Obrazy na stronie

3.—Id., 4, 22–Liv., Epit., 48.-Eutrop., 4, 16– Isidor., Hisp. Chron. Goth., p. 173.) Celtics, a people of Lusitania, whose territory lay below the mouth of the Tagus, and between that river and the Turdetani. They were of Celtic origin, as their name imports, and their country answered to what is now the southern part of Alontejos. Their chief town was Pax Julia, now Boja. (Plin., 3, 1– Id., 4, 21.) CENAEUM, a promontory of Euboea, which formed the extreme point of the island towards the northwest. The modern name is Lithada. (Strab., 444.—Plun., 4, 12–Ptol., p. 87.) CENch REAE, I. a harbour of Corinth, on the Saronic Gulf, from which this city traded with Asia, the Cyclades, and the Euxine. (Strabo, 380.) It was about seventy stadia from the city itself; and the road thither appears, from the account of Pausanias, to have been lined with temples and sepulchres. Dr. Clarke observes, that the remains at Cenchreas faithfully correspond with the description given by Pausanias of the spot. Sir W. Gell says the place is still called Kenchres. (Itin. of the Morea, p. 207.)—II. A village of Argolis, near the frontiers of Arcadia, southwest of Argos. A tumulus was here erected to some Argives who had fallen in a battle with the Spartans. (Strabo, 376.) CENchréis, a small island off the Spiracum Promontorium of Argolis. (Plin., 4, 11.) CeNch Rius, a river of Ionia rear Ephesus and Mount Solmissus, where the Curetes, according to some, concealed and protected Latona after her delivery, when she was pursued by the power of Juno. (Strab., 639. —Tacit., Ann., 3, 61.) CENIMAGNI, a people of Britain, north of the Trinobantes, on the eastern coast, forming part of the great nation of the Iceni. (Vid. Iceni.) Lipsius, however, rejects the term Cenimagni, where it occurs in the text of Caesar (B. G., 5, 21), on the ground that this race are nowhere else mentioned among the British tribes, and he proposes to read in place of it, Iceni, Cangi. The author of the Greek paraphrase of Caesar has Kevtuavoi, whence Vossius conjectured the true reading to be Cenomani, and supposed this nation to have crossed over from Gaul. (Lemaire, Ind. Geogr. ad Caes., p. 231, seqq.) CENINA. Wid. Caenina. CeNoMANI, a people of Gaul, belonging to the nation of the Aulerci. (Vid. Aulerci.) CENsóres, two magistrates of great authority at Rome, first created A.U.C. 312. The office of the censors was chiefly to estimate the fortunes, and to inspect the morals of the citizens. For a full account of their duties, &c., consult Adams, Rom. Ant. CENsokinus, I. one of the ephemeral Roman emperors who appeared in so great numbers under the reign of Gallienus, and are known in later Roman history as “the thirty tyrants.” (Treb. Pollio, in Hist. Aug. Script., vol. 2, p. 254, ed. Hack.) Censorinus had been distinguished in camps and in the senate; he had been twice consul, twice praetorian prefect, three times prefect of Rome, and four times proconsul. After having passed through this honourable career, he retired to the country, being now advanced in years, and lame from a wound he had received in the war against the Persians during the reign of Valerian. It was under these circumstances that he was proclaimed emperor, A.D. 269, in spite, as it would appear, of his own wishes; and by a species of pleasantry he was surnamed, or rather nicknamed, Claudius, in allusion to his lameness (claudus, “lame”). The strict discipline, however, which he wished to introduce, gave of. fence, and he was slain by the very soldiers who had

raised him to the throne. (Treb. Poll., Vit. Cens.)—

II. A grammarian and philosopher, who flourished

under Maximus and Gordianus, about A.D. 238. He

wrote a small work entitled “De die Natali,” which was so called because composed on occasion of the birthday of his friend Cerellius. It treats of the time of birth, of the influence of one's Genius, as well as that of the stars, upon the birth-period of an individual; and embraces many other topics of a chronological, mathematical, and cosmographical character. Canio, therefore, who edited the work in 1583, separated the latter part of this production from the rest, and regards it as a fragment of an unknown author, “De naturall institutione.” The style of Censorinus is good, though not free, of course, from the blemishes natural to his time. We have also a fragment, de Metris, by this same writer. He composed also a work on accents, and another on geometry, but these last two have not reached us. The best edition of Censorinus is that of Havercamp, Lugd. Bat., 1743, 8vo, reprinted in 1767. (Bahr, Gesch. Röm Lit., vol. 1, p. 661.) The latest edition is that of Gruber, Nuremb, 1805, 8vo. CENtAuri, a Thessalian race fabled to have been half-men half-horses.—The Centaurs and Lapitha are two mythic tribes, which are always mentioned together. The former are spoken of twice in the Iliad, under the appellation of wild-creatures (ope), and once under their proper name. (Il., 1,268.-Ib., 2,742. —Ib., 11, 832.) We also find the name Centaurs in the Odyssey (21, 303). They seem to have been a rude mountain-tribe, dwelling on and about Mount Pelion. It is very doubtful whether Homer and Hesiod conceived them to be of a mingled form, as they were subsequently represented. In the fight of the Centaurs and Lapithae on the shield of Hercules, the latter appear in panoply fighting with spears, while the former wield pine-clubs. (Hes., Scut. Herc., 178, seqq.) Pindar is the earliest poet extant who expressly describes them as semi-ferine. According to him (Pyth., 2, 78, seqq.), the offspring of Ixion and the cloud (rid. Ixion) was a son named Centaurus, who, when grown up, wandered about the foot of Mount Pelion, where he united with the Magnesian mares, who brought forth the Centaurs, a race partaking of the form of both parents, their lower parts resembling their dams, their upper their sire. The common account makes the Centaurs to have been the immediate offspring of Ixion and the cloud. By his wife Dia, Ixion had a son named Pirithous, who married Hippodamia, daughter of Adrastus, king of Argos. The chiefs of his own tribe, the Lapithae, were all invited to the wedding, as were also the Centaurs, who dwelt in the neighbourhood of Pelion. Theseus, Nestor, and other strangers were likewise present. At the feast, Eurytion, one of the Centaurs, becoming intoxicated with the wine, attempted to offer violence to the bride; the other Centaurs followed his example, and a dreadful conflict arose, in which several of them were slain. The Centaurs were finally driven from Pelion, and obliged to retire to other regions. (Orid, Met., 12, 210, seqq.—Diod. Suc., 4, 70.)—According to the earliest version of this legend, Furytion, the Centaur, being invited to the mansion of Pirithous, got intoxicated, and behaved so ill, that the heroes rose, and, dragging him to the door, cut off his ears and nose, , which was the occasion of “strife between the Centaurs and men.” (Od., 21, 295, seqq ) When Hercules was on his way to hunt the Erymanthian boar, he was entertained by the Centaur Pholus; and this gave rise to a conflict between him and the other Centaurs, which terminated in the total discomfiture of the latter.—The most celebrated of the Centaurs was Chiron, the son of Saturn by the nymph Philvra. (Vid. Chiron.)—It is the opinion of Buttmann (Mythologus, vol. 2, p. 22), that the Centaurs and Lapithae are two purely poetic names, used to distinguish two opposite races of men; the former, the rude horse

riding tribes, which tradition records to have been g >

spread over the north of Greece; the latter, the more civilized race, which founded towns, and gradually drove their wild neighbours back into the mountains. He therefore thinks the exposition of Centaurs as Airpuercers (from Kevreiv Tov aipav) not an improbable one, for that very idea is suggested by the figure of a Cossack, leaning forward with his protruded lance as he gallops along. He regards, however, the idea of kévravpoo having been in its origin simply kévrap as much more probable. Lapitha may, he thinks, have signified Stone-persuaders (from Asia; Rettlew), a poetic appellation for the builders of towns. He supposes Hippodamia, as her name seems to intimate, to have been a Centauress, married to the prince of the Lapitha, and thus accounts for the Centaurs having been at the wedding. (Mythologus, l.c.—Keightley's Mythology, p. 316, seqq.)—Knight takes a very different view of the legend. The horse, as he observes, was sacred to Neptune and the Rivers, and was employed as a general symbol of the waters. The Centaurs appear to him to have been the same symbol partly humanized. According to this explanation, the legend respecting the Centaurs and Lapithae will have reference to the draining of some paro of Thessaly by that old Pelasgic race. (Knight's Enquiry, &c., § 111, seqq.—Class. Journ., vol. 25, p. 34, seqq.) CENTritis, a river of Armenia Major, flowing under the ramparts of Tigranocerta, and falling into the Euphrates. The Greeks gave it the name of Nicephorius, “that brings victory,” probably on account of some battle gained in its vicinity during the time of the Syrian kings. It separated Armenia from the country of the Carduchi, and is now the Bitlis-Soo. (Xcm., Anab., 4, 3–Mannert, Geogr., vol. 5, p. 236.) CENTRöNes, a people of Gaul, among the Alpes Graie, who, along with the Graioceli and Caturges, were defeated by Caesar in several engagements. Their chief city was Forum Claudii Centrodum, now Centron. (Lemaire, Inder Geogr. ad Caes., p. 231.) CENtum CELLAE, a seaport town of Etruria, northeast of Caere. It is better known under the name of Trajani Portus, that emperor having caused a magnificent harbour to be constructed there, which Pliny the ounger has described in one of his epistles (6, 31). wo immense piers formed the port, which was semicircular, while an island, constructed artificially of immense masses of rock, brought there by vessels and sunk in the sea, served as a breakwater in front and supported a pharos. The coast being very destitute of shelter for vessels of burden, this work of Trajan was of great national benefit. Previous to Trajan's improvements the place was very thinly inhabited, and received its name from the mean and scanty abodes scattered here and there along the shore. Centum Cellae having been destroyed by the Saracens, the inhabitants built another town at some distance inland, but afterward they reoccupied the site of the old city, which, from that circumstance, obtained its present name of Curita Vecchia. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 201, seqq.—Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, p. 373.) Centumviri, the members of a court of justice at Rome. There were originally chosen three from each of the 35 tribes of the people, and, though 105, they were always called Centumvirs. They were asterward increased to the number of 180, but still kept their original name. They seem to have been first instituted soon after the creation of the praetor peregrinus. The causes that came before them in the time of the republic are enumerated by Cicero. They judged then chiefly concerning testaments and inheritances. (Cic., Or., 1, 38–Val. Mar., 7, 7.-Quintul., 4, 1, 7.) After the time of Augustus, however, they formed the council of the praetor, and judged in the most important causes. When the number of the Centumviri reached 180, they were divided into four councils,

sometimes only into two, and sometimes, in "mportant

causes, they judged all together. A cause before them could not be adjourned. (Plin., Ep., 1, 18– Id., 4, 24.) Ten men were appointed, five senators and five equites, to assemble these councils, and preside in them in the absence of the praetor. (Sueton., Aug., 36.) Trials before the centumviri were held

usually in the Basilica Julia, sometimes in the forum.

(Consult Heineccius, Antiq. Rom, ed. Haubold, 4, 6, 9, p. 664.) C*NturipA (r. Kevrópata.-Ptol., Kevrosperat.— Sul. Ital., CENturire), an ancient city of the Siculi, on the eastern shore of Sicily, near Catana. After the Roman conquest of the island it became an important place in the corn-trade to Italy. The modern Centorbi appears to mark the ancient site. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 2, p. 416.) CEos (also called Cea, Plin., 4, 12.—Orid, Met., 7, 368, &c.), an island of the AEgean, one of the Cyclades, opposite the promontory of Sunium in Attica. It was famed for its fertility and rich pastures. Pliny (4, 12) writes, that it had been torn from Euboea, and was once 500 stadia in length, but nearly four parts were carried away by the sea on the side of Baeotia. Herodotus states, that it was an Ionian colony peopled from Africa, and furnished a few ships both at Artemisium and Salamis (8, 1). From this island, as Varro reports, a greater degree of elegance was introduced in female dress. (Plin., l.c.) It once possessed four towns, named Iulis, Cartha'a, Coressia, and Poeessa, but in Strabo's time only the two former remained, the population of the others having been transferred to them. Iulis was the birthplace of Simonides, and is probably represented by the modern Zea, which gives its name to the island. It is said that the laws of this town decreed, that every man, on reaching his sixtieth year, should destroy himself by poison, in order to leave to others a sufficient maintenance. This ordinance is said to have been promulgated when the town was besieged by the Athenians, (Strabo, 486–AEhan, W. H., 3, 37.-Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 401, seqq.) Cephalik Nia, an island in the Ionian sea, southwest of Ithaca, from which it is separated by a strait of six miles. It is now Cefalonia, and forms one of the seven Ionian islands. Strabo (456) asserts, that it was about three hundred stadia in circuit, or thirty-eight miles; Pliny (4, 12), forty-four miles ; , but both are very far short of the real measurement, which is little less than one hundred and twenty miles. The more ancient name of this large island was Samos, as we learn from Homer. (Od., 4, 671.) But the poet elsewhere speaks of the Cephallenians as the subjects of Ulysses. (Il., 2,631.) All the writers of antiquity agree in deriving the name of Cephallenia from Cephalus, who settled here after his expedition against the Telebone, in which he accompanied Amphitryon. (Strabo, l.c.) The Cephallenians did not share in the glory of the victory of Salamis, but one of their cities sent a few soldiers to Plataea. (Herodot., 9, 28.) Prior to the Peloponnesian war, the whole isl: and was conquered by an Athenian fleet commanded by Tolmides. But its subjugation does not appear to have been permanent, since Thucydides mentions, that, towards the commencement of the war, it was brought under the dominion of Athens, without a struggle, by a fleet of one hundred triremes (2,30). There were four cities in the island, Palle or Pale, Cranii, Same, and Proni. Besides these well-known cities, Stephanus Byzantinus assigns to Cephallenia a town called Taphos, of which some remains are said to exist near the modern village of Taphros, on the western coast of the island. (Dodwell's Tour, vol. 1. 75.) Strabo reports, that, towards the close of the ko, republic C. Antonius, the colleague of Cicero in his consulship, resided in Cephallenia during his exile, and acquired such an influence “.}. inhabitants that he appeared to have the direction of the whole island. He had projected the foundation of a new city, but the work was never executed. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 49, seq.) Cepha Lion, a Greek writer, whose native country is unknown. Suidas, it is true, makes him to have been born at Gergitha in Troas, but the lexicographer evidently confounds him with another writer named Cephalon. (Voss., Hist. Gr., 2, 12.) Cephalion is said to have lived during the reign of Hadrian, and to have been exiled to Sicily for some offence given to the emperor. He wrote an Abridgment of Unirersal History (Suvrouoc 'Iaropukóc) from Ninus to the death of Alexander. work of Herodotus, and, like this also, was divided into nine books, each named after one of the Muses. He composed also rhetorical declamations. His works are lost. (Photius, Cod., 68—vol. 1, p. 34, ed. BekKer.—Kuster ad Sund, s.r.) Ceph Klon, a native of Gergitha in Troas, not to be confounded with the preceding. Cephalon wrote an historical work, entitled Trojan Erents (Tpaixã). He appears to have been anterior to Alexander the Great, and is considered by Dionysius of Halicarnassus worthy of reliance as an historical writer. His work is lost. (Dion. Hal., Ant. Rom., 1,49, et 72.) Ceph Klus, I. the son of Deion, and a grandson of AEolus, was married to Procris, the eldest daughter of Erechtheus. They dwelt at Thoricos in Attica, and lived happily together, till curiosity to try the fidelity of his wife entered the mind of Cephalus. Feigning a journey of eight years, he disguised himself and came to Procris with a splendid jewel, which he offered to her on dishonourable terms. After much hesitation she yielded, when her husband discovered himself and reproached her with her conduct. She fled from him in shame, but they were soon after reconciled. Cephalus went constantly to the chase; and Procris growing suspicious, as she had failed herself, fancied that he was attracted by the charms of some other fair one. She questioned the slave who used to accompany him; and he told her, that his master used frequently to ascend the summit of a hill, and cry out, “Come, Nephela, come !” Procris went to the designated hill, and concealed herself in a thicket; and on her husband's crying, “Come, Nephela, come !” (which was nothing more than an invocation for some cloud to interpose itself between him and the scorching beams of the sun), she rushed forward towards her husband, who, in his astonishment, threw his dart and unwittingly killed her. (Pherecydes, ap. Schol, ad Od., 11, 321.) This legend is told with great variations, which it is not worth while here to enumerate. (Consult Hygin., fab., 189. —Ovid, Met, 7, 661, seqq.—Pausan., 9, 19, 1–Apollod., 3, 15, 1.—Anton. Lib., c. 41.) Cephalus, for his involuntary crime, was banished. He went to Thebes, which was at that time ravaged by a fox, which nothing could overtake, and he joined Amphitryon in the chase of it. His dog Laelaps ran it down ; but, just as he was catching it, Jupiter turned them both to stone. (Apollod., 2, 4, 7.) Cephalus then aided Amphitryon against the Teleboans, and on their conquest he settled in the island named from him Cephallenia. This lastmentioned circumstance, however, is a mere coincidence of name. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 381, seqq.)—II. An Athenian orator, who flourished towards the end of the Peloponnesian war, and was one of those that contributed most to overthrow the rule of the thirty tyrants. Although he lived during a very stormy period, and although no one ever proposed or caused to be passed more laws than he did, yet he never had any accusation brought against him, a remarkable fact in the history of Athens. We must not confound him with Cephalus, the father of Lysias, who came from Syracuse and settled at Athens. Sui

It was in the Ionic dialect, like the

das makes Cephalus to have been the first orator that made use of an exordium and peroration. (Suid, s v. Kéðazoo.)—III. The father of Lysias the orator. He was a native of Syracuse, but settled at Athens as a resident sojourner, or one of the uérotrot. (Lys. contra Eratosth., 2–Reiske, ad loc.) Ceph Eis, a name given to Andromeda as daughter of Cepheus. (Orid, A. A., 1, 193.) CEPHENEs, I. an ancient name of the Persians. (Vid. Persia.-Herodot, 7, 61.)—II. A name of the AEthiopians, from Cepheus, one of their kings. (Orid, Met., 4, 764—Gierig, ad loc.) Cepheus, a king of Æthiopia, father of Andromeda, by Cassiope. He was one of the Argonauts, and was changed into a constellation after his death. (Ovid, Met., 4, 669.-Id., 5, 12.-Pausan., 4, 35.) Cephisia, a borough of Attica, at the foot of Mount Brilessus, and near the source of the Cephissus. It was the favourite residence of Herodes Atticus, who had a beautiful villa here. The modern name is said to be Kissia. Cramer, however, gives Cephissia. (Aul. Gell., 18, 10.—Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 400.) Cephisopotus, I, a statuary of Athens, flourished about B.C. 372. Two works of his are spoken of by the ancients, a Mercury nourishing Bacchus when an infant, and one of a public speaker in the act of delivering an oration. (Plin., 34, 8, 19.-Sillig, Dict. Art, s. v.) — II. Another statuary, who flourished about Olym. 120. (Plin., 34, 8, 19.—Sillig, Dict. Art... s. v.) Cephisus and Cephissus, I. a celebrated river of Greece, that rises at the foot of Parnassus, close to Lilwa, and, after traversing the plains of Phocis and part of the Boeotian territory, empties into the Copa 1c Lake in the latter country. Hesiod compared it to a serpent, from the many sinuosities of its course (Ap. Strab., 424.) The modern name is Mauro Po. tamo. According to the poets, the son of the river. god Cephissus introduced the worship of the Graces into Boeotia (rid. Orchomenus), and hence the pecu. liar attachment which they were said to have for the waters of this stream. (Wid. Gratiae.)—II. A river of Attica, generally distinguished by the name of Atticus, to prevent its being confounded with the Cephissus which flowed near Eleusis. Strabo (400) af. firms, that it took its source near the demus of Trinemeis, and, after flowing through the Attic plains and passing under the long walls, discharged itself into the sea near Phalerum : he adds, that in summer it was nearly dry. In the OEdipus Coloneus it is described, however, as a perennial stream (v. 685, seqq.—Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 357).—III. A river running near Eleusis. According to Sir W. Gel) (Itinerary, p. 34), it is divided at present into many small branches, and often inundates the plain in its vicinity. The modern name is said to be the Podhonista.— IV. A river of Argolis, flowing into the Inachus—V. A river in the island of Salamis. (Strabo, 424.) CERAMicus, I. now Keramo, a bay of Caria, north of the peninsula of Doris, receiving its name from the city of Ceramus in its vicinity. (Plin., 5, 29.)—II. One of the most considerable and important parts of the city of Athens. Its name was derived from the hero Ceramus (Pausan., 1, 3), or perhaps from some potteries which were formerly situated there. (Herodotus, 5, 88.-Suidas, s. v. Kepaszoic.) It included probably the Agora, the Stoa Basileios, and the Poecule, as well as various other temples and public buildings. Antiquaries are not decided as to the general extent and direction of this part of the ancient city, since scarcely any trace remains of its monuments and edifices; but we may certainly conclude, from their researches and observations, that it lay entirely on the south side of the acropolis. (Leake's Topography of Athens, p. 101.) In this direction it must have been limited by the city walls, which, as we know, came close to the fountain Callirhoe or Enneacrounos. (Thucyd., 2 15.) The breadth of the Ceramicus, according to Mr. Hawkins, being thus confined on one side by the walls of the city, and on the other by the buildings immediately under the acropolis, could not have exceeded one half of its length. It was divided into the outer and inner Ceramicus. The former was without the walls, and contained the tombs of those who had fallen in battle, and were buried at the public expense. (Schol, Aristoph. Equit., 772.-Plut., Vit. Syll.—Hesych, s. v. Kepauetkóc.) From Plutarch it appears, that the communication from the one Ceramicus to the other was by the gate Dipylum. (Hawkins's Topogr. of Athens, in Walp. Coll, p. 485.-Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 315, seqq.) CERAMUs, a small town and fortress of Caria, on the northern side of the Sinus Ceramicus, and a short distance to the east of Halicarnassus. The village of Keramo, at the present day, indicates the ancient site. (Strab., 611–Ptol., p. 119.) CERAsus (untis), a city of Pontus, on the seacoast, southwest of Trapezus. It was founded by a colony from Sinope in Paphlagonia, to which it paid a yearly tribute. It must not be confounded with Pharnacia. (Vid. Pharnacia.) Xenophon and the Greeks rested here for ten days on their retreat from Asia. (Anab., 5, 3, 5.) From this place, according to Pliny, Lucullus first brought cherries into Italy, A.U.C. 680, which were introduced 120 years after into Britain. Hence the Latin cerasus, “a cherry-tree,” and cerasum, “a cherry.” According to Tournefort, the country is hilly and the hills covered with forests, in which cherry-trees grow naturally. It is now Kerasoun. (Amm. Marcell., 22, 13.−Plin., 15, 25.-Mela, 1, 19.) Cer Auxil (or Acrocer Auxii) Montes, a chain of mountains stretching along the coast of northern Epirus, and forming part of the boundary between it and Illyricum. That portion of the chain which extended beyond Oricum, formed a bold promontory, and was termed Acroceraunia ('Akpokepatova), from its summits (&xpa) being often struck by lightning (sepavv6c). The modern name for the Ceraunian range is Monte Chamarra, and that of the Acroceraunian promontory is Cape Linguetta. The Greek and Latin poets are full of allusions to this dangerous shore. (Apollon., Arg., 4, 1216 —Lycophr., 1016.— Virg, Æn., 3, 506–Hor, Od., 1, 3, 19.) It was much dreaded by the mariners of antiquity, from the belief that the mountains attracted storms. Augustus narrowly escaped shipwreck here when returning from Actium. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 94.) CERAuxus, a surname of one of the Ptolemies. (Vid. Ptolemaeus XV.) Cerberus, the famous dog of Hades, the fruit of Echidna's union with Typhon. He was stationed at the entrance of hell, as a watchful keeper, to prevent the living from entering the infernal regions, and the dead from escaping from their confinement. Orpheus lulled him to sleep with his lyre; and Hercules dragged him from hell in the performance of his twelfth and last labour. (Vid. Hercules.) The poets differ in their descriptions of this fabled animal. Hesiod (Theog., 312) assigns him fifty heads, calling him kiva revrmkovraktipmov. Sophocles (Trach., 1114) styles him "Atôov spikpavov akizaka (“the three-headed dog of Pluto"), and in this last account the Latin poets generally coincide. Horace, however, calls him bellua centiceps (Od., 2, 13, 14), either by poetic amplification, or else in accordance with some Greek authority. (Compare the remarks of Tzetzes in his scholium on Lycophron, v. 678 : 6 Küov rod "Audov, do ovel oratov kepazác) Champollion traces a curious analogy between the Egyptian and Grecian mythology as regards the dog of Hades. “Le voisiTT

mage du séjour du suprême juge de l'Amenthi est annoncé par un piédestal, sur lequel se repose un animal monstrueux, mais dont les formes sont si déterminees qu'on ne peut y méconnaitre un hippopotame, amphibie redoubtable, dont les cavernes du Nil renfermaient un grand nombre. Ici c'est l’hippopotame fernelle, qui, dans les tableaux astronomiques de Thebes et d'Esnéh, occupe dans le ciel même la place que les Grecs ont donnee à la grand ourse. Čette constellation était nommée le Chien de Typhon par les Egyptiens, et sa presence dans l'Amenthi (l'enfer) ne laisse pas douter que cet animal ne soil le type du chien Cerbère, qui, selon les mythes Grecs gardait l'entrée du palais d’Adès.” (Champollion le jeune, “Explication de la principale scene peinte dans des Papyrus funeraires Egyptiens.”—Bulletin des Sciences Historiques, &c., vol. 4, p. 351.) CercasoruM, a city of Egypt, in the Memphitic nome, on the western bank of the Nile. It lay to the north of Memphis, and a short distance south of the spot where the Nile branched off into the Pelusiac and Canopic mouths. (Herod., 2, 15.-Id., 17, 97.) The ancient Cercasorum is thought to answer to the modern Eksas, or Al Achsas. (Compare D'Amrille, Mcm. sur l'Egypte, p. 73.-Edrisii Africa, p. 426.) Cercina (Cercin NA, Mela, 2, 7–Strab., 574), a small island off the coast of Byzacium, in Africa, at the mouth of the Syrtis Minor, towards the northwest. It is now Kerkine. (Liv., 33, 48.—Tacit., Ann., 1, 53.-Plin., 5, 7.) CERcINIUM, a town of Macedonia, west of Amphipolis. It was situate at the mouth of the river Pontus, on a lake called Cercinitis palus. (Liv., 31, 41.) Cercópes, a predatory race infesting Lydia during the reign of Omphale. They were overcome by Her. cules. (Diod. Suc., 4, 31.) The legend connected with their name will be given, with some remarks upon it, under the article Melampyges. Cercyon and CercyöNes, a king of Eleusis, son of Neptune, or, according to others, of Vulcan. He obliged all strangers to wrestle with him ; and, as he was a dexterous wrestler, they were easily conquered and put to death. After many cruel victories of this kind, he challenged Theseus in wrestling, and was conquered and put to death by his antagonist. (Plut., Wit. Thes—Diod. Sic., 4, 59.-Hygin., 3S.) Cercy RA (Képkvpa), the Greek form of the name Corcyra Latinized. (Wid. Corcyra.) Cere Alia, festivals in honour of Ceres; first instituted at Rome by Memmius the aidile, and celebrated on the 9th of April. Persons in mourning were not permitted to appear at the celebration; and therefore they were not observed in the year after the battle of Cannae. They were analogous to the Grecian Thesmophoria. (Vid. Thesmophoria.) CEREs (in Greek DeMEter, Amuñrmp), daughter of Saturn and Rhea, was the goddess of grain and harvests. She is in fact, however, the same as the goddess of the earth, Mother-Earth (yi) unrmp), whence some ancient system married her to Jupiter, the god of the heavens, and hence in Hesiod (Theog., 454, 912) she is said to have become by this deity the mother of Proserpina (Persephone). In Homer she is but slightly mentioned (Il., 5, 500.-0d., 5, 125), and she does not appear among the gods on Olympus. She seems to have been early distinguished from the goddess called Earth, and to have been thenceforth regarded as the protectress of the growing corn and of agriculture in general. The most celebrated event in the history of Ceres is the carrying off of her daughter Proserpina by Hades or Pluto, and the search of the goddess after her throughout the whole world. It is noticed by Hesiod (Theog., 914); but the Homeric hymn in her honour contains perhaps the earliest narrative of this event, which, though apparently unknown

to Homer himself, became a *...* with 2

succeeding poets, after whom Ovid has related it (Met, 5, 341.-1d., Fast., 4, 417, seq.). Claudian also has sung it in a poem, of which, unfortunately, a portion is lost.—Proserpina, according to the author of the Homeric hymn, was in the Nysian plain with the oceannymphs gathering flowers. According to some accounts, Venus, Minerva, and Diana were the companions of their sister on this occasion. (Hygin., fab., 146.-Claudian, Rapt. Pros., 2, 11, seqq.—Stat., Achill., 2, 150.) Others gave her the sirens as her attendants. (Apoll. Rh., 4, 896.) She plucked the rose, the violet, the crocus, the hyacinth, when she beheld a narcissus of surprising size and beauty, having a hundred flowers growing from a single root. Unconscious of danger, the maiden stretched forth her hand to seize the wondrous flower, when suddenly the wide earth gaped, Pluto arose in his golden chariot, and, seizing the terrified goddess, carried her off shrieking for aid, but unheard and unseen by gods or mortals save by Hecate, the daughter of Perses, who heard her as she sat in her cave, and by King Helius (the sun), whose eye nothing on earth escapes. So long as the goddess beheld the earth and starry heavens, the fishy sea, and the beams of the sun, so long she hoped to see her mother and the tribes of the gods; and the tops of the mountains and the depths of the sea resounded with her divine voice. At length her mother heard, and, frantic with grief, inquired for tidings of her lost daughter; but neither gods, nor men, nor birds, could give her intelligence. Nine days she wandered over the earth, with flaming torches in her hands; on the tenth Hecate met her, but could not tell who it was that had carried off Proserpina. Together they proceeded to Helius, and the Sun-god tells Ceres that the ravisher is Pluto, who, by the permission of her sire, had carried her away to be his queen. Incensed at the conduct of Jupiter, Ceres thereupon abandoned the society of the gods and came down among men. But now she was heedless of her person, and no one recognised her. Under the guise of an aged female, she came to Eleusis, and was employed, as a nurse for her insant son Demophoon, by Metanira the wife of Celeus, monarch of the place. Beneath the care of the goddess the child “throve like a god.” He ate no food, but Ceres breathed on him as he lay in her bosom, and anointed him with ambrosia, and every night hid him beneath the fire, unknown to his parents, who marvelled at his growth. It was the design of Ceres to make him immortal, but the curiosity and folly of Metanira deprived him of the intended gift. She watched one night, and, seeing what the nurse was doing to her child, shrieked with affright and horror. The goddess threw the insant on the ground, declaring what he had lost by the inconsiderateness of his mother, but announcing that he would still become a great and honoured man. She then disclosed her real character, and directed the people of Eleusis to raise an altar and temple to her without the city, on the hill Callichorus. The temple, was speedily raised, and the mourning goddess took up her abode in it, but a dismal year came upon mankind; the earth yielded no produce; in vain the oxen drew the pleugh in the field; in vain the seed was cast into the ground, for Ceres would allow of no increase. Jove at length sent Iris to Eleusis to invite Ceres back to Olympus, but she would not comply with the call. All the other gods were sent on the same errand, but with as little success. Finding that there was no other remedy, and that the goddess would not allow the earth to bring forth until she had seen her daughter, Jupiter sent Mercury to Erebus to endeavour to prevail on Pluto to suffer Proserpina to return to the light. The monarch of the lower world yielded compliance, and, kindly addressing Proserpina, granted her permission to return to her mother. The goddess instantly sprang

up with joy, and heedlessly swallowed a grain of pomegranate which he presented to her. Mercury conducted his fair charge safe to Eleusis, and delivered her into the hands of Ceres. When their joy had a little subsided, Ceres anxiously inquired of her daughter if she had lasted anything wo below ; for if she had not she would be free to spend her whole time with her father and mother; whereas, if but one morsel had passed her lips, nothing could save her from passing one third cf the year with her husband; she should, however, pass the other two with her and the gods. Proserpina ingoinuously confessed the swallowing of the grain of pomegranate, and then relates unto her mother the whole story of her abduction. They pass the day in delightful converse. Hecate arrives to congratulate Proserpina, and henceforward becomes her attendant. Jove sends Rhea to invite them back to heaven. Ceres now complies, and fertility once more prevailed over the earth. Ceres thereupon taught “Triptolemus, horse-lashing Diocles, the mighty Eumolpus, and Celeus, leader .# the people,” the mode of performing her sacred rites; and the goddess, after this, returned to Olympus.—Such is, in all probability, the oldest account of this celebrated event. In progress of time it underwent various alterations; the scene was, as usual, changed, and circumstances also were added or modified. In the beautiful versions of it given by the Latin poets, the scene is transferred to the grove and lake in the neighbourhood of Enna in Sicily, the nymph Arethusa gives intelligence of the ravisher, the torches of Ceres are . from AEtna, and Ascalaphus tells of Proserpina's having plucked a pomegranate in the garden of Pluto, and having put seven of the seeds in her mouth. In this as in other legends, the fancy of poets, and vanity of the inhabitants of different places, have taken abundance of liberties with the ancient tale.—The meaning of the whole fable is evident enough. Proserpina signifies the seed-corn, which, when cast into the ground, lies there concealed; that is, she is carried off by the god of the lower world; it re-appears; that is, Proserpina is restored to her inother, and she abides with her two thirds of the year. As, however, the seed-corn is not a third part of the year in the ground, it is probable that by the space of time which Proserpina was to spend with the god in the invisible state, was intended to be expressed the period between the sowing of the seed and the appearance of the ear, during which the corn is away; and which space of time in some species of grain, barley for instance, is about four months. The vanity of the people of the hungry soil of Attica made them pretend, that corn was first known, and agriculture first practised, in their country. They fabled, that the goddess gave to Triptolemus (Thrice-plougher), who occupies the place of Demophoön in the foregoing legend, her chariot drawn by dragons, in which he flew through the air, distributing corn to the different regions of the earth. (Callum., H. in Cer, 22.-Pausan., 1, 14, 2–Ovid, Met., 5, 654.—Hygin, fab, 147.)—Ceres, though of a gentle disposition in general, partook of the usual revengeful character of the gods, as may be seen by the legends of Stellio and Erysichthon. (Vid. Stellio and Erysichthon.)—The chief seats of the worship of Ceres and Proserpina were Attica, Arcadia (vid. Oncaeum), and the fertile isle of Sicily, which was given by Jupiter to his daughter on her day of unveiling, that is, on her marriage; as was also Thebes, according to the poet Euphorion. (Schol. ad Eurip., Phaen., 693–Müller, Orchom, p. 217.) The form of Ceres is copied from that of Juno. She has the same majestic stature and matronly air, but of a milder character. Her usual symbol are poppies, which sometimes compose a garland for her head, sometimes are held in her hand. She is frequently represented holding a torch, significant of her

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