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his love, and he pined away until Venus changed him leave her behind and make sail for Athens.

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into a river. The Selemnus thereupon, like the Alpheus Ariadne was weeping at this abandonment, Venus

in the case of Arethusa, sought to blend its waters with those of the fountain Argyra, over which the inconstant nymph presided. According to another legend, however, Venus, again moved with pity, exerted her divine power anew, and caused him to forget Argyra. The waters of the Selemnus became, in consequence, a remedy for love, inducing oblivion on all who bathed in them. (Pausan., 7, 23.)—III. A name given by the ancients to the silver region of the East, and the position of which tract of country varied with the progress of geographical discovery. At first Argyra was an island immediately beyond the mouths of the Indus. When, however, under the first Ptolemies, the navigation of the Greeks extended to the Ganges, the silverisland was placed near this latter stream. Afterward another change took place, and Argyra, now no longer an island, became part of the region occupied in modern times by the kingdom of Arracan. (Ptol., 7, 2– Gossellin, Recherches, &c., vol. 3, p. 280.) Argyripa, the more ancient name of Arpi. (Wid. Arpi.) ARIA, the name given to a country of large extent, answering in some degree to the present Khorasin. It comprised several provinces, and was bounded on the west by Media, on the north by Hyrcania and Parthia, on the east by Bactria, and on the south by Carmania and Gedrosia. The capital was Artacoãna, now Herat. From Aria, however, in this acceptation of the term, we must carefully distinguish another and much earlier use of the name. In this latter sense the appellation belongs to a region which formed the primitive abode of the Medes and Persians, and very probably of our whole race. It appears to indicate a country where civilization commenced, and where the rites of religion were first instituted. In the Schahnameh it is called Erman (i. e., Ariman), and in the Zend books Irman or Iran (i. e., Arian). Its position would appear to coincide in some degree with that of ancient Bactria, though some writers, Rhode for example, make it include a much wider tract of country. The name of Arii, given to its early inhabitants, is said by Bohlen to be equivalent to the Latin “renerandi,” and reminds us (with the change of the liquid into the sibilant) of the far-famed Asi, who play so conspicuous a part in the early Asiatic as well as in the Scandinavian mythology. From these data we may account for the statement of Herodotus (7,62), that the Medes were anciently called Arii ("Aptot, or "Apelot). The same writer places in the neighbourhood of Sogdiana a people whom he calls Arii ("Apelot). Diodorus Siculus (1,94) makes mention of this same people under the name of Arimaspi ('Aptuagitot), where we ought to read Ariaspi ("Apuadrot), or else Ariani ('Apetavot). He also speaks of their lawgiver Zathraustes, meaning evidently Zoroaster (i.e., Zeretoschtré).—Consult on this curious subject the following authorities: Von Hammer (Wien. Jahrb., vol. 9, p. 33)—Ritter (Erdkunde, vol. 2, p. 21, seqq.—Worhalle, p. 303)—Anquetil (Mem. de l'Acad, des Inscr., vol. 31, p. 376)—Bohlen (De Orig. ling. Zend, p. 51)— Bähr (ad Herod., 7, 62). ARIApNE, daughter of Minos, king of Crete, by Pasiphaë. She fell in love with Theseus, and gave him a clew of thread, which enabled him to penetrate the windings of the labyrinth till he came to where the Minotaur lay, whom he caught by the hair and slew. Ariadne thereupon fled with Theseus from Crete. According to Homer (Od., 11,323) she was slain by Diana when they had reached the island of Dia or Naxos, on their way to Athens. (Compare Schol. ad loc. as to the reading oxra or Foxe.) Another legend, however, makes her to have been deserted by Theseus on the shores of this same island, Minerva having appeared to him as he slept, and having ordered him to

came and consoled her by the assurance that she should be the bride of Bacchus. The god then presented himself, and gave her a golden crown, which was afterward placed among the stars. She bore him a son named OEnopion. (Pherecyd, ap. Sturz., fr. 59–Ovid, A. A., 1,527, seqq.—Catull., 64, 76, seqq. —Keightley's Mythology, p. 457. —Vollmer, Wörterb, der Mythol., p. 309, seqq.)—Ariadne evidently belongs to the mythology of Bacchus, with whom he was associated in the Naxian worship. The Athenians, always ready to enlarge their own narrow cycle at the expense of others, seem to have joined her with their Theseus, and it was thus perhaps that she became the daughter of Minos. The passage in the Odyssey would be decisive on this point, were it not that the Athenians were such tamperers with the works of the old poets, that we cannot help being suspicious of all passages relating to them. The passage of the Iliad in which Ariadne is mentioned is justly regarded as a late addition. (Il., 18, 591.-Knight, ad loc. —Keightley, l.c.)—Creuzer gives a peculiar version to this ancient legend. . He sees in Ariadne, as represented in ancient sculpture, now sunk in mournful slumber, and again awakened, joyous, and raised to the skies, an emblem of immortality. But Ariadne, according to the same beautiful conception of her character, is not merely the symbol of consolation in death; the clew in her hand, with which she guided Theseus through the mazes of the labyrinth, ranks her also among the class of the Parce. She is Proserpina-Venus. She presides over the death and the birth of our species. She guides the soul through the winding labyrinth of life: she leads it forth again to freedom and a new existence. (Creuzer's Symbolik, vol. 4, p. 116, seqq.) ARIAzus, an officer in the army of Cyrus the Younger, the next in command to that prince over the Asiatic portion of his forces. After the battle of Cunaxa, the Greeks in the army of Cyrus offered to place him on the throne of Persia, but he declined it, and went over to Artaxerxes with his troops. (Xen., Anab., 1, 8, 3.) The Eton MS. has 'Aparaíoc (Arista us) in place of 'Aptaioc (Ariaeus). The copyist intended, perhaps, to write 'Aptóaioc (Aridaeus), as Diodorus Siculus (14, 22) has it. (Compare Wesseling, ad Diod, l.c., and Sturz., Ler. Xen., vol. 1, p. 395, s. v. 'Aptaioc.) ARIANTAs, a king of Scythia, who, in order to ascertain the number of the Scythians, commanded each of his subjects, on pain of death, to bring him the point of an arrow. So great a number was collected, that, resolving to leave a monument of the act, he caused a large bowl of brass to be made out of them, and dedicated this in a spot of land between the Borysthenes and the Hypanis, called Exampæus. (Herodot., 4, 81.)—Ritter ascribes this work to an early Cimmerian, or Buddhist colony, migrating from India to the countries of the West. He sees in the name Ariantas, moreover, a reference to Aria, the early horse of our species, and the native country of the Buddhist faith. In confirmation of his opinion, he indulges in some very learned and curious speculations concerning the early usage, among both Greeks and barbarians, of consecrating colossal bowls or caldrons to the sun. (Vorhalle, p. 345, seqq.) Ari ARAthes, a name common to many kings of Cappadocia. They appear to have been originally nothing more than satraps of Persia, and, according to Diodorus, in a passage preserved by Photius (Cod., 244, p. 1157), were descended from one of the seven conspirators who slew the false Smerdis. This Persian nobleman was named Anaphus, and his grandson Datames was the first sovereign of the Cappadocian dynasty. After him and his son Ariamnes, we have a long list of princes, all bearing the name of Ariarathes

for several generations. (Compare Clinton's Fasti Hellewict, vol. 2, Appendir, p. 429.) Although, however, the governors or satraps of Cappadocia held their government in hereditary succession, and are dignified by Diodorus with the title of kings, yet they could have possessed only a precarious and permitted authority till the death of Seleucus, the last of the successors of Alexander, in January, B.C. 281, removed the power by which the whole of western Asia was commanded. name was son of Ariamnes. He had a brother named Holophernes, whom he advanced to the highest offices in the kingdom, and who commanded the auxiliaries that were sent from Cappadocia when Ochus made his expedition into Egypt, B.C. 350. Holophernes acquired great glory in this war, and on his return home lived in a private station, leaving two sons at his death, Ariarathes and Aruses. Ariarathes, the reigning inonarch, having no children of his own, adopted the former of these, who was also the elder of the two. Ariarathes was on the throne when Alexander invaded the Persian dominions, and he probably fled with Darius, since we learn from Arrian that the Macedonian prince appointed Sabictas governor of Cappadocia before the battle of Issus. (Erp. Alex., 2, 4, 2.) After the death of Alexander, Ariarathes, then at the advanced age of eighty-two, attempted to recover his dominions, but he was defeated by Perdiccas, the Macedonian general, and, being taken, was put to a most cruel death. (Diod. Suc., Erc., 18, 10– Arrian, ap. Phot, Cod., 92, p. 217.)—II. The second of the name was the son of Holophernes, and was adopted by his uncle Ariarathes I. He recovered Cappadocia after the death of Eumenes, and during the contest between Antigonus and the other Macedonian chiefs. He was aided in the attempt by Ardoatus, king of Armenia, who furnished him with troops. This Ariarathes transmitted the crown to his son Ariamnes. (Diod. Sic., ap. Phot, l.c.)—III. The third of the name was the son of the preceding Ariamnes, and his successor on the throne. Nothing more is recorded of him, except that on his death he left a son of the same name in his infancy. (Diod. Sic., ap. Phot., l.c.)—IV. The fourth of the name, son of the preceding by Stratonice daughter of Antiochus Theos, was a child at his accession. He married the daughter of Antiochus the Great, a union that involved him in a political alliance with that sovereign, and consequent hostility with the Romans. He was saved from dethronement after the battle of Magnesia by a timely and submissive embassy to the Consul Manlius, and the payment of 600 talents. Soon after we find him allied to Eumenes, king of Pergamus, who married his daughter; and by means of this monarch he was admitted to the favour and friendship of the Romans. (Liv., 38, 39.) He was also the ally of Eumenes against Pharnaces, B.C. 183–179. After a reign of nearly fifty-eight years he transmitted his crown to his son Ariarathes W.-W. The fifth of the name, son of the preceding, was surnamed Philopator. He was dethroned by Demetrius Soter, king of Syria, who brought forward Holophernes, the supposititious son of Ariarathes IV., Being driven from his kingdom, he took refuge with the Romans, by whom he was restored; in which restoration Attalus II, of Pergamus, assisted. According to Appian (Bell. Syr., 47), the Romans appointed Ariarathes and Holophernes to reign conjointly. This joint government, however, did not last long, since Polybius, about B.C. 154, describes Ariarathes as sole king. (Polyb., ap. Athen., 10, p. 440, b.-Id., 33, 12.—Id., fragm. Wat., p. 440.) In return for this service he devoted himself to the interests of the Romans, and fell in the war they were carrying on against Aristonicus, the pretender to the throne of Pergamus. (Justin, 37, 1.) He left six sons, five of whom were murdered by his wife, the

cruel and ambitious Laodice.

(Clinton, l. c.)—I. The first of the

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The sixth of the name was the only one of the sons of Ariarathes W. that escaped the cruelty of his mother Laodice. He married the daughter of the celebrated Mithradates, which female also bore the name of Laodice. Mithradates, however, caused him to be assassinated by an illegitimate brother, upon which his widow Laodice gave herself and kingdom to Nicoinedes, king of Bithynia. Mithradates made war against the new king, and raised his nephew to the throne. The young king, who was the seventh of the name of Ariarathes, made war against the tyrannical Mithradates, by whom he was assassinated in the presence of both armies, and the murderer's son, a child eight years old, was placed on the vacant throne. The Cappadocians revolted, and made the late monarch's brother, Ariarathes VIII, king; but Mithradates expelled him, and restored his own son. The exiled prince died of a broken heart; and Nicomedes of Bithynia brought forward a boy, tutored for the purpose, who he pretended was a third son of Ariarathes VI. Laodice aided the deception, and the boy was sent to Rome to claim his father's kingdom. The senate, however, caused Ariobarzanes, a man of rank in Cappadocia, to be elected king by the people. (Justin, 38, 1.)—VII. The ninth of the name was brother and successor to Ariobarzanes II. (Clinton makes him his son). He was deposed and put to death by Antony, in the consulship of Gellius and Nerva, # & 36, after having reigned about six years. Archelaus, son of Glaphyra, was appointed in his stead. (Dio Cass., 49, 32–Id., 49, 24.—Wal. Mar., 9, 15, 2, ertern.) Archelaus is called Sicinnes by Appian. (Bell. Cir., 5, 7–Consult Schweigh., ad loc.) Aricia, a city of Latium, a little to the west of Lanuvium. According to Strabo (239), Aricia was situated on the Appian Way, but its citadel was placed on the hill above. The origin of this city, which was apparently as ancient as any in Latium, is enveloped in too great a mythological obscurity to be now ascertained. Some have ascribed its foundation to a chief of the Siculi (Solinus, c. 13); others to Hippolytus, who, under the name of Virbius, was worshipped in common with Diana in the neighbourhood of this town. (Virg., AEm., 7,774) The name of Aricia osten occurs in the history of Rome, and as early as the reign of Tarquinius Superbus. It must have been no mean city to merit the splendid character which Cicero gives of it in the third Philippic. What rendered this city, however, more particularly celebrated throughout Italy, was the worship of Diana, whose sacred temple, grove, and lake lay at no great distance from thence. The latter is now known by the name of Lago di Nemi. Strabo tells us (239) that the worship of Diana resembled that which was paid to the same goddess in the Tauric Chersonese; and that the priest of the temple was obliged to defend himself by force of arms against all who aspired to the office; for whosoever could slay him succeeded to the dignity. This barbarous custom seems to have afforded a subject of diversion to Caligula. (Suet, Wit. Calig., 35.-Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 31.) AriciNa, a surname of Diana, from her temple near Aricia. (Vid. Aricia.) AripA:Us, I. a commander in the army of Cyrus the Younger, otherwise and more correctly called Ariaeus. (Wid. Ariaeus.)—II. A natural son of Philip of Macedon, and Philinna a female dancer and courtesan of Larissa. He showed in early life so much promise of ability, that Olympias, fearing lest he might one day deprive Alexander of the crown, stultified him by means of secret potions. After the death of Alexander, he was chosen to succeed that monarch, with the proviso that, if Roxana, who was then pregnant, should be delivered of a son, a portion of the

kingdom should be given to the latter. As the weakness of mind under which Aridaeus laboured unfitted him for rule, Perdiccas, as protector, exercised the actual sway. He reigned seven years, under the title of Philip Aridaeus, and was then put to death with his wife Eurydice by Olympias-The more accurate form of the name is Arrhidaeus, from the Greek 'Affidaios. The more common one, however, is Aridaeus. (Justin, 13, 2, 11.-Id., 13, 3, 1.-Id., 14, 5, 10.Quint. Curt., 10, 7, 2.-Diod. Sic, 17, 2.—Id., 18, 3 —Arrian, ap. Phot, Cod, 92.) ARIt. Wid. Aria. ARIMA (Tā ‘Aptua 5pm, Arimi Montes), a chain of mountains, respecting the position of which ancient authorities differ. Some place it in Phrygia (Diod. Sic, 5, 71.-Compare Wesseling, ad loc.), others in Lydia, Mysia, Cilicia, or Syria. They appear to have been of volcanic character, from the fable connected with them, that they were placed upon Typhoeus or Typhon. (Hom., Il., 2,783.) Those who are in favour of Phrygia, Lydia, or Mysia, refer to the district called Catacecaumene (KaraxeKavuévn), as lying parched with subterranean fires. Those who decide for Cilicia or Syria agree in a manner among themselves, is by the Arimi as a people we mean the Aramei who had settled in the former of these countries. (Compare Heyne, ad Hom., Il., 2, 783, and consult remarks under the article Inarime.) ARIMAsp1, a people of Scythia, who, according to Herodotus (3, 116, and 4, 27), had but one eye, and waged a continual contest with the griffons (vid. Gryphes), that guarded the gold, which, according to the same writer, was found in vast quantities in the vicinity of this people. The name is derived by him from two Scythian words, Arima, one, and Spu, an eye. (Compare AEschyl, Prom. V., 809, seqq.— Mela, 2, 1, 15–Plin., 4, 26–Dionys. Perieg., 31. —Philostr., Vit. Soph., vol. 2, p. 584, ed. Orell.) Modern opinions, of course, vary with regard to the origin of this legend. De Guignes (Mem. de l'Acad. des Inscr., vol. 35, p. 562) makes the Arimaspi to have been the Hiong-nou, of whom the Chinese historians speak, and who were situate to the north of them, extending from the river Irtisch, in the country of the Calmucs, to the confines of eastern Tartary. Reichard (Thes. Top., p. 17) contends, that the name of the Arimaspi is still preserved in that of Arimascheás Kaia, in Asiatic Russia, in the Government of Perm. Rennell (Geogr. Herod., vol. 1, p. 178) places this people in the region of Mount Altai, a tract of country containing much gold, the name Altai itself being derived, according to some, from alta, a term which signifies gold in the Mongul and Calmuc tongues. With this opinion of Rennell's the speculations of Völker agree. (Myth. Geogr., vol. 1, p. 193, seqq.) Wahl also places the Arimaspi in the regions of Altai, and speaks of a people there whose heads are so enveloped against the cold as to leave but one opening for the vision, whence he thinks the fable of a one-eyed race arose. (Ostind., p.409). Ritter transfers the Arimaspi, along with the Issedones and Massagette, to the southern bank of the Oxus, in ancient Bactria, making them a noble and warlike tribe of the Medes or Cadusii. (Vorhalle, p. 282, seqq., 305). Halling refers the term Arimaspian to the steed-mounted forefathers of the German race before the migrations of this people into Europe, and he deduces the name from the Persian Arim and rsp, the latter of which words means “a horse.” (Wien., Jahrb., 69, p. 190.) Rhode, on the other hand, makes Arimasp a Zend term, though his explanation of it, “a mounted native of Aria,” approaches that of Halling, asp in Zend meaning “a steed.” (Heilige Sage, &c., p. 66, seqq.) The etymology assigned by Herodotus to the word in question, and which is given at the commencement of this article, is now justly regarded as of no value * and decidedly erroneous, unless, b

with Gatterer, we consider the words which form the derivation in the Greek text to be a mere interpolation. (Comment. Soc. Gött., 14, p. 9.) A RiMAspas, a river of Scythia with golden sands, in the country of the Arimaspi. (Vid. Arimaspi.) ARIM1, according to some, a people of Syria. (Wid. Arima, towards the close of that article.) Ariminum, a city of Umbria in Italy, at the mouth of the river Ariminus, on the coast, not far to the southeast of the Rubicon. It was founded by the Umbri, and afterward inhabited partly by them and partly by the Pelasgi. It was taken by the Galli Senones. The Romans sent a colony to it A.U.C. 485. From this time Ariminum was considered as a most important place, and the key of Italy on the eastern coast; hence we generally find a Roman army stationed there during the Gallic and Punic wars. (Polyb., 2, 23.—Id., 3, 77.) In this place Caesar is said to have harangued his troops, after having crossed the Rubicon; and here the tribunes of the commons, who were in his interest, met him. It is now called Rimini. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 255.) ARIMíNus, a river of Italy, rising in the Apennine mountains, and falling into the sea at Ariminum. It is now the Marecchia. (Plin., 3, 15.) AriobarzăNes, I, a nobleman of Cappadocia, elected king after the two sons of Ariarathes VI, had died. He was expelled by Mithradates, but was restored by Sylla, B.C. 92. He was again expelled in B.C. 88, and restored at the peace in B.C. 84. His kingdom, however, was again occupied by Mithradates in B.C. 66. He was restored by Pompey, and resigned the kingdom to his son. (Cic., pro. Leg. Man., c. 2.Id, ibid., c. 5.-Appian, Bell. Mithr., c. 105.—Id, Bell. Cir., 1, 103.— Val. Mar, 5, 7, 2, extern.)—II. The second of the name, son of the preceding, and surnamed Eusebes and also Philorhomasus. He supported Pompey against Caesar. (Appian, Bell. Cir., 2, 71, where he is called by mistake Ariarathes.) The latter, however, forgave him, and enlarged his territories. He was slain, B.C. 42, by Cassius. (Dio Cass., 47, 33–Appian, Bell. Cir., 4, 63–Clinton, Fast. Hell., vol. 2, p. 437.)—III. A name common to some kings, or, more correctly speaking, satraps of Pontus. Ariobarzanes I. is alluded to by Xenophon (Cyrop. 8, 8, 4) as o been betrayed by his son Mithradates into the hands of the Persian monarch. (Consult Aristot, Polit., 5, 10, and compare Schneider, ad Xen., l. c.)—IV. The second of the name, succeeded the Mithradates mentioned in the preceding paragraph, B.C., 363, and reigned twenty-six years. In the course of this reign he engaged in rebellion against Artaxerxes, B.C. 362. (Diod. Sic., 15, 90.) Mention is made of him by Nepos, in his account of Datames (c. 2–Ib., c. 5), and he is there called governor of Lydia, Ionia, and the whole of Phrygia. (Compare Clinton, Fast. Hell, vol. 2, p. 421)—V. The third of the name, succeeded Mithradates III. He began to reign B.C. 266. This prince, as we learn from Memnon (ap. Phot., p. 720), conquered the city of Amastris, and drove from the country, in conjunction with the Gallo-Graci, or Galata, lately ar. rived in Asia Minor, an Egyptian colony sent by Ptol. emy. (Apollod, ap. Steph. By 2, s. v. Aykupa.) He was succeeded by his son Mithradates IV., who was a minor when his father died. (Clinton, Fast. Hell., vol. 2, p. 424.)—VI. A Persian commander, who bravely defended against Alexander the pass in the mountains of Susiana. (Diod. Sic, 17, 68–Ouint. Curt., 5, 3, 17. –Consult Wesseling, ad Diod, loc. cit.) Arion, I. a famous lyric poet and musician of Methymna, in the island of Lesbos. His age is stated by Suidas as Olymp. 38; by Eusebius, Olymp. 40 (i.e., 628 or 620 B.C.). Though by birth a Methymnaan, and probably a disciple of Terpander, #;" chiefly

lived and wrote in the Peloponnesms, among Dorian 1.ations. It was at Corinth, in the reign of Periander, that he first practised a cyclic chorus in the performance of a dithyramb; where he probably took advantage of some local accidents and made beginnings, which alone could justify Pindar in considering Corinth as the native city of the Dithyramb. (Herod., 1, 23.—Compare Hellanic, ap. Schol. ad Aristoph. Av., 1403–Aristot., ap. Procl., Chrestom., p. 382, ed. Gaisf.–Pind, Olymp., 13, 18)—A curious fable is related by Herodotus (l. c.) of this same Arion. He was accustomed to spend the most of his time with Periander, king of Corinth. On a sudden, however, feeling desirous of visiting Italy and Sicily, he sailed to those countries, and amassed there great riches. He set sail from Tarentum after this, in order to return to Corinth, but the mariners formed a plot against him, when they were at sea, to throw him overboard and seize his riches. Arion, having ascertained this, offered them all his treasure, only begging that they would spare his life. But the seamen, being inflexible, commanded him either to kill himself, that he might be buried ashore, or to leap immediately into the sea. Arion, reduced to this hard choice, earnestly desired them to allow him to dress in his richest apparel, and to sing a measure, standing at the time on the poop of the ship. The mariners assented, pleased with the idea of their being about to hear the best singer of the day, and retired from the stern to the middle of the vessel. In the mean time, Arion, having put on all his robes, took his harp and performed the É. strain, as it was termed. At the end of the air he leaped into the sea, and the Corinthians continued their voyage homeward. A dolphin, however, attracted by the music, received Arion on its back, and bore him in safety to Tanarus. On reaching this place, his story was disbelieved by Periander; but an examination of the seamen, when they also arrived, removed all the monarch's suspicions about Arion's veracity, and the mariners were put to death. In commemoration of this event, a statue was made of brass, representing a man on a dolphin's back, and was consecrated at Taenarus. Such is the story told by Herodotus. Larcher's explanation is a very tame and improbable one. He thinks that Arion threw himself into the sea in or near the harbour of Tarentum ; that the Corinthians, without troubling themselves any farther, set sail; that Arion gained the shore, met with another vessel ready to depart, which had the figure-head of a dolphin, and that this vessel outstripped the Corinthian ship. (Larcher, ad loc.) The solution which Müller gives is far more ingenious, though not much in accordance with the simplicity of early fable. It is as follows: The colony which went to Tarentum under Phalanthus, sailed srom Taenarus to Italy, with the rites and under the protection of Neptune. The mythic mode of indicating this was by a statue, representing Taras, the son of Neptune, and original founder of the place, seated on a dolphin's back, as if in the act of crossing the sea from Taenarus to Tarentum. This was placed on the Taenarian promontory. In process of time, however, the legend ceased to be applied to Taras, and Arion became the hero of the tale, the order of the voyage being reversed; and the love of music, which the dolphin was sabled by the ancients to possess, became a means of adding to the wonders of the story. (Müller, Dorier, vol. 2, p. 369, not.—Plehn, Lesbiac., p. 166.)—II. A celebrated steed, often mentioned in fable, which not only possessed a human voice (Propert., 2, 25, 37), but also the power of prophecy. (Stat., Theb., 6,424.). According to one legend, he sprang from Ceres and Neptune, the goddess having fruitlessly assumed the shape of a mare, in order to avoid the addresses of Neptune, who immediately transformed himself into a steed. (Pausan., 8, 25.Apollod., 3, 6, 8.) Another account made him the

offspring of Neptune and Erinnys, who had in like manner changed herself into a mare. (Schol, ad II, 23, 346.) Others again related, that he was produced from the ground by a blow of Neptune's trident, in the contest of that deity with Minerva for the possession of Athens. (Serp. ad Virg., Georg., 1, 12.) Eustathius mentions a still different origin for this fabled animal, namely, from Neptune and one of the Harpies. (Fustath. ad Il., l. c.) Quintus Calaber (4, 570), from one of the Harpies and Zephyrus. Arion was trained up by Neptune himself, and was often yoked to the chariot of his parent, which he drew over the seas with amazing swiftness. (Stat., Theb., 6,303, seqq.) Neptune gave him as a present to Copreus, king of Haliartus, in Boeotia. Haliartus bestowed him on Hercules, who distanced with him Cycnus, in the Hippodrome of the Pagasean Apollo, and afterward also made use of him in his car when contending with Cycnus in fight. From Hercules he came to Ardrastus, who was alone saved by his means from the Theban war. (Schol, ad Il., 23, 346.-Hesiod, Scut. Herc., 120, seqq.—Compare Müller, Dorier, vol. 2, p. 480.)—The name of this fabled animal manifestly relates to his superiority over all other coursers ('Apeiov, superior), and the legend itself is only one of the many forms, in which the physical fact of earth and water being the cause of growth and increase in the natural world has been enveloped by the ancicnt mythologists. (Wölcker, Myth. der Jap., p. 165, seqq ) Ariovistus, a king of the Germans, who invaded Gaul, conquered a considerable part of the country, and subjected the inhabitants to the most cruel and oppressive treatment. Caesar marched against him, brought him to an action, and gained so complete a victory, that only a few of the army of Ariovistus, among whom was the king himself, effected their escape. He died soon after in Germany, either of his wounds, or through chagrin at his defeat. The name is probably derived from the German words Heer, an army, and Furst, a leader or prince. (Caes., Bell. Gall., 131, seqq.—Id, ibid., 5, 29.) Arisba, I. a town of Lesbos, destroyed by an earthquake. (Plin., 5, 39.) Herodotus states that it was conquered by the people of Methymna (I, 151.Compare Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Aptatin)—II. A city of Troas, southeast of Abydus, and founded by a colony of Mytilenaeans, in whose island there was a town of the same name. (Wud. No. I.) Various traditions respecting the place are to be found in Stephanus of Byzantium. Homer makes mention of the place, together with the river Selleis. (Il., 2,835.) It was here, according to Arrian (1, 12), that Alexander stationed his army immediately after crossing the Hellespont at Abydus. When the Gauls passed over into Asia, some centuries after, they also occupied Arisba, but were totally defeated by King Prusias. (Polyb., 5, 3.) Its ruins are supposed to be those at Gangerlee. (Walpole's Turkey, vol. 1, p. 92.—Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 1, p. 71.) Arist AENEtus, a Greek writer, a native of Nicaea. He is supposed by some to have been the same with that friend of Libanius who perished in the earthquake which destroyed the city of Nicomedia, A.D. 358, and to whom are addressed many of the letters of this sophist that remain to us. If this opinion be correct, it must be confessed that the work of Arista-netus, which we at present possess, does not justify the eulogiums which Libanius passes on the talents of his friend: the identity of the two individuals, therefore, appears at best extremely doubtful. The only historical fact that occurs in Aristanetus seems to place him towards the close of the fifth century: it is a eulogium on the female dancer Panareta, where it is said that she imitated the pantomime Caramallus. Now this Caramallus lived in the time of Sidonius

Apollinaris, who died A.D. 484. A third view of the subject would seem to favour the supposition that the author of the work in question never bore the name of Aristanetus; this being the appellation given by the writer to the fictitious personage who is supposed to have written the first letter in the collection. And it may so have happened, that the copyists mistook this name for that of the author himself. This last opinion has been adopted by Mercier, Bergler, Pauw, and Boissonade.—The work of Aristanetus is a collection of Erotic Epistles, entitled 'Estuarožai éportkai. The greater part of these pieces are only, in fact, so far to be regarded as letters, as bearing a superscription which gives them somewhat of an epistolary form ; they are, in truth, a species of tales, or exercises on imaginary subjects. In one of them, a lover draws the portrait of his mistress ; in another, we have a description of the artifices practised by a coquet; in a third, a tale after the manner of Boccacio, &c. These letters are divided into two books, of which the first contains twenty-eight pieces; and the second, which is not complete, twenty-two. The style of Aristanetus, which is almost uniformly of a declamatory character, is frequently wanting in nature and taste. It is filled with phrases borrowed from the poets. The best editions of this writer are, that of Abresch, Zwolla, 3 vols. 12mo, the third volume containing the notes and conjectures of various scholars; and that of Boissonade, Paris, 1822, 8vo. This latter edition is, on the whole, the better one of the two. On the merits of Abresch's edition consult the remarks of Bast, in his Specimen ed. nov. Epist. Arustaen., p. 9, seqq., and on those of Boissonade's the observations of Hoffmann, Lez. Bibl., vol. 1, p. 253. (Compare Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol.6, p. 248, seqq.)

Arist Azus, son of Apollo and the nymph Cyrene, was born in the part of Libya afterward named from his mother, and brought up by the Seasons, who sed him on nectar and ambrosia, and thus rendered him immortal. According to the prediction of the centaur Chiron, as made to Apollo respecting him, he was to be called “Jove,” and “holy Apollo,” and “ Agreus” (Hunter), and “Nomios” (Herdsman); and also Aristasus. (Pind, Pyth., 9, 104, seqq.) The invention of the culture of the olive, and of the art of managin bees, was ascribed to him; and Aristotle (ap. §§§ ad Theocr., 5, 63) says he was taught them by the nymphs who had reared him. Tradition also related, that one time, when the isle of Ceos was afflicted by a drought, caused by the excessive heat of the dogdays, the inhabitants invited Arista:us thither; and, on hrs erecting an altar to Jupiter Icmaeus (the Moistener), the Etesian breezes breathed over the isle, and the evil departed. After his death he was deified by the people of Ceos. (Apoll. Rh., 2, 506, seqq.— Schol. ad Apoll. Rh., 2,498–Serr, ad Virg., Georg., 1, 14.) Virgil has elegantly related the story of the love of Aristicus for Eurydice the wife of Orpheus, his pursuit of her, and her unfortunate death by the sting of the serpent ; on which the Napaean nymphs destroyed all his bees; and the mode adopted by him, on the advice of his mother, to stock once more his hives. (Georg., 4, 282, seqq.—Compare Orid, Fast., 1, 363, seqq.) Aristeus married Autonoë, daughter of Cadmus, by whom he became the father of Actaeon. (Keightley's Mythology, 2d ed., p. 330.) Thus much for the legend. , Aristasus would seem in reality to have been an early deity of Arcadia, whence the Parrhasii carried his worship into the island of Ceos; of Thessaly, whence the same worship was brought to Cyrene; and finally of Boeotia, where he was enrolled in the Cadmean genealogy. He appears to have been identical, originally, with Zeic Aparoc, and subsequently with ATóżāov Náutoc, and to have been the god who presided over so and herds, over the propagation of bees, the rearing of the olive, &c. (Müller, Orchom., p. 348.)

Arist AGöRAs, I. a writer who composed a history of Egypt, and who lived in the third century before our era. (Plin., 36, 12.)—II. A son-in-law and nephew of Histiarus, tyrant of Miletus, who revolted from Darius, and incited the Athenians and Eretrians against Persia. An expedition, planned though not commanded by him, burned the city of Sardis. This so exasperated the king, that every evening, before supper, he ordered his attendants to remind him of punishing Aristagoras. He was killed in a battle against the Persians, B.C. 499. (Herodot., 5, 30.—Id., 5, 101, seqq.)

AristANDER, a statuary, native of the Island of Paros, flourished about the time of the battle of AEgos Potamos, in Olmyp. 93, 4. He constructed the brazen tripod, which the Lacedæmonians dedicated at Amyclao, out of the spoils taken by them. (Puusan., 3, 18, 5.—Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.)

Arist Archus, I. a tragic poet, a native of Tegea. He was the contemporary of Sophocles and Euripides, and lived upward of a hundred years. He exhibited seventy tragedies, but was only twice successful. Of all these seventy plays only one line is left us. According to Festus, his Achilles was imitated by Ennius, and also by Plautus in his Paenulus. (Theatre of the Greeks, 2d ed., p. 151.)—II. A native of Samothrace, and preceptor to the children of Ptolemy VI, (Philometor). He is regarded as the most celebrated critic of all antiquity. The number of pupils formed by him was so great, that at one time forty distinguished professors or grammarians might be counted at Alexandrea and Rome, who had been trained up in his school. All these disciples vied with each other in extolling the superiority and genius of their common master; and hence the name of Aristarchus was not only perpetuated in the classical tongues, but has passed into the modern languages, as indicative of an accomplished critic. Aristarchus quitted Egypt when Euergetes II, his pupil, ascended the throne and began to display his true character in driving men of letters from Alexandrea. The grammarian, upon this, retired to Cyprus, where he died at the age of seventytwo, B.C. 157. In his old age he became dropsical, upon which he is said to have starved himself to death. Aristarchus was the author of a new recension of Homer, which, though altered by subsequent grammarians, is nevertheless the basis of our common text at the present day. It is this primitive recension of Aristarchus' which Wolf undertook to restore by the aid of the scholia that Willoison published. To Aristarchus is also attributed the division of the Iliad and Odyssey into twenty-four cantos or books. He wrote likewise commentaries on Archilochus, Alcaeus, Anacreon, Æschylus, Sophocles, Ion, Pindar, Aristophanes, Aratus, and other poets; and composed in all, it is said, eight hundred different works. Of all the productions, however, of this industrious writer, we have only remaining at the present day some grammatical remarks cited by the scholiasts. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr, vol. 3, p. 188, seqq.)—III. An astronomer of Samos, who flourished about the middle of the third century before Christ. He is well known to have maintained the modern opinion with regard to the motion of the earth round the sun, and its revolution about its own centre or axis. He also taught that the annual orbit of the earth is but a point, compared with the distance of the fixed stars. He estimated the apparent diameter of the sun at the 720th part of the zodiac. He found also that the diameter of the moon bears a greater proportion to that of the earth than that of 43 to 108, but less than that of 19 to 60; so that the diameter of the moon, according to his state: ment, should be somewhat less than a third part of the earth. The only one of his works now extant is a treatise on the magnitudes and distances of the sun and moon. The best edition is that of Wallis, Oro",

1688, 8vo. The following work may ".* consult

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