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Hadrian is also extant, entitled, “A Periplus of the Euxine,” probably written while he was prefect of Cappadocia. There are, besides, under the maine of Arrian, “a treatise on Tactics;” “a Periplus of the Erythrean Sea,” of which the authority is doubtful; “a treatise on Hounds and Hunting;” an “Enchiridion,” or Manual, exhibiting an abstract of the doctrines of Epictetus ; and the “Discourses,” or Dissertations of that philosopher, compiled from notes taken during his lectures. The best editions of Arrian's Expedition of Alexander are, that of Gronovius (Lugd. But, 1704, fol.), and that of Schmieder (Lips, 1798, 8vo). The edition of Raphelius (Amst., 1757, 8vo) is, with the exception of the Greek index, almost wholly derived from that of Gronovius. Of the Indian history, the best edition is that of Schmieder (Halae, 1798, 8vo). Of his Enchiridion, that of Upton (Lond, 1739, 4to), and that of Schweighaeuser (Lips., 1799, 8vo), forming part of the edition of the Dis. courses, by the same, which last-mentioned work is in 5 vols. 8vo, Lips., 1799–1801. Of the rest of his works, the best edition is that of Blancard, Amst., 1683, 8vo. The edition of his geographical writings, by Stuckius, Genev., 1577, fol., is also valuable.—II. A Roman lawyer, whose era is unknown. A work of his, “De Interdictis,” is mentioned in lib. 2, D. V., 3, de hatred. petit.—III. A poet who wrote an epic poem in 24 books on Alexander ; also another poem on Attalus, king of Pergamus. He likewise translated Virgil's Georgics into Greek verse. (Suidas, s. n.) ARRius, a noted gourmand, mentioned by Horace. The poet alludes to an entertainment such as he should direct, which would of course be no unexpensive one. (Serm., 2, 3, 86.) Ars Aces, I. a man of obscure origin, who incited the Parthians to revolt from the power of the Seleucidae, and was elevated to the throne on account of his success. Justin (41, 4) makes this revolt to have taken place during the reign of Seleucus Callinicus, son of Antiochus Theos, but his account is inconsistent with his date. Arrian (ap. Phot, Cod., 58) seems to fix the revolt in the reign of Antiochus; while Appian (Bell, Syr., 65), places it at the death of this monarch. Possibly, the establishment of the Parthian power was gradual, and was not completed till the reign of Seleucus. (Clinton, Fast. Hell, vol.2, p. 18.) Arsaces defeated Seleucus in battle, and when this monarch made a second expedition into Parthia, he took him prisoner and kept him long in captivity. (Posidon., ap. Athen., 4, p. 153, a.) Arsaces then laid the foundation of the Parthian empire, and his successors took from him the name of Arsacidae. According to Justin (l.c.), who seems confirmed by Strabo (515), he reigned long and died in old age : according to Syncellus (p. 284, c.), who quotes from Arrian, he reigned only two years. (Clinton, l.c.)—II. The second of the name, son of the preceding, succeeded his father on the Parthian throne, and was, like him, a warlike prince. While Antiochus the Great was engaged in a war with Ptolemy Philopator, of Egypt, Arsaces made himself master of Media. Antiochus, when the war with Ptolemy was ended, marched against the Parthian king, drove him not only from §. but from his own kingdom, and compelled him to take refuge in Hyrcania. Having subsequently, however, collected a numerous army, Arsaces appeared to Antiochus so formidable an antagonist, that the latter was glad to confirm to him the possession of Hyrcania as well as Parthia, on the sole condition of his concluding an alliance with him. Arsaces left his throne to his son Arsaces Priapatius or Phriapatus. (Polyb., 10, 27–Justin, 41, 5–Clinton, Fast. Hell., vol. 2, p. 315.)—III. The third of the name, son of the preceding, surnamed Priapatius or Phriaatus. He reigned 15 years, and left the kingdom to so soil * (Justin, 41, 5.)—IV. A king of 2

Armenia, who was on the throne when Julian marched against Sapor, and was ordered to furnish auxiliaries for the Roman army. When Jovian, aster the death of Julian, was compelled to sign an ignominious treaty of peace, Arsaces, by the very terms of it, was left to the mercy of the Persians, and was soon after entrapped and slain. (Amm. Marcell., 23, 2, seq.Id., 25, 7, et 12 ) ArsacidAE, a name given to some of the monarchs of Parthia, in descent from Arsaces, the founder of the empire. Their power subsisted till the 226th year of the Christian era, when the dynasty of the Sassanides was sounded by Artaxerxes. (Wud. Arsaces I., and Artabanus W.) Arsamoskta, a city of Armenia Major, in the southwestern angle of the district of Sophene, and 70 miles from the Euphrates. It is now Sirmat. Another form of the ancient name is Armosata. (Plin., 6, 9. —Polyb., Erc. vii., lib. 8, 25, 1.—Tacit, 15, 10.) Arsanias, I., a river of Armenia Major, which D'Anville and Mannert, but especially the latter, consider as another name for the southern arm of the Euphrates. (Wid. Euphrates.)—II. There was another river of the same name lower down, which flowed from the northwest through Sophene, and entered the Euphrates below Melitene, on which Arsamosata was situate. This is now the Arsen. (Pliny, 5, 24.— Tacit., 15, 15.) Arses, the youngest son of Ochus, whom the eunuch Bagoas raised to the throne of Persia, and destroyed with his children after a reign of three years. (Vid. Bagoas.) Arsia, a small river between Illyricum and Histria, and forming the limit of Italy in that quarter, after Histria was added to Italy by Augustus. (Plin., 3, 19.-Flor., 2, 5.) Arsi Nöe, I. daughter of Meleager, and mother of Ptolemy I., of Egypt, by Philip, father of Alexander. During her pregnancy she was married to Lagus.-II. Daughter of Ptolemy I., of Egypt, and Berenice. She married Lysimachus, king of Thrace, who was already advanced in years, by whom she had several children. Lysimachus, ..". out for Asia, left her in Macedonia, with two sons, Lysimachus and Philip, a part of the fruits of their union. This monarch having been slain in an expedition, Ptolemy Ceraunus seized on Macedonia, but could not take the city of Cassandria, where Arsinoe had taken refuge with her children. He therefore offered her his hand in marriage, and with much difficulty obtained her consent. But no sooner had he been admitted into the city for the purpose of celebrating the nuptials, than he caused her two sons to be slain, and exiled Arsinoë herself to Samothrace. From this island she soon took her departure to wed Ptolemy Philadelphus, her own brother, the first instance of this kind of union, and which became afterward so common in the time of the Ptolemies. Although many years older than Ptolemy, she nevertheless inspired him with such a passion, that, after her death, he gave her name to one of the nomes of Egypt (Arsinostis), and to several cities both in that country and elsewhere. He even gave orders to have a temple erected to her, but his own death and that of the architect prevented the fulfilment of his wishes. It was intended to have had the ceiling of loadstone, and the statue of iron, in order that the latter might appear to be suspended in the air. (Plin., 34, 14.)—II. Daughter of Lysimachus, king of Thrace, and the earlier wise of Ptolemy Philadelphus. She became by him the mother of Ptolemy III. (Euergetes), Lysimachus, and Berenice. After Ptolemy's union with Arsinoë, his own sister, she was banished to Coptos. The charge brought against her was a design to overthrow her rival.—III. Daughter of Ptolemy III., and Berenice, married Ptolemy Philopator, her brother. Her husband subsequently having become enamoured of Agathoclea, and being completely ruled by this female and her brothers, was induced, at their instigation, to order Arsinoë to be put to death.IV. A daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, proclaimed queen by Ganymedes, when Caesar attacked Alexandrea. She was conquered, and brought in triumph to Rome; but, as this proved unpleasing to the people, she was set at liberty. Subsequently, at the instigation of her younger sister Cleopatra, she was put to death by the orders of Antony, in the temple of Diana at Miletus. (Hirt, Bell. Alex., 4.—Appian, Bell. Civ., 5, 9.)—W. A city of Egypt, the capital of the Arsinoltic nome, lying to the west of the Nile, and between Heracleopolis Magna and Lake Moeris. It derived its name from Arsinoe, the sister and queen of Ptolemy Philadelphus. The earlier appellation was the “City of Crocodiles,” as the Greeks translated it (Crocodilopolis, Kpokočeiàov Tóżuc, Herod., 2, 148). This lastmentioned name arose from the circumstance of the crocodile's being worshipped here ; and a tamed representative of this fearful class of creatures was carefully nurtured and attended to in an adjacent pond or tank. Strabo gives an account, as an eyewitness, of this curious custom. The bodies of the sacred crocodiles were deposited aster death in the cells of the Labyrinth, which stood near the city. The Egyptians honoured the crocodile here, because it was consecrated to Typhon, their evil genius, whom they dreaded, and sought to appease by worshipping an animal which was his symbolical image. The city of Arsinoë is now a pile of ruins, which lie not far to the north of the modern Medinet el Faioum. Jomard gives an accurate description of them. (Descript. de l'Egypte, vol. 4, p. 446.)—VI. A city of Egypt, at the head of the Sinus Arabicus, and not far from the spot where stands the modern Suez. Philadelphus constructed the harbour, and called the place aster his sister and queen Arsinoë. In its immediate vicinity lay the city of Cleopatris, of later erection, and, in consequence of their proximity, both places were often called by the common name of Cleopatris, though actually distinct spots. (Strab., 805.) Arsinoë was connected with the Nile by means of the canal of Ptolemy, and for a long period was the very life of the navigation on the Sinus Arabicus, forming the connecting link between the traffic of Egypt and that of the East. In process of time, however, the dangerous navigation of the upper o of the gulf induced the Ptolemies to construct arbours lower down, and Arsinoë from this time sank in importance, and finally disappeared from notice. The Peutinger table, in the third century, makes mention of the place, but the Itinerary of Antonine passes it over in silence. (Mannert, vol. 10, pt. 1, p. 517.) –VII. A city of Cilicia Trachea, on the coast, between Celenderis and the mouth of the Arymagdus. (Plin., 5, 27.)—VIII. Another name for Patara, in Lycia. (Vid. Patara.)—IX. A town of Cyprus, near the promontory of Ammochostus. (Strab., 682.)—X. A harbour of Egypt, on the Sinus Arabicus, below Philoterae Portus. (Plin., 6, 29.)—XI. Another harbour, in the regio Troglodytica, in the vicinity of Dirae. (Mela, 3, 8.—Artemid, ap. Strab.) Arsissa palus, a great lake in the southern part of Armenia Major, now the Lake of Van. It was on its northern side embellished with cities, which were better known to the Byzantine writers than they had been before, viz., Chaliat or Athlat, Arzcs or Argish, and Perkri. This sheet of water is also sometimes called, in Armenian geography, the Lake of Besnouikh, from the district of that name in which it is situate. The name Besnouikh is deduced from that of Basus, a grandson of Haig, the first ruler of Armenia. (Wahl, Worder und Mittel Asien, p. 508.) ArtAbANUs, I. son of Hystaspes, was brother to Darius the First. He endeavoured to dissuade his nephew Xerxes from making war upon the Greeks, but to no effect; and, after accompanying the monarch to

the Asiatic shore of the Hellespont, was sent back by him to Susa, to act as viceroy or regent in his absence. (Herod., 7, 10, scqq.—ld, 7, 17.—Id., 7, 52.) If the story related by Plutarch be true, Artabanus must always have possessed great influence with Xerxes,

since, according to the Greek writer, the monarch owed his crown to his uncle, who was appointed by the Persians to decide between Xerxes and his elder brother Ariamenes. Artabanus adjudged the kingdom

to the former, as having been born after his father came to the throne, and as being the son of Atossa the daughter of Cyrus. (Plut., de frat, am., p. 488, f. p.

988, Wyttenb.—Compare the account given by He

rodotus, 7, 1, seqq.) We have nothing farther of Artabanus in history. He is by no means to be con

founded with the individual of the same name (Arta

banus II.) who slew Xerxes. (Bühr, ad Ctes, c. 20,

p. 151.-Larcher, ad Ctes, vol. 6, p. 287.)—II. An Hyrcanian, captain of the guards of Xerxes, and for a long time one of his greatest favourites. When the

monarch, after his return from Greece, gave himself up to a life of dissolute pleasure, Artabanus conceived this to be a favourable opportunity for seizing on the throne, and, having conspired with Mithradates, one of the eunuchs of the palace, and chamberlain to the king, he introduced himself by night into the royal apartment, and slew Xerxes, B.C. 464. After perpetrating the deed, he ran to Artaxerxes, the son of the monarch, and told him that Darius, his elder brother, had just murdered his father. Artaxerxes believed the story, and his brother was immediately arrested and put to death. After the new monarch had ascended the throne, Artabanus conspired against his life, but was betrayed by Megabyzus, an accomplice of his, and put to death. Such is the account of Ctesias (c. 30), which Larcher very justly prefers to the statements of Justin (3, 1) and Diodorus Siculus (10, 19), both of which appear tinged with absurdity.—III. A monarch of Parthia, known as Artabanus II., or Arsaces VIII. He succeeded his nephew Phraates II. (Arsaces VII.), and was killed in a war with the Thogarii, a Scythian nation. (Justin, 42, 2.)—IV. A monarch of Parthia, known as Artabanus III., or Arsaces XIX. He succeeded Vonones I., whom he drove from the throne, having himself previously reigned in Media. Faithful to the Romans, his protectors, as long as Germanicus inspired him with fear, he became, after the death of this commander, cruel and oppressive to his subjects, and arrogant towards Rome. His people complained of him to Tiberius, who named for them Phraates as king. This individual, however, dying on the route, the emperor nominated Tiridates. Artabanus fled into Scythia, but, being encouraged by the effeminacy of Tiridates, he took up arms again, and recovered his kingdom. The death of Tiberius saved him from punishment, and he made his peace with Caligula by dint of flatteries. Still, however, he was once more driven out by his subjects, and only returned eventually to die in his kingdom, about 44 A.D. (Tacit., Ann.,

2,58.—Id. ib., 6,31–Id. ib., 6,43, &c.)—V. A king of the Parthians, son of Vologeses IV., ascended the throne A.D. 216. His historical name is Artabanus IV., or Arsaces XXXI. He had hardly commenced his reign when he was menaced by Caracalla. The emperor demanded his daughter in marriage, in order

to have a pretext for war in case he refused. The Parthian king, however, assented, and the Roman army was allowed to approach the Parthian capital, where Artabanus met it with a brilliant cortège. But on a given signal, the Roman troops fell upon the followers

of the monarch, and an indiscriminate massacre ensued,

from which Artabanus himself with difficulty escaped.

Carracalla thereupon pillaged the surrounding country,

and then returned to Mesopotamia. Artabanus, burn

ing for revenge, assembled the largest army which the Parthians had ever as yet raised, crossed opolo, laid waste everything with fire and sword, and encountered the Roman forces in Syria. Macrinus had succeeded Caracalla. A bloody battle ensued, which lasted for two days. On the third day, a herald from the Romans announced the fact of Caracalla's being dead, and that Macrinus was his successor, and also proposed a treaty of peace between the two empires. The Romans accordingly restored the prisoners they had taken, paid the expenses of the war, and Artabanus returned to his capital. His prosperity, however, was of short duration. Ardshir Babegan, or Artaxerxes, excited the Persians to revolt, and Artabanus was defeated, taken prisoner, and put to death. With him ended the Parthian dynasty of the Arsacidae. The family itself, however, was not extinct in the person of Artabanus, but continued to reign in Armenia, as tributary to the new Persian dynasty, until the time of Justinian. (Biogr. Unr., vol. 2, p. 540.) ARTABAzus, I. son of Pharnaces, commander of the Parthians and Chorasmians in the army of Xerxes. He escorted this monarch through Europe to Asia, after the battle of Salamis, at the head of sixty thousand men, and rejoined Mardonius before the battle of Plataea. He endeavoured to dissuade him from engaging in this conflict, but to no purpose; and, after the death of Mardonius, succeeded in retreating to Asia with the residue of his own forces, having obtained a safe passage through Thessaly by assuring the inhabitants that Mardonius had defeated the Greeks. (Herod., 7, 66. —Id., 8, 126–1d., 9, 41–Id., 9,89.)—II. A general of Artaxerxes Longimánus. He remained faithful to this prince as long as he reigned, and did everything in his power to conquer Datames, who had revolted against the king. He himself subsequently revolted against Ochus, but, after fleeing into Macedonia, was pardoned by that prince. He fought in the battle of Arbela, on the side of Darius, and, after the death of that prince surrendered himself to Alexander, who made him satrap of Bactriana. He had a large number of sons, to whom Alexander assigned governments. His daughters were married, one to Ptolemy, son of Lagus; another to Eumenes, of Cardia ; and a third to Seleucus. (Biogr. Univ., vol. 2, p. 542.) ArtAbrum ProMontorium, a promontory on the northwestern coast of Spain, now Cape Finisterre, in Gallicia. It was sometimes called Celticum Promontorium (Plin., 4, 22), and also Nerium. (Strab., 106.) ARTAcos NA, the capital of Aria, now Herat, situate on the river Arius, now the Heri. (Arrian, 3, 25.— Strab., 350.) ArtAGER As or ArtAG1cERTA, a town of Armenia Major, northeast of Amida, where Caius Caesar, a nephew of Augustus, was dangerously wounded by one Addruus. It is now probably Ardis. (Well. Paterc. 2, 103.) ARTAPHer Nes, I. a brother of Darius, and son of Hystaspes, governor of Sardis. . (Herodot., 5, 25.)— II. A son of the preceding, whom Darius sent into Greece with Datis. He was conquered at the battle of Marathon by Miltiades. (Wid. Datis.-Herod., 4, 153.—Id., 5, 55.) ArtAvAsdrs or ArtABAzus, king of Armenia, the son and successor of Tigranes, began to reign about 70 B.C. It was principally through his treacherous advice, as to the mode of entering Parthia, that Crassus failed in his expedition against that country. He was subsequently taken by Antony, to whom he had also acted a treacherous part in his Parthian expedition, who led him in triumph at Alexandrea. He was put to death, after the battle of Actium, by Cleopatra, who wished to obtain succours from the King of Media, and therefore sent him the head of Artavasdes, his enemy. The prince appears to have been a very well educated man. He wrote in Greek two historical works, some tragedies, discourses, &c. (Plut., Wit. Anton., c. 50, seqq.)

Artaxšta, a strongly fortified town of Upper Armenia, the capital of the empire, built upon a plain which Hannibal recommended as a proper site for the capital to King Artaxias. Near it ran the Araxes. It was burned by Corbulo, and rebuilt by Tiridates, who called it Neronea, in honour of Nero. It is now Ardesh. (Plin., 6, 9.-Flor., 3, 5–Tacit., Ann., 13, 39, et 41.-1d. ib., 14, 23.—Id. ib., 15, 15.—Strab., 363.)

ARTAxerxes, I. a name common to some of the kings of Persia, and the meaning of which will be considered at the close of this article. The first of the name succeeded his father Xerxes, who had been assassinated by Artabanus, captain of the royal guards. After discovering and punishing the murderer of his father, and bringing to a close a war in Bactria, occasioned by the revolt of a satrap, he reduced to obedience the Egyptians, who had revolted under Inarus, and who had been aided by the Athenians. Though severe in the earlier part of his reign, he became conspicuous afterward for mildness and moderation. This Artaxerxes was called Makpółelp (Longimanus), from the extraordinary length of his arms, according to Strabo, which, on his standing straight, could reach his knees; but, according to Plutarch, because his right hand was longer than his left. He reigned thirty years, and died B.C. 425. (Ctes., Pers., c. 30, seqq., p. 71. seqq., ed Bāhr—Plut., Wit. Artar., init.)—II. The second of the name, was surnamed Mvisuav (Mnemon), on account of his extraordinary memory. He was son of Darius the Second, by Parysatis, the daughter of Artaxerxes Longimanus, and had three brothers, Cyrus, Ostanes, and Oxathres. His name was Arsaces, which he changed into Artaxerxes when he ascended the throne. His brother Cyrus was of an ambitious disposition, and he resolved to make himself king in opposition to Artaxerxes. Parysatis always favoured Cyrus ; and when he was accused by Tissaphernes of plotting against his brother, she obtained his pardon by her influence and entreaties. According to Xenophon (Anab, 1, 1), it was irritation against his brother for listening to this charge that induced Cyrus to revolt and aspire to the throne. Another reason, however, still more powerful in the eyes of an ambitious prince, would likewise appear to have urged him on to the step. Artaxerxes had been born before his father's accession to the empire, whereas Cyrus was born the son of a king, a distinction somewhat similar to that which had given Xerxes the throne. (Wid. Artabanus, I.) Cyrus had been appointed by his brother satrap of Lydia, and had also the command assigned him of whatever forces the Dorian cities along the coast of Asia Minor might be required to send as auxiliaries to the Persian armies. (Consult Schneider, ad Xen. Anab., 1, 1.) Taking advantage of this, he assembled under various pretexts a numerous army, and at length marched against his brother at the head of one hundred thousand barbarians, and nearly thirteen thousand Greeks. Artaxerxes met him at Cunaxa with an army of nine hundred thousand barbarians, and a brief conflict ensued, in which Cyrus was killed. He was slain in the very moment of victory; for he had routed with his body-guard the guards of the king, while the Greeks were in full pursuit of that part of the king's army which had been opposed to them. The loss of the battle was owing partly to the rash impetuosity of Cyrus in charging the royal guards, and partly to the circumstance of the Greeks having pursued too far the barbarians opposed to them. Artaxerxes was wounded in the action by Cyrus's own hand, while Cyrus, on the other hand, was slain by Mithradates, a young Persian noble, and by a Carian soldier, having been wounded in succession by each. So anxious, however, was Artaxerxes to have it believed that he himself had slain the young prince, that both Mithradates and the Carian eventually lost their lives for boasting of the deed. After the battle of Cunaxa, the Greeks began their celebrated retreat, so graphic an account of which has been preserved for us in the pages of Xenophon. (Wid. Xenophon.) Artaxerxes was now peaceable possessor of the throne. Being irritated at the Lacedæmonians, who had embraced his brother's cause, he lent aid to Conon the Athenian admiral, and succeeded by his means in wresting from Sparta the dominion of the sea. He then furnished the necessary means for rebuilding the walls of Athens, and finally, by employing his gold in sowing dissensions among the Grecian states, he forced Agesilaus to abandon the extensive conquests he had o made in the Persian dominions. The war at length was brought to a close by a memorable treaty, by which the Greek cities of Asia were abandoned to his sway. Artaxerxes was not successful in checking a revolt on the part of the Egyptians, nor was his march in person against the Cadusii, in Upper Asia, crowned with any happier result. He was governed entirely by his mother Parysatis, who, by studying his inclinations, had gained a complete ascendency over him. After having put to death Darius, his eldest son, for conspiring against him, he died at the advanced age of ninety-four years, bowed down by sorrow at the loss of two other sons whom Ochus, who reigned after him, had managed to cut off. According to Diodorus, he was on the throne forty-three years; but according to Eusebius and the Alexandrine Chronicle, forty years. Plutarch makes his reign sixty-two years, but this is an error of a transcriber. (Diod. Sic, 13, 104.—Clinton's Fast. Hell, vol. 1, p. 316, 323.)—III. The third of the name, called previously Ochus, and known in history as Artaxerxes Ochus, or simply Ochus, succeeded his father Mnemon. He commenced his reign with the massacre of his brothers, and of all who belonged to the royal family. Egypt was at this time in full revolt, Artaxerxes Mnemon having in vain attempted to reduce it, and Ochus continued the war by means of his generals. Learning, however, that the Egyptians indulged in railleries against his person, and, moreover, that Phoenicia and Cyprus had also rebelled, he put himself at the head of his armies, took Sidon through the treachery of Mentor, commander of the Greek mercenaries, and made an indiscriminate slaughter of the inhabitants. He then marched against Egypt, and reconquered it through the military talents of Bagoas. Once master of the country, he gave himself up to all manner of cruelty, destroyed the temples, insulted the Egyptian deities, and, to crown all, caused the sacred Apis to be killed, and his flesh served up for a repast. This conduct excited the indignation of Bagoas, who, being an Egyptian by birth, was, of course, strongly attached to the religion of his country. He concealed his angry feelings, however, until Ochus had returned to Persia, and resumed his indolent mode of life, giving up the reins of government entirely to Bagoas. The latter thereupon caused him to be poisoned, gave his body to be devoured by cats, and, to indicate his cruelty of dis. position, had sabre handles made of his bones. Bagoas placed on the vacant throne Arses, the youngest son of Ochus, and put to death all the rest. Ochus reigned eleven years, not eighteen, as Manetho gives it. (AElian, W. H., 6, 8.—Justin, 10, 3.)—IV. A soldier of fortune, founder of the dynasty of the Sassanidae, and called by the Greek historians Artaxerxes. His true name was Ardechir Babegan, and he was the son or grandson of an individual named Sassan, who, though in very reduced circumstances, claimed descent from Artaxerxes Longimanus. He succeeded in dethroning Artabanus, the last of the Arsacidae, and thus laid the foundation of the second or later Persian empire. Although a usurper, Artaxerxes appears to have had a [..." reign, as far as the internal affairs of his

ingdom were concerned. In his external relations he caine in o with the Emperor Seyerus, who de


feated him on his invading the Roman territory, and forced him to retreat. Artaxerxes was about to renew the war with fresh forces, when he died. To rare prudence and heroic courage he united a love of letters, and is said to have composed several works. He reigned fourteen or fifteen years, and left the throne to Sapor I.-W. A brother and successor of Sapor II. He died after a reign of four years, A.D. 384.—As regards the form Artoxerres ('Aprofépêng), which sometimes occurs, in editions, in place of the more common Artaxerxes, consult the remarks of Båhr (ad Ctes., p. 186, seqq.). The name Artaxerxes is supposed to have been Artachshast or Artachshasta in Persian, and to have been compounded of the Persian Art or Ard, “strong,” and the Zendic Khshetro, Khshered, or Khshetra, “a warrior.” Hence the appellation Artaxerxes will signify “a strong or mighty warrior.” (Compare Herodotus, 6, 98, 'Aptaśćp$ng, uéyag åpñtos.) Others write the Persian name thus, Artahschetz, and make it equivalent to “a great king.” (Consult Bähr, ad Ctes., p. 187.-Rosenmüller, Handbuch, &c., vol. 1, p. 373, n. 40–De Sacy, Mémoires sur diverse antiquités de la Perse, p. 100.)

ARTAxias, the name of three kings of Armenia.— I. The first reigned in the Upper or Greater Armenia, with the consent of Antiochus the Great. He gave an asylum to Hannibal at one time, and was also taken prisoner by Antiochus Epiphanes, but afterward regained his liberty.—II. The son of Artavasdes. He was killed by his own subjects, A.D. 20, and Tigranes chosen as his successor. (Tacit., Ann., 2.)—III. Surnamed Zeno, son of Polemon. He was proclaimed king of Armenia by Germanicus, in the place of Venones, who was expelled the throne. He died A.D. 35. (Tacit., Ann., 6, 31.)

ARTEMinóR Us, I. a philosopher of Cnidus, who, having been intrusted by his friend Brutus with the secret of the conspiracy set on foot against Caesar, presented to the latter a memorial containing an account of the whole affair. Caesar received it as he was going to the senatehouse, and put it with other papers which he held in his hand, thinking it to be of no material consequence. Had it been read by him, the whole plot would have been crushed. (Plut, Vit. Cars.)--II. A geographer of Ephesus, who flourished about 104 B.C. After having visited the coasts of the greater part of the Mediterranean, and having seen Gades and portions of the Atlantic shores, as also the Sinus Arabicus or Red Sea, he published a geographical work in eleven books, entitled Troypadoueva. More than five centuries after this, Marcianus of Heraclea made an abridgment of it, a part of which is preserved. We have also remaining some other fragments of Artemidorus. Athenatus likewise cites his Ionic Memoirs, 'Iovakā intouvijuana. He is often referred to by Strabo, Pliny, and Stephanus of Byzantium. The remains of Artemidorus are given in the Minor Greek geograhpers by Hoeschel and Hudson, with the exception of one fraginent, giving a description of the Nile, which was published for the first time by Berger in Aretin's Beyträge zur Gesch, und Lit., vol. 2, 1804 (May), p. 50. –III. A native of Ephesus, who lived in the time of the Antonines, and who was surnamed, for distinction from others, Daldianus, because his mother had been born in Daldis, a city of Lydia. He published, under the title of 'Ovelpoxptruká, a work On the Interpretation of Dreams, in five books. It contains all that the author had been able to collect during his travels in Greece, Italy, and Asia, from those persons who, in that superstitious age, had turned their attention to so futile and illusory a subject. The work, apart from its main topic, contains some very interesting information respecting ancient customs, and servo" also to explain inany symbols and allegorical of to connected with the sculpture of former times. It surnishes, moreover, some important aid * points of mythology. The style is marked by a cer. tain degree of neatness, if not elegance. The best edition is that of Reiff, Leips., 1805, 2 vols. 8vo.— IV. A physician in the age of Hadrian. He is charged with having mutilated the works of Hippocrates. Not content with removing expressions that had fallen into disusc, and substituting others that were more intelligible in his own day, he is said also to have interpolated the text, and to have struck out, at the same time, whatever appeared to clash with the new matter thus brought in by him. (Wid. Hippocrates.—Galen, comm. in lib. de nat. hum., p. 4 –Sprengel, Hist. Med., vol. 1, p. 294.)—V. A painter, whose country is uncertain. He flourished towards the end of the first century of our era, and is referred to by Martial (Ep., 5, 40), who censures him, because, in painting Venus, he did not give that soft gracefulness to her person which other artists had done, but rather a degree of the austere dignity of Minerva. (Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.) ARTÉmis ("Apreluc), the Greek name of Diana. From a curious passage in Clemens Alexandrinus (Strom., 1, p. 384, Polt.), it would appear, that the goddess was called Artemis because of Phrygian origin (oppuytav re oiaav, kekājathat "Aproutv). Hence Jablonski concludes, that the name itself is a Phrygian one, and he compares it with the royal appellation Artemas, as given in Xenophon to a king of Phrygia. (Cyrop, 2, 1, 5.) It is very probable, that the primitive root of the term Artemis is to be traced to the Persian tongue (Arta, Arte, Art. Ar, all signifying “great,” or “excellent”), and thus Artemis or Diana becomes identical with the “great” mother of Nature, even as she was worshipped at Ephesus. As a collateral confirmation of this etymology, we may state, that the Persians, according to Herodotus (7,61), originally called themselves Artari ('Apraiot), which Hellanicus makes equivalent to the Greek sparec, “heroes,” i. e., great, strong, powerful. (Hellan., fragm., p. 97, Sturz.-Id, ap. Steph. By:... s. v. 'Apraia) Other derivations of the name Artemis are not so satisfactory. Sickler, for example, deduces it from the Semitic Ar, “a foe,” and tama, “impurity,” as indicating the foe of what is unchaste, gloomy, or obscure. (Cadmus, p. xc.) Welcker, on the other hand, regards it as an epithet of the same nature with Opis and Nemesis, and says that it is opt-0&pitc. (Schwenk, Etymol. Mythol. Andeut., p. 263.) Plato, in his Cratylus, derives "Aproute from épreußc, “whole,” “uninjured,” and, therefore, “sound” and “pure,” as referring to the virgin purity of the goddess. This is about as correct as the rest of Plato's attempts at etymology. (Cratyl., p. 50–Op., ed. Bekk., vol. 4, p. 248.—Consult Crewzer, Symbolik, vol. 2, p. 190.) ArtEMisia, I. daughter of Lygdamis of Halicarnassus, reigned over Halicarnassus, and also over Cos and other adjacent islands. She joined the fleet of Xerxes, when he invaded Greece, with five vessels, the best equipped of the whole fleet after those of the Sidonians; and she displayed so much valour and skill at the battle of Salamis, as to elicit from Xerxes the well-known remark, that the men had acted like women in the fight, and the women like men. The Athenians, indignant that a female should appear in arms against them, offered a reward of 10,000 drachma, to any one who should take her prisoner. She however escaped after the action. (Herod., 7, 99.-Id., 8, 88. —Id., 8,93.) If we are to believe Ptolemy Hephæs. tion, a writer who mixed up many fables with some truth, Artemisia subsequently conceived an attachment for a youth of Abydos, named Dardanus; but, not meeting with a return for her passion, she put out his eyes while he slept, and then threw herself down from the lover's leap at the Promontory of Leucate. (Ptol. Hephæst., ap. Phot., Cod., 190, p. 153, Bekk.)—II. Another queen of Caria, not to be confounded with the

T.H. She was the daughter of Hecatomnus, ing of Caria, and married her brother Mausolus, a species of union sanctioned by the customs of the country. She lost her husband, who was remarkable for personal beauty, B.C. 365, and she became, in consequence, a prey to the deepest affliction. A splendid tomb was erected to his memory, called Mausoleum (Mawaw?tiow, scil. uwmutiow, i. e., “tomb of Mausolus"), and the most noted writers of the day were invited to attend a literary contest, in which ample re-wards were to be bestowed on those who should celebrate with most ability the praises of the deceased. Among the individuals who came together on that occasion were, according to Aulus Gellius (10, 18), Theopompus, Theodectes, Naucrites, and even Isocrates. The prize was won by Theopompus. (Aul. Gell., l.c.) Valerius Maximus and Aulus Gellius relate a marvellous story concerning the excessive grief of Artemisia. They say that she actually mixed the ashes of her husband with water, and drank them off! (Val. Mar.,4,6.) The grief of Artemisia, poignant though it was, did not cause her to neglect the care of her dominions; she conquered the isle of Rhodes, and gained possession of some Greek cities on the main land; and yet it is said that she died of grief two years after the loss of her husband. (Vitrur., 2, 8.-Strab., 656–Plin, 36, 5.) ArtEMisium, a promontory of Euboea, on the northwestern side of the island. It had a temple sacred to Artemis (Diana), whence its name. Off this coast the Greeks obtained their first victory over the fleet of Xerxes, on the same day with the action of Thermopylae. (Herod, 7, 175, &c.) ARTEMita, I. a city of Assyria, north of Seleucia, and southwest of Apollonia. It appears to have been the same with Dastagerda in the middle ages, and the Chalasar of more modern times. (Tacit., 6, 41. —Plin., 6, 26.-Isid., Charac.)—II. Another in Armenia Major, near its southern boundary, now Actamar or Van. It lay at the southeastern extremity of the Arsissa Palus, now Lake of Wan. ARTÉwon, I. a celebrated mechanician, a native of Clazomenae, who was with Pericles at the siege of Samos, where it is said he invented the battering-ram, the testudo, and other equally valuable military engines. (Plut., Wit. Pericl., c. 27.)—II. A native of Syria, one of the lower order, whose features resembled in the strongest manner those of Antiochus Theos. The queen, after the king's murder, made use of Artemon to represent her husband in a lingering state, that, by his seeming to have died a natural death, she might conceal her guilt, and effect her wicked purpose. (Plin., 7, 10.) ARTIMP is A, a name given to a goddess among the Scythians, whose attributes resembled those of the Grecian Venus. (Herod., 4, 59.) Some read, in the text of Herodotus, 'Apirraca (Arippasa); others, with Origen (contr. Cels. V., p. 609), prefer 'Apyiutaoa. Many consider the deity here mentioned to be none other than the “Earth,” the German Hertha, for, according to Jamieson, the ancient Goths called Venus Iordem-asa, and Ardem-asa, i. e., “terra dea.” The first part of the name reminds us at once of our English term “earth,” through the German “erde,” and the remainder refers to the Asi, or earliest deities of Asiatic and Scandinavian mythology. (Hermes Scythicus, p. 120.) Arvi LEs or AMBAR v Kles, a name given to twelve priests who celebrated the festivals called Ambarvalia. This sacerdotal order is said to have been instituted by Romulus in honour of his nurse Acca Laurentia, who had twelve sons; and when one of them died, Romulus, to console her, offered to supply his place, and called himself and the rest of her sons Fratros Arcales. Their office was for life, and continued even in captivity and exile. They wore a crown made of the ears of wheat, and a white woollen wreath around

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