanic, “the Perseid.” We have so few fragments remaining of this poem of his, that we are unable to ascertain whether he ended it with the battle of Salamis, or carried it on to the close of the war with Xerxes. This poem was a monument raised to the glory of the Athenians. An ancient law of Solon's relative to Homer, was revived in honour of Choerilus, and the people decreed that the poem should be publicly read, every year, at the festival of the Panathenaea. Suidas, it is true, merely states, that “it was decreed that this poem should be read with those of Homer.” But such a resolve could only proceed from the Athenians, and could only have reference to the great celebration just mentioned, which periodically reunited the tribes of Attica. Suidas adds, that the author received a piece of gold for every verse; a recompense but little in unison with the spirit of a republic, and still less probable in the case of a long epic poem. It would seem, in fact, that Suidas is here mistaken, and relates of the Samian Chaerilus what happened to another poet of the same name, who composed an effusion in honour of Alexander the Great. (Chaerilus, ed. Nāke, p. 78, seqq.) Whatever the reputation of Choerilus may have been, one thing at least is certain, that the Alexandrean critics excluded him from their canon, in which they assigned the fifth and last place to his rival Antimachus, A certain want of elegance with which the style of Choerilus was reproached, as well as the predilection of Plato for Antimachus, may have been the primary causes of this disgraceful exclusion of the Athenian poet—Among the fragments of the Perseid which have come down to us, there are some verses that have given rise to a curious discus. sion. The lines in question are preserved for us by Josephus (contra Apion., 1, p. 454—vol. 2, ed. Harercamp), as the most ancient profane document in which mention is made of the Jews. In the enumeration of the forces composing the army of Xerxes, Cherilus speaks of the inhabitants of the mountains of Solymi, in the vicinity of a large lake. ('Alukeov ć' £v Xozruoto opequo, Tzarém Ti žiuvm.) Josephus is convinced that the poet means Jerusalem, but some critics of modern days insist that the Solymi in Lycia are meant, because Choerilus speaks of these troops as Toorokovpatoes, i. e., having the hair cut in a circular form ; a usage which the Levitical law (Lerit., 19, 27) forbade, with the express view of distinguishing the Jews from the neighbouring nations. All doubt, however, is removed with regard to the poet's meaning, by his adding, that the troops in question spoke the Phoenician tongue, of which the Hebrew is

only a dialect (TAGagav učv botvaaav &ró arouárov ūguévres). It is probable, therefore, that Chaerilus knew the inhabitants of these countries had in general the custom of cutting the hair of the head in this way, and that his means of information had not put him in possession of the fact, that one community of Syria deviated from this custom. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 2, p. 125, seqq)—III. A poet of Iassus in Asia Minor, of whom Horace (Epist, 2, 1, 233.—Epist. ad Pis., 357), Quintus Curtius (8, 5, 8), and Ausonius (Ep. 16), as well as Acron and Porphyrion, the scholasts on Horace, make mention. It was to this poet that Alexander the Great is said to have promised a piece of gold for every good verse which he should compose in his praise. The commentator, known under the name of the scholiast of Cruquius, informs us, that Choerilus could only produce seven lines that were deemed worthy of the price offered by the monarch. Porphyrion, however, remarks in more general terms, Hujus omnino septem versus laudabantur.” Now Strabo (672), and also Athenaeus (8, 356), have preserved for us a translation, by Choerilus, into seven hexameters, of the Assyrian inscription on the tomb of Sardanapalus; and hence it has been supposed that these are the seven verses to which the scholiasts reser.—It is also stated of Choeritus that he consented to receive a blow for every verse of his encomiums on Alexander which should be rejected by the judges, and that he paid dearly, in consequence, for his foolish presumption. It is probable that he was the author of the poem on the Lamiac war (Aautaka), which Suidas erroneously ascribes to the Samian Choerilus. (Chaerilus, ed. Näke, p. 101, seqq.—Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 3, p. 75.) Chor Asmi, a people of Asia, between Sogdiana and the northeastern shore of the Caspian, whose capital was Gorgo, now Urgheng. Their country is now Kharasm. Ritter has some curious speculations on the name Khorasan, as indicating a country in which the worship of the sun anciently prevailed (KhorAsan. Ritter, Vorhalle, p. 90.) Choroebus. Vid. Coroebus. Chosroes, I. (more correctly Khosrou), king of Persia, surnamed the Great, was the twenty-first monarch of the line of the Sassanides, and succeeded his father Kobad, A.D. 531. The Orientals, even after the lapse of twelve centuries, are accustomed to cite him as a model for kings, and the glorious surname of the “Just” is one which he frequently bears in history. Chosroes manifested even in early life the germes of those virtues which were afterward so brilliantly developed by him on coming to the throne. At the period of his accession Persia was involved in a war with Justinian, but Chosroes succeeded in negotiating a favourable peace, by the terms of which the Roman emperor had to pay 11,000 pounds of gold, and forego various advantages. Not long after (A.D. 540), having become powerful by reason of various Asiatic conquests, and regarding the Romans as usurpers of many of the an cient provinces of Persia, he invaded Syria, laid Antioch in ashes, and only drew off his forces from the territories of the empire on the payment of a considerable sum. After several other victorious expeditions, he renewed the war with Justin, the successor of Justinian, whom he compelled to solicit a truce, but was soon after driven back across the Euphrates by Tiberius, the new emperor, and the Romans took up their winter-quarters in the Persian provinces. Chosroes died Al). 579, after a glorious reign of forty-eight years. He encouraged the arts, founded schools, and is said to have made considerable proficiency in philosophy himself. (Saint-Martin, in Biogr. Unir, vol. 22, p. 380, scqq-Encycl. Am, vol. 3, p. 162.)-II. The second of the name, grandson of the preceding, ascended the Persian throne A.D. 590. The earlier part of his career was marked by great ** of for

tune, he having been dethroned and driven from his Chryskis, the patronymic of Astynome, daughter kingdom by a formidable rival, and compelled to take of Chryses. (Wid. Chryses.) refuge with the Emperor Maurice. He owed his res- | Chryses, a priest of Apollo Smintheus at Chrysa. toration to the generous aid of the same potentate. He was the father of Astynome, who was called from Not long after, upon the death of Maurice, he carried him Chryseis. In the division of the spoils of Hypohis victorious arms against his former allies, to the placian Thebe, when that city was taken by the very walls of Constantinople and Alexandrea; and Greeks, Chryseis, as one of the captives, sell to the subsequently he beheld the very Romans, whom he share of Agamemnon. Chryses, upon hearing of his had so often defeated, penetrating, under Heraclius, daughter's fate, repaired to the Grecian camp, attired into the heart of the Persian empire, and pillaging and in his sacerdotal insignia, to solicit her restitution ; burning his palace itself. He was at last dethroned and when his prayers were fruitless, he implored the by his own son and cast into prison, where he died aid of Apollo, who visited the Greeks with a pesti

A.D. 628. (Saint-Martin, in Biogr. Univ., vol. 22, p. lence, and obliged them to restore Chryseis.

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Chronium MARE, a name applied by the ancients asked how Chryseis, a native of Chrysa, could have

to the Frozen Ocean. Pliny (4, 13), called it Morimarusa, i.e., “the dead sea.”

thick, coagulated, frozen sea. Journal, vol. 6, p. 297.)

Chrysa, I. a town of Troas, on the coast, near the city of Hamaxitus, where lived Chryses, the father of the beautiful Chryseis. (Homer, Iliad, 1, 37. —Id, ibid., 430, &c.) Strabo (604), however, places it in the innermost part of the Adramyttian Gulf, and hence some are in favour of making two places of this name, an old and a new Chrysa. (Compare Heyne's note to the German transl. of Le Cheraller, p. 7, seqq.). This place was famous for a temple of Apollo Smintheus (vid. Smintheus), whence it was also called Sminthium. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 3, p. 463.)—II. A small island in the immediate wicinity of Lemnos, in which Philoctetes took up his abode when suffering from the wound inflicted by one of the arrows of Hercules. (Pausan., 8, 33.) It was afterward submerged by the sea, in accordance with an ancient prediction. (Herodot., 7, 6.) Choiseul-Gouffier (Voyage pittoresque de la Greece, vol. 2,

129) thinks he saw traces of it still remaining.

That the change here referred to has been occasioned by volcanic action no one can doubt. (Wid. Mosychlus.) The whole island of Lemnos is said to bear the strongest marks of the effects of volcanic fire; the rocks in many parts are like the burned and vitrified scoria of furnaces. (Hunt's Journal, in Walpole's Collection, vol. 2, p. 59.)

Chrys ANthius, an eclectic philosopher of Sardis, made highpriest of Lydia by the Emperor Julian, and supposed to possess a power of conversing with the gods and of predicting future events. (Eunap, p. 144, seqq.—Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. 2,

. 71.)

p Chryskor, a son of Medusa by Neptune, born immediately after the decapitation of his mother by Perseus. (Apollod, 2, 4, 2.—Heyne, ad loc.) He was of gigantic stature, and received his name, according to Hesiod (Theog., 283), from his wielding in his hands a “golden sword” (Ypugetov dop). Chrysaor became by Callirhoë, one of the ocean-nymphs, the father of Geryon and Echidna. (Hesiod, Theog., 287, seqq.— Compare Ctesias Ephes. ap. Plut. de flum., p. 1034, ed. Wytt.—Tzetz. ad Lycophr., v. 17.)—The legend of Chrysaor, like that of Perseus itself, has a blended religious and astronomical reference. It is based on the idea of purification by blood, and also of the reappearance of fertility, after the darker period of the year, the months of winter, have passed away. (Compare remarks under the article Perseus.)

Chrysaorius, a surname of Jupiter, from his temple at Stratonice in Caria. There was a political union of certain Carian states, which held their meetings here, under the name of Chrysaorium. These states had votes in proportion to the number of towns they possessed. (Strab., 660.-Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 204.)

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(Compare Classical safety than Chrysa, while another made her to have | gone thither to attend a festival of Diana. (Eustath.

ad Îl., l. 366.) Chrysippus, I. a son of Pelops, carried off by Laius. (Apollod., 3, 5, 6.) This circumstance became a theme with many ancient writers, and hence the story assumed different shapes, according to the fancy of those who handled it. The death of Chrysippus was also related in different ways. According to the common account, he was slain by Atreus, at the instigation of b s stepmother Hippodamia. (Consult Heyne, ad lot.)—II. A stoic philosopher of Soli in Cilicia Campestris. He fixed his residence at Athens, and became a disciple of Cleanthes, the successor of Zeno. He was equally distinguished for natural abilities and industry, seldom suffering a day to elapse without writing 500 lines. He wrote several hundred volumes, of which three hundred were on logical subjects, but in all he borrowed largely from others. He maintained, with the Stoics in general, that the world was God, or a universal effusion of his spirit, and that the superior part of this spirit, which consisted in mind and reason, was the common nature of things, containing the whole and every part. Sometimes he speaks of God as the power of fate and the necessary chain of events; sometimes he calls him fire, and sometimes he deifies the fluid parts of nature, as water and air; and again, the earth, sun, moon, and stars, and the universe in which these are comprehended, and even those men who have obtained immortality. He was very fond of the figure Sorites in arguing, which is hence called by Persius the heap of Chrysippus. His discourses abounded more in curious subtleties and nice distinctions than in solid arguments. In disputation, in which he spent the greatest part of his life, he discovered a degree of promptitude and confidence which approached towards audacity. He often said to his preceptor, “Give me doctrines, and I will find arguments to support them.” It was a singular proof of his haughty spirit, that when a certain person asked him what preceptor he would advise him to choose for his son, he said, “Me ; for if I thought any philosopher excelled me, I would myself become his pupil " With so much contempt did he look down upon the distinctions of rank, that he would never, as other philosophers did, pay his court to princes or great men, by dedicating to them any of his writings. The vehemence and arrogance with which he supported his tenets, created him many adversaries, particularly in the Academic and Epicurean sects. Even his friends of the Stoic school complained, that, in the warmth of dispute, while he was attempting to load his adversary with the reproach of obscurity and absurdity, his own ingenuity often failed him, and he adopted such unusual and illogical modes of reasoning, as gave his opponents great advantages over him. (Cic., Ac. Quast., 4, 27.) It was also a common practice with Chrysippus, at different times, to take the opposite sides of the same question, and thus furnish his antagonists with weapons, which might easily be turned, as occasion offered, against himself. Carneades, who was one of his most able and skilful adversaries, frequently availed himself of this circumstance, and refuted Chrysippus by convicting him of inconsistency. Of his writings nothing remains, except a few extracts which are preserved in the works of Cicero, Plutarch, Seneca, and Aulus Gellius. He died in the 143d Olympiad, B.C. 208, at the age of eighty-three. A statue was erected to his memory by Ptolemy. (Diog. Laert., 7, 1895–Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 358.) Chrysock RAs, or the horn of gold, a name given to the harbour of Byzantiuin. (Wid. Byzantium.) Chrysopolis, a town and harbour opposite Byzantium, on the Asiatic shore. It is often mentioned in history. The Athenians established there a toll, towards the close of the Peloponnesian war, to be paid by all ships coming from the Euxine. (Xen., Hist, Gr, 1, 1, 14.—Polyb., 4, 44, 3.) The ten thousand Greeks were encamped there for some days prior to crossing over into Thrace. (Xen., Anab., 6, 6, 22.) It is mentioned by Strabo (563) as a small town, and Pliny says, “Fult Chrysopolis” (5, 32). Several historians, however, of a later date, continue to speak of it. (Zosim, 2, 30.—Socrat., Hist, Eccles., 1, 4.— Amm. Marcell., 22, 12.) Stephanus of Byzantium gives various etymological derivations of the name. The modern Scutari is thought to correspond to the ancient place. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 1, p. 191, seq.) Chrysor RhöAs, or Golden Stream, a river of Syria, near Damascus. It rises in Mount Libanus, and, after leaving its native valley, divides itself into five small streams near the village of Dumar, The main one of these flows through Damascus, while two others water the gardens in the plain of El-Gutha. All the streams unite subsequently, and their collected waters empty into the sea. The Chrysorrhoas is the same with the Bardine or Amana (in Scripture Abana, 2 Kings, 5, 12), now the Baradi. (Abulfeda, Tab. Syr.—Burckhardt, p. 37–Von Richter, Wallfahrt, p. 154, seqq.) - Chrysostom (St. John), an eminent father of the church, was born of a noble family at Antioch, A.D. 347. His father's name was Secundus, and the surname of Chrysostom, or “golden mouth” (Xpwačarouoc), obtained by the son, was given to him on account of his eloquence. He was bred to the bar, but quitted it for an ascetic life: first, with a monk on a mountain near Antioch, and then in a cave by himself. He remained in this retirement six years, when he returned to Antioch, and, being ordained, became so celebrated for his talents as a preacher, that, on the death of Nectarius, patriarch of Constantinople, he was chosen to supply his place. On obtaining this preferment, which he very unwillingly accepted, he acted with great vigour and austerity in the reform of abuses, and exhibited all the mistaken notions of the day in regard to celibacy and the monastic life. He also persecuted the pagans and heretics with great zeal, and sought to extend his episcopal power with such unremitting ardour, that he involved himself in a quarrel with Theophilus, bishop of Alexandrea, who enjoyed the patronage of the Empress Eudoxia; which quarrel ended in his formal deposition by a synod held at Chalcedon A.D. 403. He was, however, so popular in Constantinople, that a formidable insurrection ensucci, and the empress herself interfered for his return. Towards the end of the same year, owing to his zeal relative to a statue of Eudoxia, placed near the great church, and causing a disturbance of public worship, all his troubles were renewed. If true, that in one of his sermons the empress was compared by him

to Herodias, who sought the head of John in a char. ger, the anger of Eudoxia was not altogether unjustifiable. The consequence of her resentment was the assembling of another synod, and in A.D. 404 the patriarch was again deposed and sent into exile. The place of his banishment was Cucusus, a lonely town among the ridges of Mount Taurus, on the confines of Cappadocia and Cilicia. He sustained himself with much fortitude; but having, by means of his great influence and many adherents, procured the intercession of the western emperor, Honorius, with his brother Arcadius, he was ordered to be removed still farther from the capital, and died on the journey at Comana in Pontus, A.D. 407, at the age of sixty. Opinion was much divided in regard to his merits for some time after his death, but at length his partisans prevailed, and, thirty years from his decease, he was removed from his place of interment as a saint, and his remains were met in procession by the Emperor Theodosius the younger, on their removal from the place of his original interment to Constantinople. Chrysostom was a voluminous writer, but more eloquent than either learned or acute. Although falling short of Attic purity, his style is free, copious, and unasfected, and his diction often glowing and elevated. The numerous treatises or sermons by which he chiefly gained his reputation, are very curious for the information they contain on the customs and manners of the times, as elicited by his declamation against prevailing vices and follies. The first entire Greek edition of the works of Chrysostom was that of Sir Henry Saville, at Eton, in 8 vols. folio, 1613; but that of Montsaucon, Paris, with annotations and his life, 11 vols. folio, 1718, is by far the most complete. (Gorton's Biogr. Dict., vol. 1, p. 485.) ChrysothèMis, I. a daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra.-II. A Cretan, who first obtained the poetical prize at the Pythian games. (Pausanias, 10, 7.) Cubile, a town of Lower Pannonia, situate on the Saavus, about fifty miles from Sirmium, and about one hundred from the confluence of the Saavus and Danube. It was famous for the defeat of Licinius by Constantine, A.D. 315, and was also the birthplace of Gratian. Its name is preserved in the obscure ruins of Sarilei. (Eutropius, 10, 4.—Amm. Marcellinus, 30, 24.) Ciby RA, I. a flourishing commercial city in the southwest angle of Phrygia, between Lycia and Caria. It was surnamed the Great for distinction' sake from another city of the same name situate in Pamphylia. - Cibyra seems to have been originally a small town of the Cabalees, from whom the tract of Cabalia or Cabalis took its name. On the accession, however, of a Pisidian colony, the site was changed, the town considerably enlarged, and the name gradually altered from Cabalis, or some analogous form, to that of Cibyra. The place became very prosperous, and its prosperity was chiefly owing to the excellence of its laws, though the government was that of an absolute monarchy. Under this government were included the three old Cabalian towns of Bubon, Balbura, and OEnoanda, and these, together with the capital Cibyra, constituted a tetrapolis. Each of these towns had one vote in the general assembly of the states, except Cibyra, which had two, in consideration of its superior power. This city, as we are told by Strabo, could raise no less than 30,000 foot and 2000 horse, and its influence and power extended over a part of Pisidia, Milyas, and Lycia, as far as Peraa of the Rhodians. (Strab, 63i.) After its conquest by the Romans, we find Cibyra mentioned as the chief city of a considerable forum or conventus, comprising not less than twenty-five towns. (Cic., Ep. ad Att., 5, 31. –Plin., 5, 29.) According to Tacitus (Ann., 4, 13), Cibyra, having been nearly destroyed Šia" earthquake, was afterward restored by Tiberius. writers we find it included within the limits of Caria. (Hierocl., 690.) Strabo reports, that there were four dialects in use at Cibyra : that of the ancient Solymi, the Greek, the Pisidian, and the Lydian ; the latter, however, he adds, was quite extinct even in Lydia. The Cibyratae excelled in engraving on iron or steel. (Strab., 631.) No trace of the ruins of Cibyra has as yet been discovered. They are to be found, however, in all probability, not far from Denisli, or Laodicea, on a river which is either the Lycus or a branch of it. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 269, seqq.)—II. A town on the coast of Pamphylia, southeast of Aspendus, called Cibyra Parva, for distinction' sake from the preceding. Ptolemy annexes it to Cilicia Trachea. Its site corresponds to that of the modern Iburar. (Strab., 667.) Cuckro, MArcus Tullius, a celebrated Roman orator, was born at Arpinum, the native place of Marius, B.C. 107, the same year which gave birth to Pompey the Great. His family was ancient, and of equestrian rank, but had never taken part in public affairs at Rome, though both his father and grandfather were persons of consideration in the part of Italy in which they resided. (Or. contra. Rull., 2, 1.) His father, being a man of cultivated mind, determined to educate

his two sons, Marcus and Quintus, on an enlarged

and liberal plan, and to fit them for the prospect of those public employments which his own weak state of health incapacitated him from seeking. Marcus, the elder of the two, soon displayed indications of a superior mind, and we are told that his schoolfellows carried home such accounts of his extraordinary parts, that their parents often visited the school for the sake of seeing a youth who gave so much promise of future eminence. (Plut. in Vit.) One of his earliest masters was the poet Archias, whom he defended afterward in his consular year; and under his instruction he made such proficiency as to compose a poem, though yet a boy, on the fable of Glaucus, which had formed the subject of one of the tragedies of Æschylus. Soon after he assumed the manly gown, he was placed under the care of Scaevola, the celebrated lawyer, whom he introduces so beautifully into several of his philosophical dialogues; and in no long time he gained a thorough knowledge of the laws and political institutions of his country. (De Clar., Or., 29.) This was about the time of the Social War; and, according to the Roman custom, which made it a necessary part of education to learn the military art by actual service, Cicero took the opportunity of serving a campaign under the consul Pompeius Strabo, father of Pompey the Great. Returning to pursuits more congenial to his natural taste, he commenced the study of philosophy under Philo the Academic. But his chief attention was reserved for oratorv, to which he applied himself with the assistance of Molo, the first rhetorician of the day; while Diodotus, the Stoic, exercised him in the argumentative subtleties for which the disciples of Zeno were so celebrated. At the same time he declaimed daily in Greek and Latin with some young noblemen, who were competitors in the same race of honours with himself.-Cicero was the first Roman who found his way to the highest dignities of the state with no other recommendation than his powers of eloquence and his merits as a civil magistrate. (Or. in Cat., 3, 6–In Pis., 3.— Pro Sull, 30–Pro Dom., 37–De Harusp. Resp., 23.—Ep. ad Fam., 15, 4.) The first cause of importance which he undertook was the defence of Roscius Amerinus, in which he distinguished himself by his courageous defence of his client, who had been accused of parricide by Chrysogonus, a favourite of Sylla's. This obliging him, however, according to Plutarch, to leave Rome from prudential motives, the power of Sylla being at that time paramount, he employed his time in travelling for

In later two years under pretence of his health, which he tells

us was yet unequal to the exertion of pleading. (De Clar, Or., 91.) At Athens he met with T. Pomponius Atticus, whom he had formerly known at school, and there renewed with him a friendship which lasted through life, in spite of the change of interest and estrangement of affection so commonly attendant on turbulent times. Here too he attended the lectures of Antiochus, who, under the name of an Academic, taught the dogmatic doctrines of Plato and the Stoics. Though Cicero at first evinced considerable dishke of his philosophical views, he seems afterward to have adopted the sentiments of the Old Academy, which they much resembled, and not until late in life to have relapsed into the sceptical tenets of his earlier instructer Philo. (Warburton, Dir. Leg., lib. 3, sec. 3.—Vossius, de Nat. Log, c. 8, sec. 22.) After visiting the principal philosophers and rhetoricians of Asia, he returned at the age of thirty to Rome, so strengthened and improved both in bodily and mental powers, that he soon eclipsed in speaking all his competitors for public favour. So popular a talent speedily gained him the suffrage of the commons; and being sent to Sicily as quaestor, at a time when the metropolis itself was visited with a scarcity of corn, he acquitted himself in that delicate situation with so much success as to supply the clamorous wants of the people without oppressing the province from which the provisions were raised. (Or. pro Planc., 26–In Verr., 5, 14.) Returning thence with greater honours than had ever before been decreed to a Roman governor, he gained for himself still farther the esteem of the Sicilfans, by undertaking his celebrated prosecution of Verres; who, though defended by the influence of the Metelli and the eloquence of Hortensius, was driver. in despair into voluntary exile. Five years after his qua-storship Cicero was elected a dile. Though possessed of only a moderate fortune, he nevertheless, with the good sense and taste which mark his charac. ter, was enabled, while holding this expensive office, to preserve in his domestic arrangements the dignity of a literary and public man, without any of the ostentation of magnificence which often distinguished the candidate for popular applause. (Or, pro Dom., 58.) After the customary interval of two years, he was returned at the head of the list as praetor (Or, in Pis., 1), and now made his first appearance on the rostra in support of the Manilian law. About the same time, also, he defended Cluentius. At the expiration of his praetorship, he refused to accept a foreign province, the usual reward of that magistracy; but, having the consulship full in view, and relying on his interest with Caesar and Pompey, he allowed nothing to divert him from that career of glory for which he now believed himself to be destined. Having succeeded at length in attaining to the high office of which he was in quest, he signalized his consulship by crushing the conspiracy of Catiline ; and the Romans hailed him, on the discovery and overthrow of this nefarious plot, as the Father and Deliverer of his country. His consulate was succeeded by the return of Pompey from the East, and the establishment of the First Triumvirate; which, disappointing his hopes of political greatness, induced him to resume his sorensic and literary occupations. From these he was called off, after an interval of four years, by the threatening measures of Clodius, who at length succeeded in driving him into exile. This event, which, considering the circumstances connected with it, was one of the most glorious of his life, filled him with the utmost distress and despondency. Its history is as follows. Clodius, Cicero's bitter enemy, had caused a law to be renewed, declaring every one guilty of treason who ordered the execution of a Roman citizen before the people had condemned him. The blow was aimed against Cicero, on account of the Punishment he had caused to be inflicted, by the authority of the senate, upon the accomplices of Catiline. The illustrious ex-consul put on mourning, and appeared in public, accompanied by the equites and many young patricians, demanding the protection of the people. Clodius, however, at the head of his armed adherents, insulted them repeatedly, and ventured even to besiege the senate house. Cicero, upon this, went into voluntary exile. His conduct, however, in this reverse of fortune, showed anything but the firmness of a man of true spirit. He wandered about Greece, bewailing his miserable condition, refusing the consolations which his fiends attempted to administer, and shunning the pullic honours with which the Greek cities were eager to load him. (Ep. ad Att., lib. 3. —Ep, ad Fam., lib. 14.—Or. pro Sert., 22.—Pro Dom., 36.) He ultimately took refuge in Thessalonica with Plancus. Clodius, in the mean time, procured new decrees, in consequence of which Cicero's country seats were torn down, and a temple of Freedon built on the site of his house at Rome. His wife and children were also exposed to ill usage from his imbittered persecutors. A favourable change, however, soon took place in the minds of his countrymen. The audacity of Clodius became insupportable to all : Pompey encouraged Cicero's friends to get him recalled to Rome, and the senate also declared that it would not attend to any business until the decree which ordered his banishment was revoked. Through the zeal of the consul Lentulus, and at the proposition of several tribunes, the decree of recall passed the assembly of the people in the following year, in spite of a bloody tumult, in which Cicero's brother Quintus was dangerously wounded; and the orator returned to his native country, after an absence of ten months, and was received with every mark of honour. The senate met him at the city gates, and his entry resembled a triumph. The attacks of Clodius, though they could now do no harm, were immediately renewed, until Cicero was freed from the insults of this turbulent demagogue by the hand of Milo, whom he afterward, in a public trial for the deed, unsuccessfully defended. (Vid. Milo.) Five years after his return from exile he received the government of Cilicia, in consequence of Pompey's law, which obliged those senators of consular or praetorian rank who had never held any foreign command, to divide the vacant provinces among them. Cicero conducted a war, while in this office, with good success against the plundering tribes of the mountain districts of Cilicia, and was greeted by his soldiers with the title of Imperator. He resigned his command and returned to Italy, about the close of the year 703, intending to prefer his claim to a triumph; but the troubles which were just then commencing between Caesar and Pomey prevented him from obtaining one. His return |. was followed by earnest endeavours to reconcile Pompey with Caesar, and by very spirited behaviour when Caesar required his presence in the senate. But this independent temper was only transient ; and at no period of his public life did he display such miserable vaciliation as at the opening of the civil war. His conduct, in this respect. had been faulty enough before, for he then vacillated between the several members of the first triumvirate, defending Watinius in order to please Caesar, and his bitter political enemy Gabinius to ingratiate himself with Pompey. Now, however, we find him first accepting a commission from the republic; then courting Caesar; next, on Pompey's sailing for Greece, resolving to follow him thither; presently determining to stand neuter; then bent on retiring to the Pompeians in Sicily; and when, after all, he had joined their camp in Greece, discovering such timidity and discontent as to draw from Pompey the bitter reproof, “cupo ad hostes Cicero *::: ut nos timeat.” (Macrobius, Sat., 2, 3.) X

After the battle of Pharsalia and the flight of Pompey, he refused to take the command of some troops then under the orders of Cato, but returned to Italy, which was governed by Antony, the representative of Caesar, His return was attended with several unpleasant circumstances, until the conqueror wrote to him, and soon after received him in the most friendly spirit. Cicero now devoted himself entirely to literature and philosophy. The state of his private affairs, however, involved him in great embarrassment. A large sum, which he had advanced to Pompey, had impoverished him, and he was forced to stand indebted to Atticus for present assistance. These difficulties led him to a step which it has been customary to regard with great severity; the divorce of his wife Terentia, though he was then in his 62d year, and his marriage with his rich ward Publilia, who was of an age disproportionate to his own. Yet, in reviewing this proceeding, we must not adopt the modern standard of propriety, forgetful of the character of an age which reconciled actions even of moral turpitude with a reputation for honour and virtue. Terentia was a woman of a most imperious and violent temper, and (what is more to the purpose) had in no slight degree contributed to his present embarrassment by her extravagance in the management of his private affairs. By her he had two children, a son born the year before his consulship, and a daughter, whose loss he was now fated to experience. To Tullia he was tenderly attached, not only from the excellence of her disposition, but from her love of polite literature; and her death tore from him, as he so pathetically laments to Sulpicius, the only comfort which the course of public events had left him. (Ep. ad Fam., 4, 14.) His distress was increased by the unfeeling conduct of Publilia, whom he soon divorced for testifying joy at the death of her step-daughter. It was on this occasion that he wrote his treatise “On Consolation,” with a view to mitigate the anguish of his sufferings. . His friends were assiduous in their attentions; and Casar, who had treated him with the utmost kindness on his return from Egypt, signified the respect he bore his character by sending a letter of condolence from Spain, where the remains of the Pompeian party still engaged him. But no attentions, lo, considerate, could soften Cicero's vexation at seeing the country he had formerly saved by his exertions, now subjected to the tyranny of one master. His speeches, indeed, for Marcellus and Ligarius exhibit traces of inconsistency; but for the most part he retired from public business, and gave himself up to the composition of those works which, while they mitigated his political sorrows, have secured his literary celebrity. The assassination of Caesar, which took place in the following year, once more brought him on the stage of public affairs. He hoped to regain great political influence: but Antony took Caesar's place, and all that was left Cicero to do was to compose those admirable orations against him which are known by the name of Philippies, and are equally distinguished for eloquence and patriotism. His enmity towards Antony induced him to favour the young Octavius, although the pretended moderation of the latter by no means deceived him. With him originated all the energetic resolutions of the senate in favour of the war which the consuls and the young Caesar were conducting against Antony in the name of the republic; and for a time the prospect seemed to brighten. At last, however, Octavius having possessed himself of the consulship, and having formed an alliance, with Antony and |... Cicero became convinced that liberty was at an end. At Tusculum, whither he had retired with his brother and nephew, he learned that Octavius had basely deserted him, and that his name,

at Antony's demand, had been added to the list of the o He repaired, in a state of indecision, to

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