Obrazy na stronie

(2, 3), that the inhabitants were supposed to live be- when he lived is uncertain: he is thought, however, to

yond the usual time allotted to man. (Compare Thucyd. 4, 109–Scylar, p. 26.—Steph. Byz. s. v. Atwo. —Strab. epit. lib. 7, 331.) Acrocerau Nia, or Acrock RAUN11 Montes. rid. Ceraunia. Acrocorinthus, a high hill, overhanging the city of Corinth, on which was erected a citadel, called also by the same name. This situation was so important a one as to be styled by Philip the setters of Greece. The fortress was surprised by Antigonus, but recovered in a brilliant manner by Aratus. (Strab. 8, 380.Paus. 2, 4.—Plut. Wit. Arat.—Stat. Theb. 7, r. 106.) “The Acrocorinthus, or Acropolis of Corinth,” observes Dodwell, “ is one of the finest objects in Greece, and, if properly garrisoned, would be a place of great strength and importance. It abounds with excellent water, is in most parts precipitous, and there is only one spot from which it can be annoyed with artillery. This is a pointed rock, at a few hundred yards to the southwest of it, from which it was battered by Mohammed II. Before the introduction of artillery, it was deemed almost impregnable, and had never been taken except by treachery or surprise. Owing to its natural strength, a small number of men was deemed sufficient to garrison it; and in the time of Aratus, according to Plutarch, it was defended by 400 soldiers, 50 dogs, and as many keepers. It was surrounded with a wall by Cleomenes. It shoots up majestically from the plain to a considerable height, and forms a conspicuous object at a great distance: it is clearly seen from Athens, from which it is not less than fortyfour miles in a direct line. Strabo affirms that it is 31-2 stadia in perpendicular height, but that the ascent to the top is 30 stadia by the road, the circuitous inflections of which render this no extravagant computation. The Acrocorinthus contains within its walls a town and three mosques. Athenaeus commends the water in the Acrocorinthus as the most salubrious in Greece. It was at this fount that Pegasus was drinking when taken by Bellerophon.” (Dodwell, vol. 2, p. 187.) All modern travellers who have visited this spot, give a glowing description of the view obtained from the ridge. Consult, in particular, Clarke's Trapels, vol. 6, p. 750. Acron, I. a king of the Caeninenses, whom Romulus slew in battle, after the affair of the Sabine women. His arms were dedicated to Jupiter Feretrius, and his subjects were incorporated wrth the Roman people. (Plut. Wit. Rom.) Propertius styles him Carninus Acron, from the name of his city and people (4, 10, 7), and also Herculeus (4, 10, 9), from the circumstance of all the Sabine race tracing their descent from Hercules or Sancus.-II. A celebrated physician of Agrigentum in Sicily, contemporary with Empedocles (Diog. Laert. 8, 65). Plutarch speaks of his having been at Athens during the time of the great plague, which occurred B.C. 430. He aided the Athenians on that occasion, by causing large fires to be kindled in their streets. (Plut. Is. et Os. 383.) Acron is generally regarded as the founder of the sect of Empirics or Experimentalists (Pseud. Gal. Isag. 372). As this school of medicine, however, had a much later date, it is probable that he was merely one of the class of physicians called Teptodevrai, who did not confine themselves to mere theory, but went round and visited patients. His contempt for the mysterious charlatanism of Empedocles drew upon him the hatred of that philosopher. At least it is fair to suppose that this was the cause of their enmity. Acron wrote, according to Suidas, a treatise in Doric Greek, on the healing art, and another on diet. He appears also, from the words of the lexicographer, to have turned his attention in some degree to the influence of climate. (Consult Sprengel, Hist. Med. 1, 273.)—III. Helenius Acron, an ancient commentator. The period

have been later than Servius. Acron's scholia on Horace have descended to ps in part, or at least only a part was ever published. They are valuable on account of their containing the remarks of C. A milius, Julius Modestus, and Q. Terentius Scaurus, the oldest commentators on Horace. Acron also wrote scholia on Terence, which are cited by Charisius, but they have not reached us. Some critics ascribe to him the scholia which we have on Persius. (Schwell, Hust. Litt. Rom. 3, 326.) Acropolis, in a special sense, the citadel of Athens, an account of which will be given under the article Athenae. Acropolita. Wid. Supplement. Acrotatus, I. son of Cleomenes, king of Sparta, died before his father, leaving a son called Areus, who contended for the crown with Cleonymus his uncle, and obtained it through the suffrages of the senate. Cleonymus, in his disappointment, called in Pyrrhus of Epirus. (Paus. 3, 6–Plut. rut. Pyrrh.-Paus. 1, 13.)—II. A king of Sparta, son of Areus, and grandson of the preceding. He reigned one year. Before ascending the throne, he distinguished himself by courageously defending Sparta against Pyrrhus. (Plut. rut. Pyrrh.) Acrothou M. Wid. Acroathos. Acta or Acte, strictly speaking, a beach or shore on which the waves break, from to w, “to break.” According to Apollodorus (Steph. B. s. v. 'Aaro), the primitive name of Attica was 'Akti, (Acte), from the circumstance of two of its sides being washed by the sea. The name is also applied by Thucydides to that part of the peninsula of Athos which is below the city of Sane and including it. Besides Sane, the historian mentions five other cities as being situate upon it. (Thucyd. 4, 109.) Act.A. on, a celebrated hunter, son of Arista'us and Autonoë the daughter of Cadmus. Having inadvertently, on one occasion, seen Diana bathing, he was changed by the goddess into a stag, and was hunted down and killed by his own hounds. (Or. Met. 3, 155, seqq.) The scene of the fable is laid by the poets at Gargaphia, a fountain of Boeotia, on Mount Cithaeron, about a mile and a half from Plataea. From a curious passage in Diodorus Siculus (4, 81), a suspicion arises, that the story of Actaeon is a corruption of some earlier tradition, respecting the fate of an intruder into the mysteries of Diana. Wesseling's explanation does not appear satisfactory, although it ina serve as a clew to the true one. (Wesseling, ad Di Sic. l.c.) Act. Eus, the first king of Attica, according to the ancient writers. He was succeeded by Cecrops, to whom he had given one of his daughters in marriage. (Paus. 1, 2–Clem. Aler. 1, 321.) He is called b some Actaeon. (Strah. 397–Harpocr. s. v. 'Axth. —Consult Siebelis, ad Paus. l. c.) Actr, a freed woman of Asiatic origin. Suetonius (Wit. Ner. 28) informs us, that Nero, at one time, was on the point of making her his wife, having suborned certain individuals of consular rank to testify, under oath, that she was descended from Attalus. From a passage in Tacitus (Ann. 14, 2) it would appear, that Seneca introduced this female to the notice of the tyrant, in order to counteract, by her means, the dreaded ascendency of Agrippina. (Compare Dio Cass. 61, 7.) Actia, games renewed by Augustus in commemoration of his victory at Actium. They are also styled Ludi Actiaci by the Latin writers, and were celebrated in the suburbs of Nicopolis. Strabo makes them to have been quinquennial. Previously, however, to the battle of Actium they occurred every three years. (Strab. 7,325.) Actis, one of the Heliades, or offspring of the Sun, who, according to Diodorus Siculus (5, 57), migrated from Rhodes into Egypt, founded Heliopolis, and taught the Egyptians astrology. The same writer states, that the Greeks, having lost by a deluge nearly all their memorials of previous events, became ignorant of their claim to the invention of the science in question, and allowed the Egyptians to arrogate it to themselves. Wesseling considers this a mere fable, based on the national vanity of the Greeks, who, it is well known, inverted so many of the ancient traditions, and in this case, for example, made that pass from Greece into Egypt, which came in reality from Egypt to Greece. (Wess. ad Diod. Sic. l. c.) Actisines, according to Diodorus Siculus (1,60), a king of AEthiopia, who conquered Egypt and dethroned Amasis. He was remarkable for his moderation towards his new subjects, as well as for his justice and equity. All the robbers and malefactors, too, were collected from every part of the kingdom, and, having had their noses cut off, were established in Rhinocolura, a city which he had founded for the purpose of receiving them. We must read, no doubt, with Stephens and Wesseling, in the text of Diodorus, 'Auuwaic instead of "Auaatc., for the successor of Apries cannot here be meant. Who the Actisanes of Diodorus was, appears to be undetermined. According to Wesseling (ad loc.), Strabo is the only other writer that makes mention of him. (Strabo, 759.) Actium, originally the name of a small neck of land, called also Acte ("Axth), at the entrance of the Sinus Ambracius, on which the inhabitants of Anactorium had erected a small temple in honour of Apollo. On the outer side of this same promontory was a small harbour, the usual rendezvous of vessels which did not wish to enter the bay. Scylax (p. 13) calls this harbour Acte. Thucydides, however, applies this name to the temple itself. Polybius (4,63) makes mention of the temple, under the appellation of Actium, and speaks of it as belonging to the Acarnanians. Actium became famous, in a later age, for the decisive victory which Augustus gained in this quarter over the fleet of Marc Antony. From the accounts given of it by the Roman writers, Actium appears to have been, about the time of this battle, nothing more than a temple on a height, with a small harbour below. The conqueror beautified the sacred edifice, and very probably a number of small buildings began after this to arise in the vicinity of the temple. (Strab. 325.—Sueton. Wit. Aug. 17.—Cic. ep. ad fam. 16, 9.) Hence Strabo (451) applies to it the epithet of xoptov. It never, however, became a regular city, although an inattentive reader would be likely to form this opinion from the language of Mela (2, 3) and Pliny (4, 1). Both these writers, however, in fact confound it with Nicopolis. There are no traces of the temple at the present day, but Pouqueville found some remains of the Hippodrome and Stadium. More within the Sinus Ambracius (Gulf of Arta) lies the small village of Azio. Hence probably, according to Mannert, originated the error of D'Anville, who places Actium, in contradiction to all ancient authorities, at some distance within the bay. (Vid. Nicopolis, and compare Mannert, 8, 70.Pouquerille, 3, 445.) Actius, a surname of Apollo, from Actium, where he had a temple. (Virg. Æn. 8, p. 704.) Actius Navius. Vid. Attus Navius. Actor, the father of Menoetius, and grandfather of Patroclus, who is hence called Actorides. The birth of Actor is by some placed in Locris, by others in Thessaly. As a Thessalian, he is said to have been the son of Myrmidon and Pisidia, the daughter of Æolus, and husband of AEgina, daughter of the Asopus; and to have conceded his kingdom, on account . the rebellion of his sons, to Peleus. (Or. Trist. 1, 9.) Consult, on the different individuals of this name, the remarks oftw". ad Apollod. 3, 13.

Actorídes, I. a patronymic given to Patroclus, grandson of Actor. (Opid, Met. 13, fab. 1.)—II. The sons of Actor and Molione. (Wid. Molionides.)

Actorius. Wid. Supplement. Actuarius. Vid. Supplement. Aculeo. Vid. Supplement. Acumenus. Vid. Supplement.

Acusi LAUs, a Greek historian, born at Argos, and who lived, according to Josephus (contr. Ap. 1, 2), a short time previous to the Persian invasion of Greece, being a contemporary of Cadmus of Miletus. He wrote a work entitled “Genealogies,” in which he gave the origin of the principal royal lines among his countrymen. He made historic times commence with Phoroneus, son of Inachus, and he reckoned 1020 years from him to the first Olympiad, or 776 B.C. We have only a few fragments of his work, collected by Sturz, and placed by him at the end of those of Pherecydes, published at Gera, 2d. ed., 1824. Acuticus, M., an ancient comic writer, author of various pieces, entitled, Leones, Gemini, Baolia, &c., and ascribed by some to Plautus. (Voss. de Poet. Lat. c. 1.) AD Aquas, Ad Aquilas, &c., a form common to very many names of places. The Roman legions, on many occasions, when stopping or encamping in any quarter, did not find any habitation or settlement by which the place in question might be designated, and therefore selected for this purpose some natural object, or some peculiar feature in the adjacent scenery. Thus Ad Aquas indicated a spot near which there was water, or an encampment near water, &c. Another form of common occurrence is that which denotes the number of miles on any Roman road. Thus, Ad Quartum, “at the fourth mile-stone,” supply lapidem. So also, Ad Quintum, Ad Decimum, &c. ADA, the sister of Artemisia. She married Hidrieus, her brother (such unions being allowed among the Carians), and, after the death of Artemisia, ascended the throne of Caria, and reigned seven years conjointly with her husband. On the death of Hidrieus she reigned four years longer, but was then driven from her dominions by Pixodarus, the youngest of her brothers, who had obtained the aid of the satra Orontobates. Alexander the Great afterward j her to her throne. (Quint. Curt. 2, 8.) Adad, an Assyrian deity, supposed to be the sun. Macrobius (Sat.1, 23) states, that the name Adad means “One” (Unus), and that the goddess Adargatis was assigned to this deity as his spouse, the former representing the Sun, and the latter the Earth. He also mentions, that the effigy of Adad was represented with rays inclining downward, whereas they extend upward from that of Adargatis. Selden (de Diis Syris, c. 6, synt. 1) thinks that Macrobius must be in error when he makes Adad equivalent to “One,” and that he must have confounded it with the word Chad, which has that meaning. Adarus. Wid. Supplement. ADAMANTAEA, Jupiter's nurse in Crete, who suspended him in his cradle from a tree, that he might be found neither on the earth, the sea, nor in heaven. To drown the infant's cries, she caused young boys to clash small brazen shields and spears as they moved around the tree. She is probably the same as Amalthea. ADAMANtius. Wid. Supplement. ADANA, a city of Cilicia, southeast of Tarsus, on the Sarus, or Sihon. It was at one time a large and well-known place, and was said to have been sounded by Adanus, son of Uranus and Gaea. (Steph. B.) . AppūA, now Adda, a river of Cisalpine Gaul, ...; in the Rhoetian Alps, traversing the Lacus Larius, an falling into the Po to the west of Cremona. In the old editions of Strabo, it is termed in . passage

She was the last queen of Caria. (204) the Adula (6 'AéoùZac), but this is an error of the copyists, arising probably from the name of Mount Adula, which precedes. Tzschucke restores & 'Addovaç. Apes, or HApes, an epithet originally of Pluto, the monarch of the shades; afterward applied to the lower world itself. The term is derived by most etymoloists from a privative, and eiða, video, alluding to the #. supposed to prevail in this abode of the dead. That this is the true derivation, indeed, will appear from what the poets tell us of the helmet of Pluto (xvvi, 'Aidov), which had the power of rendering the wearer invisible. (Hom. Il. 5,845.) For farther remarks on the Hades of the Greeks, vid. Tartarus. ADG ANDestrius, a prince of the Catti, who wrote a letter to the Roman senate, in which he promised to destroy Arminius, if poison should be sent him for that urpose from Rome. The senate answered, that the f. sought their enemies openly, and never used perfidious measures. (Tacit. Ann. 2, c. 88.) Adherbal, son of Micipsa, and grandson of Masi. missa, was besieged at Cirta, and put to death by Jugurtha, after vainly imploring the aid of Rome, B.C. 112. (Sallust, Jug. 5, 7, &c.) According to Ge. senius (Phaen. Mon., p. 399, seq.), the more Oriental form of the name is Atherbal, signifying “the worshipper of Baal.” From this the softer form Adherbal arose. The MSS. of Sallust often give Atherbal, with which we may compare the Greek 'Arapbac. (Diod. Sic. lib. 34, fragm.—vol. 10, p. 132, ed. Bip.–Polyb. 1, 46, &c.) AdiabłNE, a region in the northern part of Assyria, and to the east of the Tigris. During the Macedonian sway, it comprised all the country between the Zabus Major and Minor. Under the Parthian sway it comprehended the country as far as the Euphrates, including what was previously Aturia. It was afterward the seat of a kingdom dependant on the Parthian power, which disappeared from history, however, on the rise of the second Persian empire. (Plin. 5, 12, &c.) Adiatorix. Wid. Supplement. Adim ANtus. Wid. Supplement. AdMETE, I. (Vid. Supplement.) — II. A daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, whom Hyginus, in the preface to his fables, calls Admeto, and a daughter of Pontus and Thalassa, which last was the offspring of Æther and Hemera. (Hom. Hymn, in Cererem, 421.—Hesiod. Theog. 349.) AdMEtus, I. son of Pheres, king of Pherae in Thessaly, and who succeeded his father on the throne. He married Theone, daughter of Thestor, and, after her death, Alcestis, daughter of Pelias, so famous for her conjugal heroism. It was to the friendship of Apollo that he owed this latter union. The god having been banished from the sky for one year, in consequence of his killing the Cyclopes, tended during that period the herds of Admetus. Pelias had promised his daughter to the man who should bring him a chariot drawn by a lion and a wild boar, and Admetus succeeded in this by the aid of Apollo. The god also obtained from the Fates, that Admetus should not die if another person laid down his or her life for him, and Alcestis heroically devoted herself to death for her husband. Admetus was so deeply affected at her loss, that Proserpina actually relented; but Pluto remained inexorable, and Hercules at last descended to the shades and bore back Alcestis to life. Admetus was one of the Argonauts, and was also present at the hunt of the Calydonian boar. Euripides composed a tragedy on the story of Alcestis, which has come down to us. (Apollod. 1, 8–Tibull. 2, 3–Hygin. fab. 50, 51, &c.)—II. A king of the Molossi, to whom Themistocles, when banished, fled for protection. (Wid. Themistocles.)—III. A Greek epigrammatic poet, who lived in the early part of the second century after Christ.

Apwo, an engraver on precious stones in the time of Augustus. His country is uncertain. An elegant portrait of Augustus, engraved by him, is described by Mongez, Icon. Rom. tab. 18, n. 6.

ADoNía, a festival in honour of Adonis, celebrated both at Byblus in Phoenicia, and in most of the Grecian cities. Lucian (de Syria Dea.—vol. 9, p. 88, seqq., ed. Bip.) has left us an account of the manner in which it was held at Byblus. According to this writer, it lasted during two days, on the first of which everything wore an appearance of sorrow, and the death of the favourite of Venus was indicated by public mourning. On the following day, however, the aspect of things underwent a complete change, and the greatest joy prevalled on account of the fabled resurrection of Adonis from the dead. During this festival the priests of Byblus shaved their heads, in imitation of the priests of Isis in Egypt. In the Grecian cities, the manner of holding this festival was nearly, if not exactly, the same with that followed in Phoenicia. On the first day all the citizens put themselves in mourning, coffins were exposed at every door; the statues of Venus and Adonis were borne in procession, with certain vessels full of earth, in which the worshippers had raised corn, herbs, and lettuce, and these vessels were called the gardens of Adonis ('Adanudog kimou). After the ceremony was over they were thrown into the sea or some river, where they soon perished, and thus became emblems of the premature death of Adonis, who had fallen, like a young plant, in the flower of his age. (Histoire du Culle d'Adonis: Mem. Acad. des Inscrip, &c., vol. 4, p. 136, seqq.—Dupuis, Origine de Cultes, vol. 4, p. 118, seqq., ed. 1822–Valckenaer, ad Theoc. Adova. in Arg.) The lettuce was used among the other herbs on this occasion, because Venus was fabled to have deposited the dead body of her favourite on a bed of lettuce. In allusion to this festival, the expression 'Adavuòoc kijirou became proverbial, and was applied to whatever perished previous to the period of maturity. (Adagia }. p. 410.) Plutarch relates, in his life of Nicias, that the expedition against Syracuse set sail from the harbours of Athens, at the very time when the women of that city were celebrating the mournful part of the festival of Adonis, during which there were to be seen, in every quarter of the city, images of the dead, and funeral processions, the women accompanying them with dismal lamentations. Hence an unsavourable omen was drawn of the result of the expedition, which the event but too fatally realized. Theocritus, in his beautiful Idyll entitled 'Adanovosovoat, has left us an account of the part of this grand anniversary spectacle termed # tipedic, “the finding,” i. e., the resurrection of Adonis, the celebration of it having been made by order of Arsinoë, queen of Ptolemy Philadelphus. Boettiger (Sabina, p. 265) has a very ingenious idea in relation to the fruits exhibited on this joyful occasion. He thinks it impossible, that even so powerful a queen as Arsinoë should be able to obtain in the spring of the year, when this festival was always celebrated, fruits which had attained their full maturity (Öpua). He considers it more than probable that they were of wax. This conjecture will also furnish another, and perhaps a more satisfactory, explanation of the phrase 'Aéâvudog kjirot, denoting things whose exterior promised fairly, while there was nothing real or substantial within. Adonis was the same deity with the Syrian Tammuz, whose festival was celebrated even by the Jews, when they degenerated into idolatry (Ezekiel, 8, 14); and Tammuz is the proper Syriac name for the Adonis of the Greeks. (Creuzer's Symbolik, vol. ii., p. 86.) (Wid. Adonis.)

ApôNis, I. son of Cinyras, by his daughter Myrrha (vid. Myrrha), and famed for his beauty. He was ardently attached to the chase, and notwithstanding the entreaties of Venus, who feared for his safety and lowed him tenderly, he exposed himself day after day il. the hunt, and at last lost his life by the tusk of a wild boar whom he had wounded. His blood produced the anemone, according to Ovid (Met. 10, 735); but according to others, the adonium, while the anemone arose from the tears of Venus. (Bion, Epitaph. Ad. 66.) The goddess was inconsolable at his loss, and at last obtained from Proserpina, that Adonis should spend alternately six months with her on earth, and the remaining six in the shades. This fable is evidently an allegorical allusion to the periodical return of winter and summer. (Apollod. 3, 14.—Or. l. c.—Bion, l. c.— Virg. Ecl. 10, 18, &c.) “Adonis, or Adonai,” observes R. P. Knight, “was an Oriental title of the sun, signifying Lord; and the boar, supposed to have killed him, was the emblem of winter; during which the productive powers of nature being suspended, Wenus was said to lament the loss of Adonis until he was again restored to life; whence both the Syrian and Argive women annually mourned his death and celebrated his renovation; and the mysteries of Venus and Adonis at Byblus in Syria were held in similar estimation with those of Ceres and Bacchus at Eleusis, and Isis and Osiris in Egypt. Adonis was said to pass six months with Proserpina and six with Venus; whence some learned persons have conjectured that the allegory was invented near the pole, where the sun disappears during so long a time; but it may signify merely the decrease and increase of the productive wers of nature as the sun retires and advances. The Wishnoo or Juggernaut of the Hindus is equally said to lie in a dormant state during the four rainy months of that climate: and the Osiris of the Egyptians was supposed to be dead or absent forty days in each year, during which the people lamented his loss, as the Syrians did that of Adonis, and the Scandinavians that of Frey; though at Upsal, the great metropolis of their worship, the sun never continues any one day entirely below their horizon.” An Inquiry into the Symbolical Language of Ancient Art and Mythology (Class. Journal, vol. 25, p. 42.)—II. A river of Phoenicia, which falls into the Mediterranean below Byblus. It is now called Nahr Ibrahim. At the anniversary of the death of Adonis, which was in the rainy season, its waters were tinged red with the ochrous particles from the mountains of Libanus, and were fabled to flow with his blood. But Dupuis (4, p. 121), with more probability, supposes this red colour to have been a mere artifice on the part of the priests. ADRAMvttiu M, a city of Asia Minor, on the coast of Mysia, and at the head of an extensive bay (Sinus Adramyttenus) facing the island of Lesbos. Strabo (605) makes it an Athenian colony. Stephanus Byzantinus follows Aristotle, and mentions Adramys, the brother of Croesus, as its founder. This last is more probably the true account, especially as an adjacent district bore the name of Lydia. According, however, to Eustathius and other commentators, the place existed before the Trojan war, and was no other than the Pedasus of Homer (Plin. 5, 32). This city became a place of importance under the kings of Pergamus, and continued so in the time of the Roman power, although it suffered severely during the war with Mithradates. (Strab. 605.) Here the Connentus Juridicus was held. The modern name is Adramys, and it is represented as being still a place of some commerce. It contains 1000 houses, but mostly mean and miserably built. Adramyttium is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles (ch. 27, 2). AdRKNA, a river in Germany, in the territory of the Catti, and emptying into the Visugis. Now the Eder. AdRAN rus. Wid. Supplement. AdRANus. Wid. Supplement. AdRastEA ('Aépudreum), 1. a region of Mysia, in Asia Minor, near Priapus, at the entrance of the Propontis, and containing a plain and city of the same name. The appellation was said to have been derived

from Adrastus, who founded in the latter a temple to Nemesis. (Strab. 588.-Steph. B. s. v.) This etymology, however, appears very doubtful. A more correct one is given under No. II. The city had originally an oracle of Apollo and Diana, which was af. terward removed to Parium in its vicinity. Homer makes mention of Adrastea, but Pliny is in error (5, 32) when he supposes Parium and Adrastea to have been the same.—II. A daughter of Jupiter and Necessity, so called, not from Adrastus, who is said to have erected the first temple to her, but from the impossibility of the wicked escaping her power: á privative, and épád, “to flee.” She is the same as Nemesis.— III. A Cretan nymph, daughter of Melisseus, to whom the goddess Rhea intrusted the infant Jupiter in the Dictaean grotto. In this office Adrastea was assisted by her sister Ida and the Curetes (Apollod. 1, 1, 6; Callim. Hymn. in Jor. 47), whom the scholast on Callimachus calls her brothers. Apollonius Rhodius (3, 132, seqq.) relates that she gave to the infant Jupiter a beautiful globe (a paipa) to play with, and on some Cretan coins Jupiter is represented sitting on a globe. (Spanheim ad Callim. l. c.) A drastus, I. a king of Argos, son of Talaus and Lysimache. (Wid. Supplement.)— II. A son of the Phrygian king Gordius, who had unintentionally killed his brother, and was, in consequence, expelled by his father, and deprived of everything. He took refuge as a suppliant at the court of Craesus, king of Lydia, who received him kindly and purified him. After some time he was sent out as guardian of Atys, the son of Croesus, who was to deliver the country around the . Mysian Olympus from a wild boar which had made great havoc in it Adrastus had the misfortune to kill the young prince Atys while throwing his javelin at the wild beast : Croesus pardoned the unfortunate man, as he saw in this accident the will of the gods and the fulfilment of a prophecy; but Adrastus could not endure to live longer, and accordingly killed himself or. the tomb of Atys. (Herod., 1, 35–45.)—III. A Perpatetic philosopher, born at Aphrodisias in Caria, and who flourished about the beginning of the second century of our era. He was the author of a treatise on the arrangement of Aristotle's writings and his system of philosophy, quoted by Simplicius (Prafat. in viii. lib. phys.), and by Achilles Tatius (p. 82). Some commentaries of his on the Timaeus of Plato are also quoted by Porphyry (p. 270, in Harm. Ptol.), and a treatise on the categories of Aristotle by Galen. None of these have come down to us, but a work on Harmonics (Tepi 'Apuovukav) is [... in manuscript in the Vatican library.—IV. Father of Eurydice, and grandfather of Laomedon. (Apullod. 3, 12, 3.)—W. Son of the soothsayer Merops of Percote. He went to the Trojan war with his brother, against the will of his father, and was slain by Diomede. AdRIA, Atri A, or HAdria, I. in the time of the Romans a small city of Cisalpine Gaul, on the river Tartarus, near the Po. Its site is still occupied by the modern town of Atri. In the ages preceding the Roman power, Adria appears to have been a powerful and flourishing commercial city, as far as an opinion may be deduced from the circumstance of its having given name to the Adriatic, and also from the numerous canals which were to be found in its vicinity. (Compare Liv. 5, 33.—Strab. 218–Justin, 20, 1.-Plin. 3, 16.) It had been founded by a colony of Etrurians, to whose labours these canals must evidently be ascribed, the name given to them by the Romans (fossiones Philistina) proving that they were not the work of that people. (Compare Muller, Etrusk., vol. 1, p. 228, in notis.) The fall of Adria was owing to the inroads of the Gallic nations, and the consequent neglect of the canals. Livy, Justin, and most of the ancient historians, write the name of this city

Adria; the geographers, on the other hand, prefer Atria. In Strabo alone the reading is doubtful. Manutius and Cellarius, on the authority of inscriptions and coins, give the preference to the form Hadria. Berkel (ad Steph. Byzant, v. 'Aépía) is also in favour of it. It must be observed, however, that Adria is found on coins as well as the aspirated form. (Rasche, Ler Rei Num, vol. 4, col. 9.—Cellarius, Geogr. Ant. 1, 509.)—II. A town of Picenum, capital of the Praetutii, on the coast of the Adriatic. Here the family of the Emperor Adrian, according to his own account, took its rise. The modern name of the place is Adri or Atri. AdRIANopétis, or HApri ANopälis, I. one of the most important cities of Thrace, founded by and named after the Emperor Adrian or Hadrian. Being of comparatively recent date, it is consequently not mentioned by the old geographical writers. Even Ptolemy is silent respecting it, since his notices are not later than the reign of Trajan. The site of this city, however, was previously occupied by a small Thracian settlement named Uskudama; and its very advantageous situation determined the emperor in favour of erecting a large city on the spot. (Ammian. Marcell. 14, 11. —Eutrop. 6, 8.) Adrianopolis stood on the right bank of the Hebrus, now Maritza, which forms a junction in this quarter with the Arda, or Ardiscus, now Arda, and the Tonzus, now Tundscha. (Compare Zosimus, 2, 22.-Lamprid. Elagab. 7.) This city became famous in a later age for its manufactories of arms, and in the fourth century succeeded in withstanding the Goths, who laid siege to it after their victory over the Emperor Valens. (Ammian. Marcell. 31, 15.) Hierocles (p. 635) makes it the chief city of the Thracian province of Haemimontius. The inhabitants were probably ashamed of their Thracian origin, and borrowed therefore a primitive name for their city from the mythology of the Greeks. (Vid. Orestias.) Mannert (7,263) thinks that the true appellation was Odrysos, which they thus purposely altered. The modern name of the place is Adrianople, or rather Edrineh. It was taken by the Turks in 1360 or 1363, and the Emperor Amurath made it his residence. It continued to be the imperial city until the fall of Constantinople; but, though the court has been removed to the latter place, Adrianople is still the second city in the empire, and very important, in case of invasion by a foreign power, as a central point for collecting the Turkish strength. Its present population is not less than 100,000 souls.—II. A city of Bithynia in Asia Minor, founded by the Emperor Adrian. D'Anville places it in the southern part of the territory of the Mariandyni, and makes it correspond to the modern Boli-III. Another city of Bithynia, called more properly Adriani or Hadriani ('Aéptávot). It is frequently mentioned in ecclesiastical writers, and by Hierocles (p. 693), and there are medals existing of it, on which it is styled Adriani near Olympus. Hence D'Anville, on his map, places it to the southwest of Mount Olympus, in the district of Olympena, and makes it the same with the modern Edrenos. Mannert opposes this, and places it in the immediate vicinity of the river Rhyndacus.— IV. A city of Epirus, in the district of Thesprotia, situate to the southeast of Antigonea, on the river Celydnus. Its ruins are still found upon a spot named Drinopolis, an evident corruption of its earlier name. (Hughes' Travels, 2, 236.)—V. A name given to a part of Athens, in which the Emperor Adrian or Hadrian had erected many new and beautiful structures. (Gruter, Inscrip., p. 177.) AdRIANus, a Roman emperor. AdRIANus. Wid. Supplement. Adrias, the name properly of the territory in which the city of Adria in Cisalpine Gaul was situated. Herodotus (5, 9) first speaks of it under this appellation (6 'Aépiac), which is given also by many subsequent Greek writers. (Compare Scylar, p. 5.) Most

(Wid. Hadrianus.)

of them, however, considered it very probably a name for the Adriatic. Strabo (123.) certainly uses it in this sense (O & 'Ióvuoc Koźmor ugpoo tari Toi, wiv 'Aépiov Žeyouévov). More careful writers, however, and especially Polybius, give merely 6 Aéptaç, without any mention of its referring to the Adriatic. The latter author, although acquainted with the form Adriaticus (rov 'Aépartkov unrów, 2, 16), yet, when he wishes to designate the entire gulf, has either 6 Karā Tov 'Aéptav Koźroc (2, 14), or # karū roy 'Aspiav 1942 arra (2, 16). So, in speaking of the mouths of the Po, he uses the expression of kara Tov 'Aéptav kóżirot (2, 14). Hence both Casaubon and Schweighouser, in their respective editions of Polybius, are wrong, in translating 6 'Aépiac by Mare Adriaticum and Sinus Adriaticus.

Adriaticum (or HAdriaticum) Mare, called also Sinus Adriaticus (or Hadriaticus), the arm of the sea between Italy and the opposite shores of Illyricum, Epirus, and Greece, comprehending, in its greatest extent, not only the present Gulf of Venice, but also the Ionian Sea. Herodotus, in one passage (7, 20), calls the whole extent of sea along the coast of Illyricum and Western Greece, as far as the Corinthial, Gulf, by the name of the Ionian Sea ('Iantoc Touroc, In another passage he styles the part in the vicinity of Epidamnus, the Ionian Gulf (6, 127). Scylax makes the Ionian Gulf the same with what he calls Adrias (to 68 airó'Aépiac tari, kai 'lovioc, p. 11), and places the termination of both at Hydruntum (Atum, "Yêpoic #Ti to roi, 'Aéptov # to roi. 'Iovíow kóżrov aröuart, p. 5). He is silent, however, respecting the Ionian Sea, as named by Herodotus. Thucydides, like Herodotus, distinguishes between the Ionian Gulf and Ionian Sea. The former he makes a part of the latter, which reaches to the shores of Western Greece. Thus he observes, in relation to the site of Epidamnus, 'Eričauvác Šarl Tä2 or $1 &eşti tarzéovrt Toy Iovtov kóżorov (1,24). These ideas, however, became changed at a later period. The limits of what Scylax had styled 'Aépiac, and made synonymous with 'Iantor Köztoc, were extended to the shores of Italy and the western coast of Greece, so that now the Ionic Gulf was regarded only as a part of 'Aépiac, or the Adriatic. Eustathius informs us, that the more accurate writers always observed this distinction (ol 68 axpubéarspot Töv 'Iántov učpoc Toi 'Aéptov paci. Eustath. ad Dionys. Perieg. v. 92). Hence we obtain a solution of Ptolemy's meaning, when he makes the Adriatic extend along the entire coast of Western Greece to the southern extremity of the Peloponnesus. The Mare Superum of the Roman writers is represented on classical charts as coinciding with the Sinus Hadriaticus, which last is made to terminate near Hydruntum, the modern Otranto. By Mare Superum, however, in the strictest acceptation of the phrase, appears to have been meant not only the present Adriatic, but also the sea along the southern coast of Italy, as far as the Sicilian straits, which would make it correspond, therefore, very nearly, if not exactly, to the 6'Aéptaç of the later Greek writers.

ADRUMETUM. Wid. Hadrumetum.

Aduatücum, a city of Gaul, in the territory of the Tungri, who appear to have been the same with the Aduatuci or Aduatici of Caesar (B. G. 2, 29), unless the former appellation is to be regarded as a general one for the united German tribes, of whom the Aduatuci formed a part. (Compare Tacitus, de mor. Germ. c. 2.) This city is called 'Arovákovrov by Ptolemy, and Aduaca Tongrorum in the Itinerarium Anton and Tab. Peuting. At a later period it took the name of Tongri from the people themselves. Mannert makes it the same with the modern Tongres, and D'Anville with Falais on the Mehaigne. The former of these geographers, however, thinks that it must have been distinct from the Aduatuca Castellum mentioned by Cae

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