Obrazy na stronie

north. It sank, however, in importance after Alexandrea was built, and merely retained some consequence from its temple and oracle of Serapis, which latter was consulted during the night, and gave intimations of the future to applicants while sleeping within the walls of the structure. The festivals, also, that were celebrated at this temple, drew large crowds of both sexes from the adjacent country, and exercised an injurious influence on the morals of all who took part in them. Canopus, in fact, was always regarded as a dissolute place, and, even aster Alexandrea arose, it was much frequented by the inhabitants of the capital for purposes of enjoyment and pleasure, the temperature of the air and the situation of the city being spoken of in high terms by the ancient writers. (Amm. Marcell., 22, 16.) The festivals of Serapis ceased on the introduction of Christianity, and from that period history is silent respecting Canopus. The French savans found some traces of the ancient city a short distance to the west of the modern Aboukir. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 10, pt. 1, p. 541, seqq.) CANT KBR1, a warlike and ferocious people of Spain, who long resisted the Roman power. Their country answers to Biscay and part of Asturias. Augustus marched in person against them, anticipating an easy victory. The desperate resistance of the Cantabrians, however, induced him to retire to Tarraco, and leave the management of the war to his generals. They were finally reduced, but, rebelling soon after, were decreed to be sold as slaves. Most of them, however, preferred falling by their own hands. The final reduction of the Cantabri was effected by Agrippa, A.U.C. 734, after they had resisted the power of the Romans in various ways for more than two hundred years. (Liv., Epit., 48.-Flor., 4, 12.—Plin., 3, 2.—Horat., Od., 3, 8, 22.) CANti UM, a country in the southeastern extremity of Britain, now called Kent. The name is derived from the British word cant, signifying an angle or corner. (Consult Adelung, Gloss. Med. et Inf. Lat., vol. 2, p. 133, s. v. canto.) CANuleia Lex, a law proposed by C. Canuleius, tribune of the commons, A.U.C. 310, and allowing of intermarriages between the patricians and plebeians. (Lit., 4, 1.) CANUsium, a town of Apulia, on the right bank of the Aufidus, and about twelve miles from its mouth. The origin of Canusium seems to belong to a period which reaches far beyond the records of Roman history, and of which we possess no memorials but what a fabulous tradition has conveyed to us. This tradition ascribes its foundation to Diomede, after the close of the Trojan war. Perhaps, however, we should see in Diomede one of those Pelasgic chiefs, who, in a very distant age, formed settlements in various parts of Italy. Canusium appears to have been in its earlier days a large and flourishing place. It is said by those who have traced the circuit of the walls from the remaining vestiges, that they must have embraced a circumference of sixteen miles. (Pratilli, Via Appia, 4, 13.—Romanelli, vol. 2, p. 265.-Compare Strabo, 28.) The splendid remains of antiquity discovered among the ruins of Canosa, together with its coins, establish the fact of the Grecian origin of this place. Antiquaries dwell with rapture on the elegance and beauty of the Greek vases of Canosa, which, in point of size, numbers, and decorations, far surpass those discovered in the tombs of any other ancient city, not even excepting Nola. (Millingen, Peintures Antiques des Vases, &c.)—Horace alludes to the mixed dialect of Oscan and Greek, in the expression employed by him, “Canusini more bilinguis.” (Sat., 1, 10, 30.) —It is stated, that the small remnant of the Roman army, which escaped from the slaughter of Cannae, took refuge here. Livy records the generous treatment they experienced on that occasion from Busa, a

wealthy lady of this city (22, 52). Philostratus in: forms us (Wit. Sophist.), that Hadrian colonized this place, and procured for it a good supply of water, of which it stood much in need, as we know from Horace. (Sat., 1, 5, 90.) The same poet complains also of the grittiness of the bread. (Cramer's An. cient Italy, vol. 2, p. 292.) CAPANEus, an Argive warrior, son of Hipponotis. He was one of the seven leaders in the war against Thebes (rud. Adrastus), and is often alluded to by the ancient poets as remarkable for his daring and impiety. Having boasted that he would take the Theban city, in despite even of Jove, this deity struck him with a thunderbolt as he was in the act of ascending the ramparts. When his body was being consumed on the funeral pile, his wife Evadne threw herself upon it and perished amid the flames. AEsculapius was fabled to have restored Capaneus to life. (Apollod, 3, 6, 3–1d., 3, 6, 7–Id., 37, 2.—Id., 3, 10, 3AEsch, Sept., c. Theb., 427, seqq.—Heyne, ad Apollod., 3, 6, 3.) Capella, I. (Marcianus Mineus Felix), a poet, born, according to Cassiodorus, at Madaura in Africa : he calls himself, however, at the end of this work, “the foster-child of the city of Elissa;” whether it be that he was born at Carthage, or else received his education there, which latter is the more probable opinion of the two. The MSS., however, give him the title of “the Carthaginian.” In process of time he attained to proconsular dignity, but whether he was a Christian or not is a matter of uncertainty. About the middle of the fifth century of our era he wrote at Rome a work bearing the appellation of Satira or Satyricon, divided into nine books. It is a species of encyclopedia, half prose and half verse, modelled after the Varronian satire. The first two books form a detached and separate work, entitled De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii, and treating of the apotheosis of Philology and her marriage with Mercury: We find in it, among other things, a description of heaven, which shows that the mystic notions of the Platonists of that day approximated in a very singular manner to the truths of Christianity. In the seven following books Capella treats of the seven sciences, which formed at that time the circle of human study, namely, grammar, logic, rhetoric, geometry, astrology, arithmetic, and music, which comprehends poetry. This work, written in a barbarous style, was introduced into the schools of the middle ages: hence it was frequently copied, and the text has become extremely corrupt. The best edition of Capella is that of Grotius, Lugd. Bat, 1599, 8vo; although a good edition, in the strict sense of the term, is still a desideratum. The work of Grotius is generally regarded as a literary wonder, since he was only fourteen years old when he undertook the task of editing Capella, and published his edition at the age of fifteen. He was aided in it by his father, as he himself informs us, and very probably also by Joseph Scaliger, who induced him to attempt the task. (Bahr, Gesch. Rom. Lit., vol. 1, p. 727, seqq.—Schöll, Hist. Lit. Rom., vol. 3, p. 98.Walckenaer, in Biogr. Univ., vol. 7, p. 62.)—II. An elegiac poet, mentioned with eulogium by Ovid. (Pont., 4, 16, 36.) We have no remains of his productions. CAPENA, I. a gate of Rome, now the gate of S. Schastian, in the southeast part of modern Rome. (Opid, Fast., 5, 192.)—II. A city of Etruria, southeast of Mount Soracte. It is frequently recorded, in the early annals of Rome, among those which opposed, though unsuccessfully, the gradual encroachments of its power. Great diversity of opinion has existed as to the modern site, but the conjecture of Galetti is now generally followed, which makes Capena to have stood at a place called Civitucula. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 231.) Capítus, a king of Alba, who reigned twenty-six years. (Consult, however, the remarks under the article ALBA) Capha Reus, a lofty mountain and promontory at the southeastern extremity of Euboea, where Nauplius, king of the country, to avenge his son Palamedes, put to death through the false accusation brought against him by Ulysses, set a burning torch in the darkness of night, which caused the Greeks to be shipwrecked on the coast. It is now called Capo d'Oro, and, in the infancy of navigation, was reckoned very dangerous on account of the rocks and whirlpools on the coast. (Eurip., Troad., 88.-Id., Hel., 1136. —Virg., AEn., 11, 260.—Ovid, Met., 14, 481.—Propert., 4, 1, 115.) Capito, I, the uncle of Paterculus, who joined Agrippa against Cassius. (Well. Paterc., 2, 69.)— II. Fonteius, a Roman nobleman sent by Antony to settle his disputes with Augustus. (Horat., Serm., 1, 5, 32.) Capitolixus, I. a surname of Jupiter, from his temple on Mount Capitolinus.-II. A surname of M. Manlius, who, for his ambition in aspiring to sovereign power, was thrown down from the Tarpeian Rock, which he had so nobly defended.—III. Mons, one of the seven hills on which Rome was built, containing the citadel and fortress of the Capitol. Three ascents led to its summit from below. 1st. By the 100 steps of the Tarpeian Rock, which was probably on the steepest side, where it overhangs the Tiber. (Compare Tacitus, Hist., 3, 71.—Liv., 5, 46.-Plut., Wii. Camill.). 2d. The Clivus Capitolinus, which began from the arch of Tiberius and the temple of Saturn, near the present hospital of the Consolatione, and led to the citadel by a winding path. (Ovid, Fast., 1, 261.) 3d. The Olivus Asyli, which, being less steep than the other two, was on that account the road by which the triumphant generals were borne in their cars to the Capitol. This ascent began at the arch of Septimius Severus, and from thence, winding to the left, passed near the ruined pillars of the temple of Concord, as it is commonly but improperly called, and from thence led to the Intermontium. The Capitoline Hill is said to have been previously called Saturnius, from the ancient city of Saturnia, of which it was the citadel. Afterward it was known by the name of Mons Tarpeius, and finally it obtained the appellation first mentioned, from the circumstance of a human head being discovered on its summit, in making the foundations of the temple of Jupiter. (Varro, L. L., 4, 8.) It was considered as forming two summits, which, though considerably doi are vet sufficiently apparent. That which looked to the south and the Tiber was the Tarpeian Rock or citadel; the other, which was properly the Capitol, faced the north and the Quirinal. The space which was left between these two elevations was known by the name of Intermontium.–IV. An appellation said to have been given to an individual named Petilius, who had been governor of the Capitol. (Compare the scholast on Horace, Sat., 1, 4, 94.) It is also related, that he was accused of having stolen, during his office, a golden crown, consecrated to Jupiter, and that, having pleaded his cause in person, he was acquitted by the judges, in order to gratify Augustus, with whom he was on friend. ly terms. One part, at least, of the story is incorrect, since the Capitolini were a branch of the Petilian family long before this time. (Compare Vaillant, Num. ño Rom , vol. 2, p. 222.) What degree of credit is to be attached to the rest of the narrative is uncertain. (Consult Wieland, ad Horat., l.c.)—V. Julius, one of those later Roman historians, whose works form what has been termed “the Augustan History.” He lived during the reign of Dioclesian and Constan. tine the Great, and we have from him the lives of Antoninus Plus, Marcus Aurelius, Verus, Pertinax, Albinus, Moco the two Maximins, the three Gordians, P

Maximus, and Balbinus. He wrote other lives aisc which have not reached us. The greater part of his biographies are dedicated to Dioclesian and Constantine. His works show carelessness and want of proper arrangement. (Bühr, Gesch. Röm. Lit., vol. 1, p. 464. — Moller, Dissert. de Julio Capitol., Altdorf, 1689, 4to.) Capitolium, a celebrated temple and citadel at Rome, on the Tarpeian Rock. The foundations were laid by Tarquinius Priscus, A.U.C. 139, B.C. 615. The walls were raised by his successor Servius Tullius, and Tarquinius Superbus finished it, A.U.C. 231, B.C. 533. It was not, however, consecrated until the third year after the expulsion of the kings. This ceremony was performed by the consul Horatius. It covered 8 acres, was 200 feet broad, and about 215 long. It consisted of three parts, a nave sacred to Jupiter, and two wings or aisles, the right sacred to Minerva, and the lest to Juno. The ascent to it from the forum was by a hundred steps. The magnificence and richness of this temple are almost incredible. All the consuls successively made donations to the Capitol, and Augustus bestowed upon it at one time 2000 pounds weight of gold. The gilding of the whole arch of the temple of Jupiter, which was undertaken after the destruction of Carthage, cost, according to Plutarch, 21,000 talents. The gates of the temple were of brass, covered with large plates of gold. The inside of the temple was all of marble, and was adorned with vessels and shields of solid silver, with gilded chariots, &c. The Capitol was burned in the time of Sylla, A.U.C. 670, B.C. 84, through the negligence of those who kept it, and Sylla rebuilt it, but died before the dedication, which was performed by Q. Catulus, A.U.C. 675. It was again destroyed in the troubles under Vitellius, 19th December, A.D. 69; and Vespasian, who endeavoured to repair it, saw it again in ruins at his death. Domitian raised it again for the last time, and made it more grand and magnificent than any of his predecessors had, and spent 12,000 talents in gilding it.--The ordinary derivation of the term Capitolium is deservedly ridiculed by a modern tourist: “It was in digging the foundation of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus that a human head was found, according to Roman legends; and the augurs declared this to be emblematical of future empire. The hill, in consequence, which had been originally called Saturnius, and then Taipeius, was now denominated Capitolius (Caput O'o), because this head, it seems, belonged to somebody called Tolius or Olius, though how they knew the man's nance from his scull I never could discover.” (Rome in the Nineteenth Century, vol. 1, p. 179.) Equally unfortunete is the etymology assigned by Nork, who deduces Capitolium from caput (Tod) Tróżewo, where Tróżewo is the old form for tróżewc, and which old form, in the }. of time, dropped the T instead of the T 1 (Etymw. Handicòrt., vol. 1, p. 128.) CAppadocia, a country of Asia Minor, bounded or the north by Galatia and Pontus, west by Phrygia. east by the Euphrates, and south by Cilicia. It eastern part was called Armenia Minor. The term Cappadocia, under the Persians, had a more extended meaning than in later geography : it comprised two satrapies, Cappadocia the greater and Cappadocia on the Pontus Euxinus. The first satrap of the greater Cappadocia was a member of the royal family of Persia, and a kind of hereditary succession seems to have prevailed, which the great king probably allowed, because he could not prevent it. The founder of this dynasty was named Anaphus, and, according to Diodorus Siculus (ap. Phot, Cod, 244, p. 1157), was one of the seven conspirators who slew the false Smerdis. Datames, the grandson of Anaphus, was the first regular sovereign of this Cappadocian o ; and after him and his son Ariamnes, we have ".;4 list of princes, all bearing the name of Ariarathes for several generations. (Vid. Ariarathes.)—Cappadocia was surrounded on three sides by great ranges of mountains, besides being intersected by others of as great elevation as any in the peninsula. Hence its mineral productions were various and abundant, and a source of wealth to the country. Strabo specifies the rich mineral colour called Sinople, from its being exported by the merchants of Sinope, but which was really dug in the mines of Cappadocia: also, onyx; crystal ; a kind of white agate, employed for ornamental purposes; and the lapis specularis: this last was found in large masses, and was a considerable article of the export trade. The champagne country yielded almost every kind of fruit and grain, and the wines of some districts vied with those of Greece in strength and flavour. Cappadocia was also rich in herds and flocks, but more particularly celebrated for its breed of horses; and the onager, or wild ass, abounded in the mountains towards Lycaonia. (Strab., 535, seqq.)—Herodotus informs us, that in the days of Croesus and Cyrus the people commonly known in history by the name of Cappadocians were termed Syrians by the Greeks, while the Persians employed the more usual appellation. (Herod., 1,72.—Id, 7, 72.) A portion, moreover, of this same nation, who occupied the coast of Pontus and Paphlagonia, about Sinope and Amisus, long retained the name of Leucosyri, or white Syrians, to distinguish them from the more swarthy and southern inhabitants of Syria and Palestine. (Strab., 544.) The origin of the Cappadocians, therefore, unlike that of most of the other nations of Asia Minor, was of Asiatic growth, unmixed with the Thracian hordes which had overrun Phrygia and all the western part of the peninsula. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p 105, seqq.)—The Cappadocians bore among the ancients the character of volatility and faithlessness. They were also made the subject of sarcastic remark, for having refused freedom when it was offered them by the Romans, and for having preferred to live under the sway of kings. (Justin, 38, 2.) There was nothing, however, very surprising in this refusal, coming, as it did, from a people who knew nothing of freedom, and who had become habituated to regal sway. Their moral character is severely satirized in the wellknown epigram, which states that a viper bit a Cappadocian, but died itself from the poisonous and corrupt blood of the latter 1–The Greeks and Romans found in this country few towns, but a number of strong castles on the mountains, and large villages in the neighbourhood of celebrated temples, to which the latter served as a kind of protection. Most of these villages became cities in the time of the Romans, when this people had destroyed the castles and strongholds on the mountains. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 2, p. 216, seq.) CAppadox, a river of Cappadocia, bounding it on the side of Galatia, and falling into the Halys. (Plin.,6,3) CAprARIA, I. a mountainous island, south of Balearis Major or Majorca, and deriving its name from its numerous goats (caper, capra). The modern name is Cabrera. (Pliny, 3, 6.)—II. One of the Fortunatae Insulae, or Canaries. Some make it the modern Palma, but it answers rather to Gomera. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 10, pt. 2, p. 628.) CAPREAE, an island off the coast of Campania, situate near the promontory of Minerva. It is now Capri. This island is chiefly known in history as the abode of Tiberius, and the scene of his infamous debauchery. (Sueton., Tib., c. 42, seqq.—Tacit., Ann., 6, 1.—Dio Cass., 58, 22.)—Tradition reported, that this island was first in the possession of the Teleboa, who are mentioned as a people of Greece, inhabiting the Echinades, a group of islands at the mouth of the Achelotis, in Acarnania; but how they came to settle in Caprea: no one has informed us. (Compare Schol. in Apoll.

Rhod., Argon, 1.) Augustus was the first emperor who made Caprea; his residence, being struck, as Suetonius relates, by the happy presage of an old decayed ilex having, as it was said, revived on his arrival there. Not long after, he obtained the island from the Neapolitans, by giving them in exchange that of Ischia, which belonged to him. (Suet., Aug., 92.) Tiberius was led to select this spot for his abode, from its difficulty of access, being cut off from all approach, except on one side, by lofty and perpendicular cliffs. The mildness of the climate and the beauty of the prospect, which extends over the whole bay of Naples. might also, as Tacitus remarks, have influenced his choice. Here he caused twelve villas to be erected, which he is supposed to have named after the twelve chief deities. (Tacit., Ann., 4, 67.) The ruins of the villa of Jove, which was the most conspicuous, are still to be seen on the summit of the cliff looking towards Sorrento. It is probably the same with the Arr Tiberii of Pliny (3, 6).-The island of Capri, at the present day, abounds so much with various birds of passage, but especially with quails, that the greatest art of the bishop's income arises from this source. i. it has been called the “Bishopric of Quails.” In bad years the number caught is about 12,000, in good years it exceeds 60,000. The island is surrounded by steep rocks, which render the approach to it very dangerous. In the centre the mountains recede from each other, and a vale intervenes, remarkable for its beauty and fertility. The climate of the island is a delightful one; the lofty rocks on the coast keep off the cold winds of winter, and the seabreeze tempers the heat of summer. (Malte-Brun, Geogr., vol. 4, p. 240, Brussels ed.) Capsa, a town of Libya, in the district of Byzacium, north of the Palus Tritonis, surrounded by vast deserts. Here Jugurtha kept his treasures. It was surprised by Marius; and was destroyed in the war of Caesar and Metellus Scipio. It was afterward rebuilt, and is now Cafsa. Sallust (Bell. Jug., 94) ascribes the origin of this place to the Libyan Hercules. Diodorus Siculus also (4, 18) speaks of a large city, called Hecatonpylos, from its hundred gates, and which was founded in a fertile spot in the desert by Hercules, as he was proceeding from Libya to Egypt. Hanno is said to have taken this city during the first Punic war. (Diod., 2, 24, exc. 1–Compare Polyb., 1, 73.) Mannert identifies Hecatompylos with Capsa, and strives to elucidate the fable by ascribing to the place an Egyptian origin. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 10, pt. 2, p. 346.) Gesenius derives the name of Capsa from the Punic captsa, “a bolt,” “bar,” or “barrier.” (Phan. Mon., p. 421.) CApúa, a rich and flourishing city, the capital of Campania until ruined by the Romans. . Its origina name was Vulturnus, which was changed by the Tyrrheni, after they became masters of the place, to Capua. This latter name was derived from that of their leader Capys, who, according to Festus, received this appellation from his feet being deformed and turned inward. The name is not of Latin, but Tuscan origin. The Latins, however, pretended, notwithstanding, to ascribe the foundation of the city to Romulus, who named it, as they stated, after one of his ancestors. Capua was the chief city of the southern Tyrrheni; and even after it fell under the Roman dominion, continued to be a powerful and flourishing place. Before Capua passed into the hands of the Romans, a dread ful massacre of its Tyrrhenian inhabitants by the Samnites put the city into the hands of this latter people. Livy appears to have confounded this event with the origin of the place, when he makes it to have changed its name from Vulturnus to Capua, after the Samnite leader Capys. It is very remarkable that retaliation should have followed in a later age from the hands of the Romans, themselves in part of Tyrrhenian, that is. Pelasgian descent. Capua deeply offended them by opening its gates to Hannibal after the victory of Cannae. The vengeance inflicted by the Romans was of a most fearful nature, when, five years after, the city again sell under their dominion. Most of the senators and principal inhabitants were put to death, the greater part of the remaining citizens were sold into slavery, and by a decree of the senate the Capuani ceased to exist as a people. The city and territory, however, did not become thereupon deserted. A few inhabitants were allowed to remain in the former, and the latter was in a great measure sold by the Romans to the neighbouring communities. Julius Caesar sent a powerful colony to Capua, and under the emperors it again flourished. But it suffered greatly from the barbarians in a later age; so much so, in fact, that the Bishop Landulfus and the Lombard Count Lando transferred the inhabitants to Casilinum, on the Vulturnus, 19 stadia distant. This is the site of modern Capua. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 1, p. 701, 766.) Capys, I, a Trojan who came with AEneas into Italy, and, according to the common, but erroneous, account, founded the city of Capua. (Vid. Capua.)—II. A son of Assaracus, by a daughter of the Simois. He was father of Anchises by Themis. (Opid, Fast., 4, 33.) CAR, I. a son of Phoroneus, king of Megara. (Pausan., 1, 40.)—II. A son of Manes, and regarded by the Carians as the patriarch of their race. (Herod., 1, 171,-Strah., 659.) CARAcAllA, Antoninus Bassianus, eldest son of the Emperor Severus. His name Caracalla was derived from a species of Gallic cassock which he was fond of wearing; that of Bassianus from his maternal grandfather. Caracalla was born at Lugdunum (Lyons), A.D. 188, and appointed by his father his colleague in the government at the age of thirteen years. And yet he is said, even at this early age, to have attempted his father's life. Severus died A.D. 211, and was succeeded by his two sons Caracalla and Geta. These two brothers bore towards each other, even from infancy, the most inveterate hatred. After a campaign against the Caledonians, they concluded a disgraceful peace. They then wished to divide the empire between them; but their design was opposed by their mother, Julia, and by the principal men in the state, and Caracalla now o!". get rid of his brother, by causing him to be assassinated. After many unsuccessful attempts, he pretended to desire a reconciliation, and requested his mother to procure him an interview with his brother in her own apartment: Geta appeared, and was stabbed in his mother's arms, A.D. 212, by several centurions, who had received orders to this effect. The praetorian guards were prevalled upon, by rich donations, to proclaim Caracalla sole emperor, and to declare Geta an enemy to the state, and the senate confirmed the nomination of the soldiers. After this, the whole life of Caracalla was only one series of cruelties and acts of extravagant folly. All who had been in any way connected with Geta were put to death, not even their children being spared. The historian Dio Cassius makes the whole number of victims to have amounted to 20,000. (Dio Cass., 77, 4.) Among those who fell in this horrid butchery was the celebrated lawyer Papinian. And yet, after this, by a singular act of contradiction, he not only put to death many of those who had been concerned in the murder of his brother, but even demanded of the senate that he should be enrolled among the gods. His pattern was Sylla, whose tomb he restored and adorned. Like this dictator, he enriched his soldiers with the most extravagant largesses which extortion enabled him to furnish. . The augmentation of pay received by them is said to have amounted to 280 millions of ses. terces a year. As cruel as Caligula and Nero, but weaker than either, he regarded the senate and people

with equal hatred and contempt. From motives of avarice, he gave all the freemen of the empire the right of citizenship, and was the first who received Egyp. tians into the senate. Of all his follies, however, the greatest was his admiration of Alexander of Macedon. From his infancy he made this monarch his model, and copied him in everything which it was easy to imitate. He had even a Macedonian phalanx of sixteen thousand men, all born in Macedonia, and commanded by officers bearing the same names with those who had served under Alexander. Convinced, moreover, that Aristotle had participated in the conspiracy against the son of Philip, he caused the works of the philosopher to be burned. With equally foolish enthusiasm for Achilles, he made him the object of his deepest veneration. He went to Ilium to visit the grave of Homer's hero, and poisoned his favourite freedman named Festus, to imitate Achilles in his grief for Patroclus. His conduct in his campaigns in Gaul, where he committed all sorts of cruelties, was still more degrading. He crossed over the Rhine into the countries of the Catti and Alemanni. The Catti defeated him, and permitted him to repass the river only on condition of paying them a large sum of money. He next marched through the land of the Alemanni as an ally, and built several fortifications. He then called together the young men of the tribe, as if he intended to take them into his service, and caused his own troops to surround them and cut them in pieces. For this barbarous exploit he assumed the surname of Alemannicus. In Dacia he gained some advantages over the Goths. He signed a treaty of peace at Antioch with Artabanus, the Parthian king, who submitted to all his demands. He invited Abgares, the king of Edessa, an ally of the Romans, to Antioch, loaded him with chains, and took possession of his estates. He exercised the same treachery towards Vologeses, king of Armenia; but the Armenians flew to arms and repulsed the Romans. After this Caracalla went to Alexandrea, to punish the people of that city for ridiculing him. While preparations were making for a great massacre, he offered hecatombs to Serapis, and visited the tomb of Alexander, on which he left his imperial ornaments by way of offering. He afterward devoted the inhabitants for several days and nights to plunder and butchery, and seated himself, in order to have a view of the bloody spectacle, on the top of the temple of Serapis, where he consecrated the dagger which he had drawn, some years before, against his own brother. His desire to triumph over the Parthians induced him to violate the peace, under the pretence that Artabanus had refused him his daughter in marriage. He found the country undefended, ravaged it, marched through Media, and approached the capital. The Parthians, who had retired beyond the Tigris to the mountains, were preparing to attack the Romans the fol: lowing year with all their forces. Caracalla returned without delay to Mesopotamia, without having even seen the Parthians. When the senate received from him information of the submission of the East, they decreed him a triumph and the surname Parthicus. Being informed of the warlike preparations of the Parthians, he prepared to renew the contest; but Macrinus, the praetorian prefect, whom he had offended, assassinated him at Edessa, A.D. 217, on his way to the temple of Lunus. His reign had lasted more than six years. It is remarkable, that this prince, although he did so much to degrade the throne of the Casars, yet raised at Rome some of the most splendid structures that graced the capital. Magnificent therma, bore his name, and among other monuments of lavish expenditure was a triumphal arch, on which were represented the victories and achieve: ments of his father Severus. Notwithstanding his crimes, Caracalla was deified after death by a decree of the senate. (Dio Cass., 122, 1, “or to: Wit. Caracall—Biogr. Univ., vol. 7, p. 95.—Encyclop. Am., vol. 2, p. 506.) CARAcites, a peole of Germania Prima, in Belgic Gaul. Their country answers now to the diocese of Maience. (Tacit., Hist., 4, 70.) CAR acticus, king of the Silures in Britain, a people occupying what is now South Wales. After withstanding, for the space of nine years, the Roman arms, he was defeated in a pitched battle by Ostorius Scapula, and his forces put to the rout. Taking refuge, upon this, with Cartismandua, queen of the Brigantes, he was betrayed by her into the hands of the Romans, and led to Rome. Great importance was attached to his capture. Claudius, who was emperor at the time, augmented the territories of Cartismandua, and triumphal honours were decreed to Ostorius. This exploit was compared to the capture of Syphax by Scipio, and that of Perses by Paulus AEmilius. The manly and independent bearing, however, of the British prince, when brought into the presence of the Roman empcror, excited so much admiration, that his setters were removed, and freedom was granted him, together with his wife and children, who had shared his captivity. Some time after Claudius sent him back to his native island with rich presents, and he reigned there for two years after, remaining during all that period a firm friend to the Romans. (Tacit., Ann., 12, 33, seqq.—Biogr. Univ., vol. 7, p. 103.) CAR Alis, or, with less accuracy, Carallis, a city of Sardinia, founded by the Carthaginians, and soon made the capital of the island. It is supposed to correspond to the modern Cagliari, but it reached, in fact, farther to the east than Cagliari, up to the present Capo St. Elia. This we learn from Ptolemy, who speaks of the city and promontory of Caralls together. Claudian also alludes to the long extent of the place. “Tenditur in longum Caralls,” &c. (Bell. Gild., 520.) Its harbour, which afforded a good shelter against the winds and waves, rendered it always a place of importance. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 2, p. 490.) &o, I. a promontory of Paphlagonia, now Karempi, facing Cris-Metopon (Cape Crio), in the Tauric Chersonese. (Strab., 545.—Plin., 6, 2.)—II. A city near the promontory of the same name. (Scylar, Peripl., p. 34.—Plin., 6, 2.) CA RANUs, a descendant of Temenus the son of Hercules. According to Justin (7, 1), Velleius Paterculus (1,6), Pausanias (9, 40), and others, he quitted Argos, his native city, at the head of a numerous body of colonists, and, arriving in AEmathia, a district of Macedonia, then ruled by Midas, obtained possession of Edessa, the capital, where he established his sway, and thus laid the foundation of the Macedonian empire. Considerable doubts, however, arise, upon looking into the accounts of Herodotus and Thucydides, as to the authenticity of the adventure ascribed to Caranus. (Consult remarks under the article MaceDoNIA.) CARAUsius, a native of Gaul, born among the Menapii. His naval abilities attracted the notice of Maximian, who gave him the command of a squadron against the pirates. He proved, however, unfaithful to his trust, and too much bent on enriching himself. Maximian thereupon gave orders to put him to death; but Carausius, apprized of this in season, retired with his fleet to Britain. Here he succeeded in gaining over, or else intimidating, the only Roman legion that remained in the island, and finally proclaimed himself emperor. He forced the emperors Maximian and Dioclesian to acknowledge his authority, which he maintained for the space of seven years. He was assassinated by Allectus. (Crevier, Hist, des Emp. Rom., vol. 6, p. 177, 202.) Carbo, the surname of a branch of the Papirian family at Rome. Several distinguished men bore this

name, among whom were, I. Caius, a Roman orator, the contemporary and friend of Tiberius Gracchus, was accused of seditious conduct by L. Crassus, and committed suicide by swallowing cantharides. (Cic, Brut, 27, et 43.-Id, Or., 34—Id., Ep. ad Fam., 9, 21.) He was thought to have been concerned in the assassination of the younger Africanus. (Cic., Or., 2,40—Ep. ad Fam., l.c.)—II. Cneius, son of the preceding, was three times consul, and at last proconspl in Gaul. He was a partisan of Marius', and was put to death by order of Pompey, at Lilybaeum, in Sicily. Consult, as regards the singular attachment to life which he displayed, the account given by Valerius Maximus (9, 13). CARchinon (Kapımóðv), the Greek name of Car


&m. a town in the Thracian Chersonesus, at the top of the Sinus Melanis. It was destroyed b Lysimachus when he founded Lysimachia a little sout of it. It derived its name from being built in the form of a heart. It was also called Hexamilium, because the isthmus is here about six miles across. It was afterward rebuilt, and is now Heramili. (Plin., 4, 11.— Mela, 2, 2–Solin., c. 10.-Ptol., 3, 12.-Herod., 7, 58.)

Carpüchi, a warlike nation in Gordyene, a district of Armenia Major, inhabiting the Montes Carduchi, between the Tigris and Lake Arsissa. Strabo says that in his time they were called Gordyari. Pliny (6, 12) and Quintus Curtius (4, 10) both make mention of the Montes Gordyci, but the former writer elsewhere (6, 17) informs us that the Carduchi were called in his time Cordueni. The modern Kurds are regarded as the descendants of this ancient people. (Xen., Anab., 3, 5, 16, &c.—Consult Krüger, ad loc.)

CARIA, a country of Asia Minor, to the south of Ionia and Lydia, from which it was separated by the course of the Maeander. In extent it was the least considerable of the divisions of the peninsula; but, from the number of towns and villages assigned to it by the ancient geographers, it would seem to have been very populous. The corresponding division of the Turkish provinces, in modern geography, is called Muntesha. Caria was a fruitful country, and produced, like the surrounding regions, wheat, oil, wine, &c. The Carians were not considered by Herodotus and other early Greek historians as the aboriginal inhabitants of the country to which they communicated their name. Herodotus, himself a native of Caria, and who must therefore be allowed to have been well acquainted with its traditions, believed that the people who inhab ited it had formerly occupied the islands of the AEgean, under the name of Leleges; but that, being reduced by Minos, king of Crete, they were removed by that sovereign to the continent of Asia, where they still, however, continued to be his vassals, and to serve him more especially in his maritime expeditions. At this period, says the historian, the Carians were by far the most celebrated of the existing nations; they excelled in the manufacture of arms, and the Greeks ascribed to them the invention of crests, and the devices and handles of shields. (Herod., 1, 171 –Compare Anacr. et Alc. ap. Strab., 661.) The Carians appear to have been, at an early period, great pirates, and it was for this reason, doubtless, that Minos expelled them from the island, while he was glad, at the same time, to avail himself of their skill and enterprise for the aggrandizement of his own empire. The account which the Carians themselves, however, gave of the origin of their race, indicates a near degree of affinity with the Lydians and Mysians, for they made Lydus and Mysus the brothers of Car, the patriarch of their nation. (Herod., 1, 171.-Strab., 659.) Hence it is not unreasonable to suppose, that as Thrace and Macedonia furnished those numerous tribes, which, under the several names of Leleges, Caucones, and Pelasgi, spread

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