Obrazy na stronie

acuteness, and of ready talent in replying to an opponent. He wrote a treatise, “de dolo malo,” which Cicero eulogizes very highly; another, “depostumorum institutione;” a third, “de stipulatione,” &c. (Cic, Brut., 42–Id., de Off, 3, 14, &c.)—III. Sabinus, a Roman lawyer, who flourished in the third century of our era. His wisdom and acquirements gained for him the appellation of Cato. He was elected consul A.U.C. 214, and again in 216. According to some, he was the father or brother of Aquilia Severa, the vestal vir. §. whom Heliogabalus compelled to become his wife. 'one of his works have reached us. (Lamprid. Wit. Heliogab.—Cassiod, Chron.—Rutil., in Vit. Juriscons.) Aquilonia, I. a city of Samnium, on the Volscian frontier, about 20 miles from Cominium, and the same distance from Bovianum. Its site is now occupied by the little town of Agnone, near the source of the Trigno. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 229.)—II. Another city of Samnium, in the territory of the Hirpini, nearly midway between Beneventum and Venusia. Its site corresponds to that of the modern Lacedogna. (Plin., 3, 11–Pool., p. 67.) Aquint M, I. a town of Cisalpine Gaul, south of Mutina, or Modena. (Plin., 3, 15.) It is placed by Cluverius at the modern Acquario.—II. A city of Latium, on the Latin Way, a little beyond the place where the road crosses the Liris and Melfis. It is now Aquino. Both Strabo (237) and Silius Italius (8, 404) describe it as a large city. Aquinum was the birthplace of Juvenal, as that poet himself informs us. (Sat., 3, 3.18.) Here also was born the Emperor Pescennius Niger, and in modern times the celebrated Thomas Aquinas. The place was famous for its purple dye. (Horat., Ep., 10, 26.) Aquit ANIA, a country of Gaul between the Garumna or Garonne, and the Pyrenees. As it was less than either of the other two divisions of Gaul, Augustus extended it to the Ligeris or Loire. (Vid Gallia.) The Aquitani, according to Strabo (190), differed from the Gallic race both in physical constitution and in language. They resembled, he tells us, the Iberians rather than the Gauls. According to Caesar, the Aquitani, besides a peculiar idiom of their own, had also peculiar institutions. Now, historical facts inform us that these institutions bore, for the most part, the Iberian character; that the national attire was Iberian ; that there were the strongest ties of amity and alliance between the Aquitanic and Iberian tribes. We find, then, an accordance between historical proofs and those deduced from an examination of languages, to warrant the belief that the Aquitani were of Iberian extraction. (Consult Thierry, Hist, des Gaul., vol. 1, p. xxiii., Introd.—1d., vol. 2, p. 11, seqq.) A R A Lugdu NENsis, an altar erected to Augustus, at the confluence of the Arar and Rhone, near the city of Lugdunum or Lyons, by sixty Gallic communities. It was reared after the tumult excited in Gaul by the proclaiming of the census had been quelled by Drusus. (Lir., Epit., 137–-Strab., 192.) The spot became famous under Caligula for the literary contests which took place there. A crowd of orators and poets flocked to the scene from the remotest quarters of the em. pire, notwithstanding the severity of the regulations which are said to have prevailed here. The vanquished were compelled to bestow rewards upon the victors, and compose pieces in their praise; while those whose productions showed least talent were obliged to efface their own writings with a sponge or with the tongue, or else, as an alternative, to submit to be scourged, and then cast into the neighbouring stream. (Sueton., Calig, 20–Dio Cass., 54,32–Jun., Sat., 1,44.) The spot was called by the writers of the middle ages Attanacum, and is now the point of Annai. (Lemaire, ad Jur., l.c.) A Rabia, a large country of Asia, forming a peninsu

labetween the Arabian and Persian Gulss. Its length, from the Cape of Babelmandeb to the extreme angle on the Euphrates, is about 1800 British miles, and its mean breadth 800. The Arabians recognise for their ancestors Joktan, or Khatan, the son of Eber, and Ishmael, the son of Abraham. Arabia was called by the inhabitants of Palestine, the Eastern, and by the Babylonians, the Western, country. Hence the Arabians were sometimes denominated Orientals, and sometimes the people of the West. (2 Chron.,9, 14.— Jer, 3, 2.) The derivation, moreover, commonly assigned to the term Arab is in accordance with this latter idea, making it signify an inhabitant of the West, as Arabia lay to the west of Upper Asia. (Consult, however, Wahl, Vorder und Mutel Asmen, vol. 1, p. 327, in not., where other explanations are given.)—The Arabs anciently denominated themselves, and do to this day, by either of these names. Megasthenes and Ptolemy divided the country into the Happy, Petraea, and the Deserted; an arrangement unknown, however, to the inhabitants of the east. Arabia Felix, or the Happy, derived this appellation from its rich produce. This tract is a peninsula, which is so bordered by the Red Sea (more properly called the Arabian Gulf), by the Mare Erythraeum, and by the Persian Gulf, that it would be persectly surrounded, were a line drawn from the inland extremity of the Persian Gulf to port Allan or Ælan, situate near the eastern extremity of the Red Sea. Arabia Petraea was so called, either from its stony character (Térpa, “a rock” or “stone”), or, what is far more probable, from an ancient fortified emporium, called Petra. It was bounded on the east by Arabia Deserta, on the west by Egypt and the Mediterranean, on the south by the Red Sea, which here divides and runs north in two branches, and on the north by Palestine. Idumala, otherwise called Seir, is the northeastern part of Arabia Petraea. Arabia Deserta is that tract which has Arabia Felix on the south, Babylonia and the Euphrates on the east, the Euphrates and Syria on the north, and Gilead on the west. Instead, however, of the division just given, the more natural one is that which distinguishes the coast, covered with aloes, manna, myrrh, frankincense, indigo, nutmegs, and especially coffee, from the interior, consisting of a desert of moving sand, with thorns and saline herbs. The climate is very various. Regions where it rains half the year alternate with others where dew supplies the place of rain for the whole season. The greatest cold prevails on high places, and the most oppressive heat in the plains. Damp winds succeed to the dry simoom, which is as dangerous to life as the harmattan and khamseen in Africa. The soil consists of sandy deserts and the most fruitful fields. Wheat, millet, rice, kitchen vegetables, coffee (which grows on trees in Arabia, its home, and on bushes in America, the plants being kept low for the sake of gathering their fruit more easily), manna, sugar-cane, cotton, tropical fruits, senna-leaves, gums, aloes, myrrh, tobacco, indigo, odorous woods, balsam, &c., are the rich products of Arabia. There are also precious stones, iron, and other metals (gold excepted, which the ancients, however, seem to have found pure in rivers and in the earth). The animals are mules, asses, camels, butsaloes, horned cattle, goats, noble horses, lions, hyaenas, antelopes, foxes, apes, jerboas; birds of all sorts, pelicans, ostriches, &c.; esculent locusts, scorpions, &c.—The Arabians are still, as in the most ancient times, Nomades, of patriarchal simplicity. The older Arabian historians understand by Arabia only Yemen (Arabia Felix). Hedsjaz (the rocky) they regard as belonging partly to Egypt, partly to Syria; and the rest of the country they call the Syrian Desert. The princes (tolla) of this land were anciently entirely of the race of Khatan, to which belonged the family of the Homeyrites, who ruled over Yemen two thousand years. Town" of Yemen and a part of the desert of Arabia lived in cities, and practised agriculture: they had commerce also with the East Indies, Persia, Syria, and Abyssinia. The rest of the population then, as now, led a wandering life in the deserts.-The religion of the Arabians, in the time of their ignorance (as they call the period before Mohammed), was, in general, adoration of the heavenly bodies, or Sabaism ; varying much, however, in the different tribes, each of whom selected a different constellation as the highest object of worship—For a thousand years the Arabians manfully defended the freedom, faith, and manners of their fathers against all the attacks of the Eastern conquerors, protected by deserts and seas, as well as by their own arms. Neither the Babylonian and Assyrian, nor the Egyptian and Persian kings, could bring them under their yoke. At last they were overcome by Alexander the Great; but immediately after his death, they took advantage of the disunion of his generals and successors to recover their independence. At this period the northern provinces of the country were bold enough to extend their dominion beyond the limits of Arabia. The Arabian Nomades, especially in winter, made deep inroads into the fertile Irak or Chaldaea. They finally conquered a portion of it, which is hence still called Irak Araby. Thence the tribe of Hareth advanced into Syria, and settled in the country of Gassan, whence they received the appellation of Gassanides. Three centuries after Alexander, the Romans approached these limits. The divided Arabians could not resist the Roman arms everywhere successfully ; their country, however, was not completely reduced to a province; the northern princes, at least, maintaining a virtual independence of the emperors. The old Homeyrites in Yemen, against whom an unsuccessful war was carried on in the time of Augustus, preserved their liberty. Their chief city, Saba, was destroyed by a flood. With the weakness of the Roman government, the struggle for absolute independence increased, which a union of all the Arabian tribes would have easily gained; but, weakened and scattered as they were, they spent several centuries in this contest, during which the mountainous country of the interior (Nedschid) became the theatre of those chivalrous deeds so often sung by Arabian poets, till a man of extraordinary energy united them by communicating to them his own ardour, and union was followed by augmented force.—Christianity early found many adherents here, and there were even several bishops who acknowledged as their metropolis Bosro in Palestine, on the borders of Arabia. Yet the original worship of the stars could not be entirely abolished. The former opposition of the Arabians to the despotism of Rome drew to them a multitude of heretics, who had been persecuted in the orthodox empire of the East, especially the Monophysites and the Nestorians, who were scattered through all the East ; and the religious enthusiasm of those exiles rekindled the flame of op. position. The Jews also, after the destruction of Jerusalem, became very numerous in this country, and made many proselytes, particularly in Yemen. The last king of the Homeyrites (Hamjarites) was of the Jewish faith, and his persecutions of the Christians, A.D. 502, involved him in a war with the King of Æthiopia, which cost him his life and his throne. To the indifference excited by so great a variety of sects is to be referred the quick success of Mohammed in establishing a new religion. He raised the Arabians to importance in the history of the world, and with him begins a new epoch in the history of this people. (Iahn's Bibl. Archaeol., p. 8, Upham's transl.—Encyclop. Americ., vol. 1, p. 316, seqq.). ARAbícus sinus, that part or branch of the Mare Erythraeum which interposes itself between Egypt and Arabia. It is now called the Red Sea. The meaning of this modern appellation must be looked for, not in

any colour of its waters or sands, but in the name of Idumea (or the land of Edom), whose coasts this sea touches on the north. Edom, in the Hebrew tongue, signifies red, and was the name given to Esau for selling his birthright for a mess of red pottage. This country, which his posterity possessed, was called after his name, and so was the sea which adjoined it. The Greeks, however, not understanding the reason of the appellation, translated what is in Hebrew the Sea of Edom, by putpa bazaaaa. Thence comes the Latin form Mare rubrum, and the modern name Red Sca. It is otherwise called Golfo di Mecca. (Compare Well's Sacred Geogr., No. 160.-Calmet's Dict., vol. 5, p. 63, Eng. transl.—Bahr, ad Ctes., p. 359.) The shores of this gulf consist principally of limestone rocks. The bottom is covered with a carpet of greenish coral, and, in calm weather, when it comes into view, is not unlike a series of verdant submarine forests and meadows. The coral, however, is inscrior in quality to that of the Mediterranean. (Plin., 32, 2.) The beautiful fuci attracted the admiration of antiquity (Artemid., ap. Strab., 766), and procured for the Arabian Gulf in Hebrew the name of Bahr Somph, i.e., “the sca of algae.” (Malte-Brun, 2,84, Brussels ed.) ARAbius, ARAbis, or Arbus, a river of Gedrosia, near its eastern boundary, running into the Indian Ocean, now the Araba or ll-Mend. (Arrian, 6, 21.) ARAccA and AreccA, a city of Susiana, east of the Tigris, now Wasit. It has attracted the attention of the learned by reason of the affinity of its name with that of Erech, mentioned in the Old Testament among the cities constructed by Nimrod. (Ammian. Marcell., 23, 21.—Bochart, Geogr. Sacr., col. 236.-Michaelis, Spicileg., vol. 1, p. 220, seqq.) ARAchs AEus Mons, a chain of mountains in Argolis, running along the upper coast in a southeastern direction. i. the time of Inachus it was called Sapyselaton. (Pausan, 2, 25–Compare Sichelis, all loc.) Hesychius reports that it also bore the name of Hysselinus (s. v. "Yaotzuvov.–Compare Steph. By:., s. v. 'Apaxvalov). Mount Arachnaeus is mentioned by AEschylus (Agam., 299) as the last station of the telegraphic fire by which the news of the capture of Troy was transmitted to Mycenae. The modern name is Sophico, according to the latest maps. Part of this chain, communicating with the mountains of Nemea and Phlius, bore the name of Celossa. (Strabo, 382.—Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 3, p. 282.) ARAchne, a Maeonian maiden, who was so proud of her skill in weaving and embroidering, in which arts Minerva had instructed her, that she ventured to deny her obligations to the goddess, and even challenged her to a trial of skill. Minerva, assuming the form of an old woman, warned her to desist from her boasting; but, when she sound that her admonitions were vain, she resumed her proper form, and accepted the challenge. The skill of Arachne was such, and the subjects she chose (the love-transformations of the gods) were so offensive to Minerva, that she struck her several times in the forehead with the shuttle. The highspirited maiden, unable to endure this affront, hung herself, and the goddess, relenting, changed her into a spider (ěpáxvm)—The name of this insect, most prob: ably, gave rise to the sable, though the story itself would secm to be of Oriental origin, the art of embroidering having come into Western Asia from Babylonia and the countries adjacent. (Orld, 6, 1, sco - Keightley's Mythology, p. 122—Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 2, p. 749.) A racitosis, a province of the Persian empire, lying to the west of the river Indus, and north of Gedrosia. The Greek writers usually call the inhabitants Arachöti ("Apatoroi), sometimes Arachota ('Apaxcoat. Dion. Perics., 1096). Arachosia was of considerable importance as a srontier province, and had always, therefore, a satrap or governor of its own, both tefore and after the time of Alexander. Through this country, moreover, lay the nearest and safest route to India. Syburtius, the Greek governor after Alexander's death, cultivated friendly relations with the Indian monarch Sandrocottus, and Megasthenes was often sent by him to the court of the latter. (Arrian, 5, 6.) The ancient Arachosia answers to the modern Arokhage. (Mannert, 5, pt. 2, p. 76.) A RachóTAE and A RAchöT1, the inhabitants of Arachosia. (Wid. Arachosia.) They are styled AtvöxZauvoo, from their linen attire. (Dionys. Perieg., 1096–Compare Eustath., ad loc.—Arrian, 3, 23.) ARAchötus, I. or Arachosia, the chief city of Arachosia, called also Cophe (Kopis), and said to have been built by Semiramis. It did not lie, as some remark, on the river Arachotus, but a considerable distance east of it, on a road leading in a northern direction towards the modern Candahar. (Mannert, 5, pt. 2, p. 80.)—II. A river of Arachosia, rising in the hills northeast of the modern Gazni, and losing itself in a marsh about four miles to the south of Candahar. Its modern name, according to Wahl, is Naodah. D'Anville, however, makes it Kare. (Isid., Charac. ap. Geogr. Gr. Min., vol., 2, p. 8.—Plin., 6, 23.) ARAchthus, ARAEThus, or AREthon, a river of Epirus, flowing from that part of the chain of Pindus which belonged to the ancient Tymphaei, and running by Ambracia into the Ambracian Gulf. Lycophron (v. 409), who calls it Araethus ("Apattoo), speaks of it as the boundary of Greece on this side. Ambracia, therefore, being always accounted a city of Greece Proper, must have stood on its left bank. We cannot, therefore, admit, with Pouqueville, that this city occupied the site of Regous, since that ruined fortress is situated on the right bank of the Luro river, which that writer considers to be the Arachthus. That the Arachthus is a considerable stream, may be inferred from Livy, who relates (43, 21) that Perseus, king of Macedon, was detained on its banks by high floods, on his way to Acarnania. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 151, seqq.) ARAcyNThus, T. a chain of mountains in AFtolia, running in a southeasterly direction from the Achelous to the Evenus. Its present name is Mount Zigos. Pliny (4, 1) and other writers, with less propriety, ascribe Aracynthus to Acarnania.-II. A mountain of Boeotia, sacred to Minerva, whence this goddess received the appellation of Aracynthia. (Rhian., ap. Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Apákvvdog.) It was situate not far srom 'Thebes. ARApus, I. a city on an island of the same name, on the coast of Phoenicia. According to Strabo, it was founded by a band of exiles from Sidon. The island on which it stood was a mere rock, not quite seven stadia in circumference; and hence, as the population of the city increased, they were compelled to erect edifices many stories in height, to make anends for the limited area of the place. The position of Aradus was well adapted for commerce. The modern name of the island is Ruad, according to Pococke (vol. 2, p, 294), and traces still remain of the cisterns anciently cut in the rock to hold the rain-water for the use of the inhabitants. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 398, seqq.)—II. An island, according to some, on the coast of Arabia, in the Persian Gulf. It is supposed to mark, in part, the original settlements of the Phoenicians previous to their establishing themselves on the coast of the Mediterranean. Much doubt exists, however, with regard to the accuracy of this statement; and Mannert, among others, thinks that the name Aradus, as designating an island in this quarter, is indebted for its existence to the love of theory alone. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 154—Compare, however, Michaelis, Spicileg., vol. 1, p. 166, seqq., and vid. Phoenicia.) ARAE. Vid. A.gimurus.

ARAE PHILA:Noru M. Vid. Philaeni. A RAR, a very slow, smooth-running river of Gaul. It rises near Mons Vogesus, and, after a southern course, falls into the Rhodanus at Lugdunum. (Cas., B. G., 1, 12.-Plin., 3, 4.) Ammianus Marcellinus, who flourished towards the close of the fourth century of our era, first calls the Arar by the name of Saucona, speaking of this latter as a common appellation on the part of the inhabitants in that quarter, “Ararim, quem Sauconam appellant” (15, 11). Gregory of Tours, at a later period, styles it Saugona; and from this comes the modern French appellation Saône. (Compare Lemaire, Indez Geogr., ad Caes. Comm., p. 190.) ARAtEA, a festival celebrated at Sicyon, upon the birthday of Aratus, and in memory of that distinguished patriot. (Plut., Wit. Arat., 53.) AR Arus, I. a Greek poet, born at Soli (Pompeiopolis) in Cilicia. He flourished about 270 B.C., was a favourite of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and a firm friend to Antigonus Gonatas, son of Demetrius Poliorcetes. He was also a contemporary of Theocritus, who makes mention of him in the sixth and seventh Idyls, and was on very friendly terms with him. At the instance of Antigonus, Aratus composed an astronomical poem, entitled Patváueva, “Appearances,” and treating of the heavenly bodies, their names, movements, &c. The materials for this production he is said to have principally derived from the works of Eudoxus of Cnidus, who wrote two treatises on the celestial bodies and phaenomena, one entitled "Evostpov, or “the Mir. ror,” and the other Patváueva. (Buhle, de Arat. Script. Comment, p. 466.) What other writers he followed besides Eudoxus, cannot now be ascertained. Salmasius, indeed, insists that he did not follow Eudoxus at all, but Phanus or Meton (Salm., ad Solin, p. 822); this opinion, however, is refuted by Petavius. (Doctr. Temp., 6, 9.) Aratus was the author also of another poem, entitled Atoo muria, or “Signs from Jove,” the materials for which he borrowed from Hesiod, the meteorological writings of Aristotle, and Theophrastus on the signs of the winds. Some of the ancients, and several of the moderns, too, have united the Pavópseva and Atoosugia into one poem, probably because, in the latter, he draws his signs indicative of changes in the atmosphere from the relative positions of the sun, moon, and constellations of the zodiac as regards the earth. They are, however, distinct productions, and are regarded as such by the best ancient and modern authorities. (Schol. ad Diosem. in it.— Schol. ad Aristoph. Pac., 1086.-Vitrup, 9, 7– Buhle, ibid., p. 462)—In the two poems just reserred to, Aratus gives us, in correct and rather elegant verse, a general view of what was then known of the heavens, with their signs, appearances, &c., although it is evident, both from ancient authority as well as from the poem itself, that he was not a professed astronomer, or even very accurately acquainted with the principles of the science. (Cic., de Orat., 1, 16 Buhle, p. 467.) Ovid passes a high eulogium on Aratus, “cum sole et luna semper Aratus erit” (Amor., 1, 15); but this exaggerated compliment, and the admiration of Ovid, were very probably owing to the circumstance of no other poet's having taken the astronomic sphere for his theme prior to Aratus. (Buhle, p. 471.) The truth is, the subject matter of both poems is far from being congenial to poetry, as is well remarked by Quintilian, who adds of Aratus himself, “sufficit tamen operi, cui se parem credidit (10, 1, 55). As one proof of the consideration which Aratus enjoyed, we may cite the monument which his compatriots erected to his memory, and which became famous by reason of a physical phanomena that Mela mentions. (“Juxta in parro tumulo Arati poeta monumentum, ideo referendum quia, ignotum quam ab causam, jacta in id sora dissiliant,” 1, 13.) Aratus, moreover, is the writer to whom St. Paul refers in his speech o the Areopagus (Acts, 17, 28), a circumstance which entitled the poet to great favour among the fathers of the church, although it is evident that the Apostle makes no allusion to his poetic merit. M. Delambre remarks, in speaking of Aratus, that he “has transmitted to us almost all that Greece at that time knew of the heavens, or, at least, all that could be put into verse. The perusal of Autolycus or Euclid gives more infornation on the subject to him who wishes to become an astronomer. Their notions are more precise and more geometrical. The principal merit of Aratus is the description he has left us of the constellations; and yet, even with this description to aid us, one would be much puzzled to construct a celestial chart or globe.” (Delambre, Hist. de l'Astronomie Ancienne, vol. 1, p. 74.)—The two poems of Aratus were thrice translated into Latin verse, first by Cicero, secondly by Germanicus, of the line of the Casars, and thirdly by Avienus. Cicero's translation is lost, with the exception of some fragments. The translation, or, rather, imitation of the Phaenomena by Germanicus, and his commencement of the Diosemea, as well as the version of Avicnus, remain to us. Virgil, also, in his Georgics, is under many obligations to our poet. Although Aratus has been accused of possessing but a slight acquaintance with the subject on which he treats, still a number of mathematicians united themselves with the grammarians in commenting on his work. Many of these commentaries are lost: we still have, however, four remaining; one by Hipparchus of Nicæa, another by Achilles Tatius; the other two are anonymous, for those are in error who attribute one of them to Eratosthenes. Aratus wrote many other works, which have not come down to us. They treated of physical, astronomical, grammatical, critical, and poetic themes, and a list of them is given by one of his editors, Buhle (vol. 2, p. 455, seqq.).-The best editions of this poet are, that of Buhle, Lips, 1793– 1801, 2 vols. 8vo, and that of Matthiae, Francof, 1817–1818. We have also a German version by J. H. Voss, Heidelb., 1824, published with the Greek text and illustrations—II. A celebrated Grecian patriot, born at Sicyon, B.C. 273. When he was but seven years of age, his father Clinias, who held the government of Sicyon, was assassinated by Abantidas, who succeeded in making himself absolute. Aratus took refuge in Argos, where he was concealed by the sriends of the family, and where he devoted himself with great success to physical exercises, gaining the prize in the five exercises of the pentathlum. After some revolutions and changes of rulers at Sicyon, the government came into the hands of Nicocles, when Aratus, then hardly twenty years of age, formed the project of freeing his country, and, having assembled some exiles, surprised the city of Sicyon. The tyrant having fled, Aratus gave liberty to his fellowcitizens, and induced them to join the Achaean league, still as yet feeble, and only in the twenty-fourth year of its existence. The return of the exiles, however, occasioned much trouble at Sicyon; those who had purchased their property refused to restore it, and Aratus was compelled to have recourse to Ptolemy Philadelphus, to whom he had rendered some services, and who gave him 150 talents, with which he indemnified the new possessors, and restored their property to his fellow-exiles. Being chosen, for the second time, Praetor of the Achaeans, 244 B.C., he seized by surprise on the citadel of Corinth, which Antigonus had guarded with great care as one of the keys of the Peloponnesus, and prevailed upon the Corinthians to join the confederacy. Similar success attended his efforts in other quarters, and many of the most important states and cities of southern Greece became through his means members of the league. Some time aster, the AEtolians, jealous of the prosperity of the Achaeans, and reckoning on the aid of Antigonus, the

guardian of Philip, formed an alliance with the Lacedanonians, the natural enemies of the Achaean league. Aratus marched to the aid of those cities of Arcadia which belonged to the confederacy, and which were menaced by Cleomenes, king of Sparta; but he was defeated in three successive engagements, and found himself obliged to have recourse to Antigonus. In order to induce this prince to lend aid, he surrendered to him, on his expressly requiring it, the citadel of Corinth ; and Antigonus, on having come with an army, was appointed generalissimo of the Achaean troops. Plutarch pretends that Cleomenes had offered peace to the Achaeans, on condition of being appointed commander of their forces, and that Aratus opposed him through jealousy; and he even reproaches him for preferring a barbarian to a descendant of Hercules. But the truth was, Aratus could not hesitate between Antigonus, a humane prince, and a religious observer of his oaths, and Cleomenes, who had now become a tyrant over his own country, to which he wished to make all the Peloponnesus subject. The aid of Antigonus changed entirely the aspect of affairs; and this prince having eventually entered into Laconia, compelled Cleomenes, after a defeat at Sellasia, to flee from the country, took Sparta, and restored to it the laws which Cleomenes had abrogated. Antigonus always showed great consideration for Aratus, and governed himself by his counsels in what related to the affairs of Greece. Philip, his nephew and successor, did the same during the early part of his reign; but in process of time a less friendly feeling arose between the latter and Aratus, as the evil qualities of Philip began to display themselves, and the Grecian patriot eventually fell a victim to the unprincipled monarch, who had caused a slow poison to be given to him. Some time before his death, Aratus was observed by one of his friends to spit blood, and, when the latter expressed his surprise at this, he merely exclaimed, “Such, Cephalon, are the fruits of royal friendship !” He was buried with distinguished honours by his countrymen, and a festival, called Aratea, was celebrated every year in memory of him. Aratus wrote Memoirs, now lost, which Polybius cites with eulogiums. His character may be summed up in a few words. He was a pure and ardent patriot, and, in addition to this, a statesman of no small degree of merit, but not very conspicuous for military abilities. Aratus died in the 62d year of his age, B.C. 213. (Plut. Wit. Arat.)—III. A son of the preceding, nearly of the same age with Philip, king of Macedonia. He was on intimate terms with this monarch, a circumstance, however, which did not prevent the latter from administering a potion, that threw him into a deplorable state of idiocy, so that his friends regarded his death, which occurred in the flower of his age, as a blessing rather than a misfortune. (Plut., Wit. Arat, ult.) A R Ausio, the chief city of the Cavares, in Gallia Narbonensis, to the north of Avenio. It is now Orange, in the department of Vaucluse. In the vicinity are some remains of a triumphal arch, erected in commemoration of the victory of Marius over the Cimbri and Teutones. (Plin., 3, 4.) Araxes, I. a river of Armenia Major, issuing from Mons Abus, on the side opposite to that whence the southern arm of the Euphrates flows. It runs east until it meets the mountains which separate Armenia from northern Media, when it turns to the north, and, after receiving the Cyrus, falls into the Caspian Sea. It is now the Arras. (Plin., 6, 9–Strab., 363– Ptol., 5, 13 )—II. Another in Persia, running by Persepolis, and falling into the Medus, now Bend- Emir. —Xenophon calls the Chaboras by the name of Araxes (rid. Chaboras), and gives the name of Phasis to the Armenian Araxes. (Xen., Anab., 1, 4, 19.-Compare the Indez Nom. to the edition of Zeune, and the remarks of Kruger, ad Xen., Anab., 4, 6, 4.)—III. A nver of Upper Asia, mentioned by Herodotus (1,202). and supposed by the most recent inquirers into this subject to be the same with the modern Volga. (Baehr, ad Herod., l. c.—Compare the remarks of the same editor, in the note to the Index Rerum, vol. 4, p. 454, seqq.)—The name Araxes appears to have been originally an appellative term for a river, in the earlier language of the East, and hence we find it applied to several streams in ancient Oriental geography. (Compare Heeren, Ideen, vol. 1, p. 55.-Ruter, Erdkunde, vol. 2, p.658.) Arbicks, a Median officer, who conspired with Belesis, the most distinguished member of the Chaldaean sacerdotal college, against Sardanapalus, king of Assyria. After several reverses, he finally succeeded in his object, defeated Sardanapalus near Nineveh, took this city, and reigned in it for the space of twenty eight years. With him commenced a dynasty of eight kings, of whom Aspadas or Astyages was the last. The empire which Arbaces founded was a federative one, composed of several sovereignties which had arisen from the ruins of the Assyrian monarchy. The kingly power, though hereditary, was not absolute, the monarch not having the power to change any of the laws enacted by the confederate princes. Chronologists are not agreed as to the period of the revolt of Arbaces. Most place it under or about the archonship of Ariphron, the 9th perpetual archon of Athens; but they differ again about the precise period of this archonship, some assigning it to 917 B.C., others to 898 BC. (Diod. Suc., 2, 24.—Well., Paterc., 1, 6. —Justin, 1, 1–Petap., Doctr. Temp., l. 9.) AR BELA, a city of Assyria, in the province of Adiabene, east of Ninus, near the Zabatus, or Zab. On the opposite side of this river, near Isbil, was fought the decisive battle of Arbela, between Alexander and Darius, October 2, B.C. 331. The field of battle was the plain of Gaugamela. The latter, however, being an obscure place, this conflict was named after Arbela. (Strabo, 399—Diod. Sic., 17, 53–Arrian, 3, 6.) Arbuscút, A, an actress on the Roman stage, who, being hissed, on one occasion, by the lower orders of the people, observed, with great spirit, that she cared nothing for the rabble, as long as she pleased the more enlightened part of her audience among the equestrian ranks. (Horat., Serm., 1, 10, 77.) ArcAdiA, a country in the centre of the Peloponnesus, and, next to Laconia, the largest of its six provinces. It was a mountainous region, and contained the sources of most of the considerable rivers which flow into the seas surrounding the Peloponnesus. From its elevated situation, and the broken face of the country, intersected by small streams, it had a cold and foggy climate during some seasons; in the plain of Argos, only one day's journey from the centre of Arcadia, the sun shines and the violets bloom, while snow is on the hills of Arcadia, and in the plain of Mantinea and Tegea. The most fertile part was towards the south, where the country sloped off, and contained many fruitful vales and numerous streams. This account of the land may serve in some degree to explain the character which the Arcadians had among the ancient Greeks: some of those who now occupy this district seem to be as rude as many of the former possessors. Their country is better adapted to pasturage than cultivation, and the Arcadians, who were scarcely a genuine Greek race, continued their pastoral habits and retained their rude manners amid their native mountains. To their pastoral mode of life may be ascribed their attachment to music; and hence also the worship of Pan as the tutelary deity of Arcadia. Nature, observes a modern writer, has destined this country for herdsmen. The pastures and meadows in summer are always green and unscorched; for the shade and moisture preserve them. The country has n appearance similar to that of Switzerland, and the

Arcadians, in some measure, resemble the inhabitants of the Alps. They possessed a love of freedom and a love of money; for wherever there was money, you might see Arcadian hirelings. But it is chiefly the western part of Arcadia (where Pan invented the shepherd's flute) which deserves the name of a pastoral country. Innumerable brooks, one more delightful than the other, sometimes rushing impetuously, and sometimes gently murmuring, pour themselves down the mountains. Vegetation is rich and magnificent ; everywhere freshness and coolness are found. One flock of sheep here succeeds another, till the wild Taygetus is approached, where numerous herds of goats are also seen. (Bartholdy, Bruchstücke zu mãhern Kenntniss Griechenlands, p. 239, seqq.) The inhabitants of Arcadia, devoted to the pastoral life, preferred, therefore, for a long time, to dwell in the open country rather than in the cities; and when some of these, particularly Tegea and Mantinea, became considerable, the contests between them destroyed the peace and liberties of the people. The shepherdlise among the Greeks, although much ornamented by the poets, betrays its origin in this, that it arose among a people who did not wander like the Nomades, but were in possession of stationary dwellings—The most ancient name of Arcadia was Drymolis (the woody region), from épic, “a tree.” The Arcadians themselves carried their origin very far back, and gave their nation the name of Proseleni (before the moon). They seem to have derived the first rudiments of civilization, if not their origin itself, from the Pelasgi, and hence the tradition that a king, named Pelasgus, taught them to build huts, and clothe themselves with the skins of animals. Arcas, a descendant of this same Pelasgus, taught them the art of baking bread, and of weaving. From this second benefactor the people and their country were respectively called Arcades and Arcadia. A republican form of government arose subsequently, after the first Messenian war, Aristocrates II. having been stoned to death by the Arcadians for his treachery towards the Messenians. Arcadia eventually attached itself to the Achaean league, and fell under the Roman power.—It is commonly believed that a colony of Arcadians settled in Italy in very early times. This, however, is a mere fable, and is contradicted by the inland nature of the country, and by the Arcadians never having been a maritime people. (Vid. Pelasgi and Italy, and also Evander — Polyb., 4, 20.—Diod. Sic., 4, 34—Thucyd., 7, 57. —Plin., 4, 5–Apollod., 2, 1–Pausan, 8, 4.) ArcAdius, eldest son of Theodosius the Great, succeeded his father A.D. 395, who, at his death. divided the empire between his two sons, giving Arcadius the eastern, and Honorius the western division. Arcadius was only eighteen years of age when he ascended the throne, and he only occupied it to become the vile slave of the ambitious, who each in turn distracted the state by their perfidies, their quarrels, and their connivance with the Goths, Huns, and Vandals, to whom they surrendered the provinces and treasures of the empire. The history of Arcadius, in fact, is that of one, whose weakness and vices made him subservient to, and excited the audacity of, a Rufinus, who, charged by Theodosius with the guidance of the young monarch, wished to give him his daughter in marriage, and become his colleague in the empire, and who, disappointed in his ambitious schemes, invited the Huns and Goths into Asia and Greece: a Eutropius, a vile eunuch, who attained to the influence of a Rufinus, after the tragical death of the latter, and, still more unprincipled, succeeded by his violent conduct in degrading and discouraging the people: a Gainas, a gen: eral who ravaged instead of defending the empire, but who contributed nevertheless to the ruin of Eutropius: and an Empress Eudoxia, at one moment the enemy, at

another the support of the ambitious, o perse1

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